Dental Radiography principals and Techniques 5th edition Test bank

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Dental Radiography principals and Techniques 5th edition Test bank

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Chapter 03: Radiation Characteristics
Iannucci: Dental Radiography, 5th Edition

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. In dental radiography, the term ________ is used to describe the mean energy or penetrating ability of the x-ray beam.
a.
quality
b.
quantity
c.
intensity
d.
wavelength

ANS: A
Quality is used to describe the mean energy or penetrating ability of the x-ray beam. Quantity refers to the number of x-rays produced. Intensity is defined as the product of the quantity and quality per unit of area per time of exposure. Wavelength determines the energy and penetrating power of radiation.

DIF: Recall REF: Page 24 OBJ: 1
TOP: CDA, RHS, III.B.1. Demonstrate knowledge of the factors affecting x-ray production
MSC: NBDHE, 2.0 Obtaining and Interpreting Radiographs | NBDHE, 2.1 Principles of radiophysics and radiobiology

2. Which of the following statements is true of wavelength in reference to radiation?
a.
X-rays with shorter wavelength have less penetrating power.
b.
X-rays with longer wavelength have less penetrating power.
c.
X-rays with longer wavelength are less likely to be absorbed by matter.
d.
Milliamperage controls the wavelength and energy of the x-ray beam.

ANS: B
X-rays with longer wavelength have less penetrating power and x-rays with shorter wavelengths have more penetrating power. X-rays with longer wavelength are more likely to be absorbed by matter. Kilovoltage controls the wavelength and energy of the x-ray beam.

DIF: Recall REF: Page 24 OBJ: 2
TOP: CDA, RHS, III.B. Apply the principles of radiation protection and hazards in the operation of radiographic equipment
MSC: NBDHE, 2.0 Obtaining and Interpreting Radiographs | NBDHE, 2.1 Principles of radiophysics and radiobiology

3. ______________ is a measurement of force that refers to the potential difference between two electrical charges.
a.
Exposure time
b.
Wavelength
c.
Voltage
d.
Ampere

ANS: C
Exposure time refers to the interval of time during which x-rays are produced. Wavelength can be defined as the distance between the crest of one wave and the crest of the next wave. Voltage is a measurement of force that refers to the potential difference between two electrical charges. Ampere is the unit of measure used to describe the number of electrons, or current, flowing through the cathode filament.

DIF: Recall REF: Pages 3-4 OBJ: 1
TOP: CDA, RHS, I.B.1. Describe how to acquire radiographic images using various techniques | CDA, RHS, III.B. Apply the principles of radiation protection and hazards in the operation of radiographic equipment
MSC: NBDHE, 2.0 Obtaining and Interpreting Radiographs | NBDHE, 2.1 Principles of radiophysics and radiobiology

4. When the kilovoltage is increased
a.
electrons move from the anode to the cathode with more speed.
b.
photons move from the anode to the cathode with more speed.
c.
electrons move from the cathode to the anode with more speed.
d.
photons move from the cathode to the anode with more speed.

ANS: C
Electrons move from the cathode to the anode. When the voltage is increased, electrons move from the cathode to the anode with more speed, striking the target with greater energy and force.

DIF: Comprehension REF: Page 24 OBJ: 2
TOP: CDA, RHS, I.B.1. Describe how to acquire radiographic images using various techniques | CDA, RHS, III.B. Apply the principles of radiation protection and hazards in the operation of radiographic equipment
MSC: NBDHE, 2.0 Obtaining and Interpreting Radiographs | NBDHE, 2.1 Principles of radiophysics and radiobiology

5. Which of the following statements is true of the use of voltage in dental x-ray equipment?
a.
Dental x-ray equipment requires the use of 3 to 5 volts.
b.
Dental x-ray equipment requires the use of less than 60 kilovolts.
c.
Dental x-ray equipment uses more than 70 kilovolts.
d.
Dental x-ray equipment requires the use of 60 to 70 kilovolts.

ANS: D
The filament circuit requires 3 to 5 volts; however, an exposure requires the use of 60 to 70 kilovolts (kV). The use of less than 60 kV does not allow adequate penetration. Current dental x-ray equipment uses between 60 and 70 kV; requires the use of 60 to 70 kV.

