Criminology The Essentials 2nd Edition By Anthony Walsh Test Bank

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Criminology The Essentials 2nd Edition By Anthony Walsh Test Bank

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1. The father of classical criminology is generally considered to be:

a. Cesare Lombroso
b. Jeremy Bentham
c. Adolphe Quetelet
*d. Cesare Beccaria

2. The philosophy that emphasizes the greatest happiness for the greatest number is known as:

a. Hedonism.
*b. The principle of utility.
c. The cartographic approach.
d. The contrast effect.

3. The doctrine whose central tenet is that the achievement of pleasure is the main goal of life is known as:

*a. Hedonism.
b. The principle of utility.
c. The cartographic approach.
d. The contrast effect.

4. The philosopher the most closely associated with the principle of utility was:

a. Cesare Lombroso
*b. Jeremy Bentham
c. Adolphe Quetelet
d. Cesare Beccaria

5. _____ specifically refers to the weighing of anticipated benefits of a given course of action against its possible costs.

a. Human agency
*b. Hedonistic calculus
c. Rationality
d. Positivism

6. _____ are known for the emphasis that they place on the scientific method.

a. Classicalists
b. Hedonists
c. Structuralists
*d. Positivists

7. Prior to the eighteenth century, explanations of crime and other human behavior tended to center on:

a. Human rationality.
b. Inborn traits.
c. Social influences.
*d. Religiosity or spiritualism.

8. Which of the following theoretical perspectives is based on the premise that human behavior is primarily hedonistic in nature?

*a. Classicalism
b. Ecological Determinism
c. Positivism
d. The Italian School

9. The 8th Amendment prohibits cruel and unusual punishment; this is most closely aligned with the ideas of which of the following?

a. Cesare Lombroso
b. Jeremy Bentham
c. Adolphe Quetelet
*d. Cesare Beccaria

10. _____ was the term used by Lombroso to refer to those whom he considered to be evolutionary throwbacks, biological inferior beings who resembled ancestral prehuman forms of life.

*a. Atavism
b. Criminaloid
c. Habitual Criminal
d. Hedonist

11. Rather than exploring why individuals commit crime, _____ criminologists are interested in where and when criminal behavior is most prevalent.

*a. Cartographic
b. Classical
c. Hedonistic
d. Neoclassical

12. According to Raffael Garofalo, societies can only be protected from _____ criminals by swiftly executing them, regardless of the crime for which they were being punished.

a. Endemic
*b. Extreme
c. Impulsive
d. Professional

13. Criminologist Raffael Garofalo categorized alcoholics and the insane as _____ criminals.

a. Endemic
b. Extreme
*c. Impulsive
d. Professional

14. Cesare Lombroso, Raffael Garofalo, and Enrico Ferri founded what became known as the _____ school of criminology.

a. American
b. French
c. German
*d. Italian

15. The idea that the punishment should be tailored to the risk level of the individual, not the crime, is most representative of the _____ school of criminology.

a. Classical
b. German
*c. Italian
d. Russian

16. Engaging in a debate about the death penalty, one person makes the argument that while the penalty may not deter offenders, it is still a valuable punishment in the name of social defense. This is most clearly representative of the _____ school of criminology.

a. Classical
b. German
*c. Italian
d. Russian

17. _____ is a concept in rational choice theory referring to how people decide to offend.

*a. Choice structuring
b. Choice offending
c. Rational structuring
d. Rational offending

18. _____ specifically refers to the concept that people have the capacity to make choices, and the moral responsibility to make moral choices regardless of any constraints that might exist.

*a. Human agency
b. Hedonistic calculus
c. Rationality
d. Positivism

19. Rational choice theory is most closely linked to the _____ school.

*a. Classical
b. German
c. Italian
d. Positivist

20. Modern criminology is the product of which two main schools of thought?

a. Rational choice and neoclassical
b. Classical and neoclassical
c. Social defense and rational choice
*d. Classical and positivist

21. _____ is the prevention of criminal acts by the use or threat of punishment.

*a. Deterrence
b. Recidivism
c. Rehabilitation
d. Retribution

22. _____ deterrence refers to the effect of punishment of the future behavior of the person who experiences the punishment.

a. General
*b. Specific
c. Primary
d. Secondary

23. Committing another crime after previously being punished for one is called:

a. Rehabilitation
b. Retribution
*c. Recidivism
d. Deterrence

24. _____ deterrence refers to the preventive effect of the threat of punishment on the population; it is aimed at potential offenders.

*a. General
b. Specific
c. Primary
d. Secondary

25. The argument that crime can be reduced by increasing individuals sense of ownership and generating a sense of belonging in an area through its physical design is central to the idea of _____.

a. Atavism
*b. Defensible Space
c. General Deterrence
d. Hedonism

26. Jeremy Bentham maintained that estimations of the values of pleasures and pains were to be considered with reference to which of the following circumstances?

a. Intensity
b. Duration
c. Certainty
*d. All of the above

27. Determinism:

*a. Means that all events have causes that preceded them.
b. Has all but disappeared in science
c. Is a philosophy aligned with the classical school of criminology
d. All of the above

28. Scholars who employ maps and other geographic information in their research are known as:

a. Classical criminologists
b. Positivists
*c. Cartographers
d. Atavists

29. Juridical criminals:

a. Become criminals via contact with other criminals.
*b. Fall afoul of the law by accident.
c. Are hot-headed and impulsive persons who commit violent acts when provoked.
d. Bore some stigma but were not born criminals.

30. Which of the following is the distinction between the circumstances of punishment and the usual life experience of the person being punished?

a. Determinism
*b. Contrast effect
c. Atavism
d. Human agency

31. Which of the following is one of the circumstances to be considered in measuring a pleasure or pain by itself?

a. Fecundity
*b. Intensity
c. Purity
d. Extent

32. Crime rates in Great Britain _______when the levels of punishment decreased?

a. Decreased
*b. Increased
c. Stayed the same
d. Varied

33. Which of the following is one of the policy recommendations presented by Becker?

*a. Increased punishments for using guns in crimes
b. Spending less money on incarceration
c. Reducing police officers ability to frisk based on reasonable suspicion
d. Three-strikes-and-youre-out for lower level offenses

34. When the value of any pleasure or pain is considered for the purpose of estimating the tendency of any act by which it is produced, there are two circumstances that must be taken into account. These include:

*a. Fecundity and purity
b. Intensity and duration
c. Certainty and propinquity
d. Extent and remoteness

35. True or False? Cesare Beccaria and Jeremy Bentham are associated with the classical school of criminology.

*a. True
b. False

36. True or False? Adolphe Quetelet is known for his work in the area of cartographic criminology.

*a. True
b. False

37. True or False? Routine activities theory can be critiqued for focusing too heavily on individual differences in the propensity to commit crime, to the oversight of important details regarding the criminal event.

a. True
*b. False

38. True or False? The positivist school of criminology is primarily interested in making punishment more just and humane.

a. True
*b. False

39. True or False? Cartographic criminology is primarily interested in where and when criminal behavior is most prevalent.

*a. True
b. False

40. True or False? Specific deterrence refers to the preventive effect of the threat of punishment on the general population.

a. True
*b. False

41. True or False? There is little evidence that increasing the severity of the sanction (in the form of sentence length) has any deterrent effect.

*a. True
b. False

42. True or False? Legal sanctions have a greater deterrent effect on instrumental crimes than on expressive crimes.

*a. True
b. False

43. True or False? Cesare Lombroso was well-known for his contributions to biological positivism.

*a. True
b. False

44. True or False? Social defense theorists view crime in terms of Benthams principle of maximizing pleasure and minimizing pain.

a. True
*b. False

45. True or False? Jeremy Bentham coined the term criminaloid to refer to born criminals.

a. True
*b. False

46. True or False? Hedonism is a doctrine whose central tenet is that the achievement of pleasure is the main goal of life.

*a. True
b. False

47. True or False? Beccaria believed that equals should be treated equally and unequals unequally according to relevant differences.

*a. True
b. False

48. True or False? Beccaria believed that capital punishment could not be an effective deterrent and that life imprisonment would be more effective.