DIF: Recall REF: Pages 24-25 OBJ: 2
TOP: CDA, RHS, I.B.1. Describe how to acquire radiographic images using various techniques | CDA, RHS, III.B. Apply the principles of radiation protection and hazards in the operation of radiographic equipment
MSC: NBDHE, 2.0 Obtaining and Interpreting Radiographs | NBDHE, 2.1 Principles of radiophysics and radiobiology

6. When contrasted with the use of 70 kV for dental x-rays, the use of 60 kV produces
a.
more penetrating dental x-rays with longer wavelength.
b.
less penetrating dental x-rays with longer wavelength.
c.
more penetrating dental x-rays with shorter wavelength.
d.
less penetrating dental x-rays with shorter wavelength.

ANS: B
The use of 60 kV produces less penetrating dental x-rays with longer wavelengths than 70 kV. The use of 70 kV for dental x-rays produces more penetrating dental x-rays with shorter wavelength than the use of 60 kV.

DIF: Comprehension REF: Pages 24-25 OBJ: 2
TOP: CDA, RHS, I.B.1. Describe how to acquire radiographic images using various techniques | CDA, RHS, III.B. Apply the principles of radiation protection and hazards in the operation of radiographic equipment
MSC: NBDHE, 2.0 Obtaining and Interpreting Radiographs | NBDHE, 2.1 Principles of radiophysics and radiobiology

7. The kVp represents
a.
the mean x-ray tube voltage.
b.
the mean filament voltage.
c.
the maximum or peak voltage of an alternating current.
d.
the maximum or peak voltage of a direct current.

ANS: C
The kVp represents the maximum or peak x-ray tube voltage of an alternating current.

DIF: Recall REF: Page 24 OBJ: 1 | 2
TOP: CDA, RHS, I.B.1. Describe how to acquire radiographic images using various techniques | CDA, RHS, III.B. Apply the principles of radiation protection and hazards in the operation of radiographic equipment
MSC: NBDHE, 2.0 Obtaining and Interpreting Radiographs | NBDHE, 2.1 Principles of radiophysics and radiobiology

8. When kilovolt is increased, a
a.
lower energy x-ray beam with increased penetrating ability results.
b.
lower energy x-ray beam with decreased penetrating ability results.
c.
higher energy x-ray beam with increased penetrating ability results.
d.
higher energy x-ray beam with decreased penetrating ability results.

ANS: C
A higher energy x-ray beam with increased penetrating ability results. When kilovolt peak is increased, a higher energy x-ray beam with increased penetrating ability results.

DIF: Recall REF: Page 24 OBJ: 2
TOP: CDA, RHS, I.B.1. Describe how to acquire radiographic images using various techniques | CDA, RHS, III.B. Apply the principles of radiation protection and hazards in the operation of radiographic equipment
MSC: NBDHE, 2.0 Obtaining and Interpreting Radiographs | NBDHE, 2.1 Principles of radiophysics and radiobiology

9. (1) Density is the overall darkness or blackness of a dental image. (2) When the kilovoltage is increased while other exposure factors remain constant, the resultant image exhibits a decreased density and appears lighter.
a.
Both statements are true.
b.
Both statements are false.
c.
The first statement is true; the second statement is false.
d.
The first statement is false; the second statement is true.

ANS: C
The first statement is true; however, when the kilovolt is increased while other exposure factors remain constant, the resultant image exhibits an increased density and appears darker. Both statements are true. Density is the overall darkness or blackness of a dental image. The first statement is true; however, the second statement is false.

DIF: Recall REF: Page 25 OBJ: 1 | 3
TOP: CDA, RHS, I.B.1. Describe how to acquire radiographic images using various techniques | CDA, RHS, III.B. Apply the principles of radiation protection and hazards in the operation of radiographic equipment
MSC: NBDHE, 2.0 Obtaining and Interpreting Radiographs | NBDHE, 2.1 Principles of radiophysics and radiobiology

10. When lower kilovoltage settings are used, an image with ____ will result.
a.
high contrast
b.
low contrast
c.
many shades of gray
d.
there is no change in contrast

ANS: A
When low kilovoltage settings are used, an image with high contrast will result; an image with few shades of gray will result (high contrast).