*a. True
b. False

49. True or False? Classical criminologists were more concerned with discovering biological, psychological, or social determinants of criminal behavior than with the positivist concerns of legal and penal reforms.

a. True
*b. False

50. True or False? Garofalo was interested in developing a classical definition of crime.

a. True
*b. False

51. True or False? The United States has an incarceration rate five times greater than England and Wales.

*a. True
b. False

52. True or false? Balance, if on the side of pleasure, will give the general evil tendency of the act.

a. True
*b. False

53. True or False? For a risk taker engaged in crime, magnitude of punishment is more important than certainty of punishment.

a. True
*b. False

54. True or False? General deterrence theory is concerned with how individuals respond to the perceived as opposed to objective cost properties of their criminal decisions.

a. True
*b. False

55. Which two theorists are most often associated with the classical school?
Ans: Cesare Beccaria and Jeremy Bentham.

56. Define hedonism.
Ans: A doctrine whose central tenet is that the achievement of pleasure is the main goal of life.

57. What is the contrast effect?
Ans: The distinction between the circumstances of punishment and the usual life experience of the person being punished.

58. Explain the difference between specific and general deterrence.
Ans: Specific deterrence is the deterrent effect on the individual who had experienced the punishment; general deterrence acts on the general public.

59. Briefly describe cartographic criminology.
Ans: A segment of positivism focused on the application of maps and other geographic information in criminological research; this perspective is more interested in the where and when of crime than in the why.

60. What is recidivism?
Ans: Committing another crime after previously being punished for one.

61. What three important observations did Beccaria make in regards to the application of punishment?
Ans: Certainty, Swiftness, Severity

62. Define free will.
Ans: That which enables human beings to purposefully and deliberately choose to follow a calculated course of action.

63. Identify the three types of criminaloids.
Ans: Habitual criminals, juridical criminals, and criminals by passion

64. Define professional criminals.
Ans: Normal individuals who choose to commit their crimes, and thus require elimination.

65. Define human agency.
Ans: a concept that maintains humans have the capacity to make choices and the moral responsibility to make moral ones regardless of the internal or external constraints on ones ability to do so.

66. Compare and contrast the classical and positivist schools of criminology. How are these explanations of crime similar? How are they different?
Ans: 2-5, 11

67. While walking to her car in a mall parking lot, a woman is approached by a man who displays a handgun and demands her purse. She gives him her purse, and he runs away with it. How would each of the following theoretical perspectives explain this crime? A) Classicalism B) Biological Positivism
Ans: 112-117

68. Describe the contributions of Andre M. Guerry and Adolphe Quetelet to the field of criminology, and explain their significance.
Ans: 115-116

69. Based on what you have learned in this class, is the U.S. soft or hard on crime? Support your argument.
Ans: 124

70. Explain the contributions of Cesare Beccaria to the field of criminology. How did he feel about capital punishment? List some of his ideas that are still prominent today.
Ans: 112-113

71. Discuss the classical explanation of human behavior in regards to hedonism, rationality, and free will.
Ans: 113-114

72. Describe Cesare Lombrosos theory of atavism. What are insane criminals? What are criminaloids?
Ans: 116

73. Discuss Raffael Garofalos definition of natural crime. What are the four characteristics that place offenders at risk for further criminal behavior? What punishment was associated with each peculiarity?
Ans: 117

74. What is meant by utility?
Ans: That property in any object, whereby it tends to produce benefit, advantage, pleasure, good ro happiness or to prevent the happening of mischief, pain , evil, or unhappiness to the party whose interest is considered.

75. Identify the four circumstances to be considered in estimating a pleasure or pain considered by itself.
Ans: Intensity, duration, certainty or uncertainty, propinquity or remoteness

76. Discuss the two sovereign masters according to Bentham. How should they be measured?
Ans: 19-20

77. Bentham is considered a bridge between what two schools?
Ans: Classical and positivist

78. Explain CompStat.
Ans: CompStat employs computer-based systems that map crime to geographic areas and identify problems, thus enabling police administrators to devise strategies and tactics to reduce crime and solve a variety of other problems. Its major function has been to provide senior police administrators with ammunition enabling them to hold precinct commanders and other senior officers accountable for problem areas under their jurisdiction identified by CompStat.

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