DIF: Recall REF: Page 25 OBJ: 3
TOP: CDA, RHS, I.B.1. Describe how to acquire radiographic images using various techniques | CDA, RHS, III.B. Apply the principles of radiation protection and hazards in the operation of radiographic equipment
MSC: NBDHE, 2.0 Obtaining and Interpreting Radiographs | NBDHE, 2.1 Principles of radiophysics and radiobiology

11. An image with low contrast
a.
is useful for the detection of periodontal or periapical disease and has many shades of gray.
b.
is useful for the detection and progression of dental caries and has many shades of gray.
c.
is useful for the detection of periodontal or periapical disease and has many black and white areas.
d.
is useful for the detection and progression of dental caries and has many black and white areas.

ANS: A
An image with low contrast has many shades of gray and is useful for the detection of periodontal or periapical disease. An image with high contrast has many black and white areas and is useful for the detection and progression of dental caries. An image with low contrast is useful for the detection of periodontal or periapical disease, but it has many shades of gray.

DIF: Recall REF: Page 25 OBJ: 3
TOP: CDA, RHS, I.B.1. Describe how to acquire radiographic images using various techniques | CDA, RHS, III.B. Apply the principles of radiation protection and hazards in the operation of radiographic equipment
MSC: NBDHE, 2.0 Obtaining and Interpreting Radiographs | NBDHE, 2.1 Principles of radiophysics and radiobiology

12. Exposure time is measured in
a.
kV.
b.
milliamperage.
c.
density.
d.
impulses.

ANS: D
kV is a measure of voltage. Milliamperage is a measure of the number of electrons flowing through the cathode filament. Density is a measure of the darkness of the film. Exposure time is measured in impulses; one impulse occurs every 1/60 of a second on older machines and every 1/100 of a second on newer machines.

DIF: Recall REF: Page 26 OBJ: 1 | 5
TOP: CDA, RHS, I.B.1. Describe how to acquire radiographic images using various techniques | CDA, RHS, III.B. Apply the principles of radiation protection and hazards in the operation of radiographic equipment
MSC: NBDHE, 2.0 Obtaining and Interpreting Radiographs | NBDHE, 2.1 Principles of radiophysics and radiobiology

13. The quantity of the x-rays produced is controlled by
a.
voltage.
b.
kilovoltage.
c.
kilovoltage peak.
d.
milliamperage.

ANS: D
Voltage controls the maximum penetrating power of the electrons. Kilovoltage is the term for 1000 volts as dental exposures require large amounts of voltage. Kilovoltage peak represents the maximum voltage available and is only found with alternating current machines. The quantity of the x-rays produced is controlled by milliamperage.

DIF: Recall REF: Page 26 OBJ: 1 | 4
TOP: CDA, RHS, I.B.1. Describe how to acquire radiographic images using various techniques | CDA, RHS, III.B. Apply the principles of radiation protection and hazards in the operation of radiographic equipment
MSC: NBDHE, 2.0 Obtaining and Interpreting Radiographs | NBDHE, 2.1 Principles of radiophysics and radiobiology

14. Milliamperage regulates the _________ of electrons produced at the cathode filament.
a.
quality
b.
quantity
c.
speed
d.
power

ANS: B
Voltage regulates the quality (speed or power) of electrons produced at the cathode filament. Milliamperage regulates the quantity of electrons produced at the cathode filament.

DIF: Comprehension REF: Page 26 OBJ: 4
TOP: CDA, RHS, I.B.1. Describe how to acquire radiographic images using various techniques | CDA, RHS, III.B. Apply the principles of radiation protection and hazards in the operation of radiographic equipment
MSC: NBDHE, 2.0 Obtaining and Interpreting Radiographs | NBDHE, 2.1 Principles of radiophysics and radiobiology

15. In regard to increasing density
a.
an increase in either kV or mA will increase density.
b.
an increase in kV will increase density, but an increase in mA will not increase density.
c.
an increase in mA will increase density, but an increase in kV will not increase density.
d.
neither an increase in kV nor an increase in mA will increase density.

ANS: A
In regard to increasing density, an increase in either kV or mA will increase density.

DIF: Comprehension REF: Pages 25, 27 OBJ: 3 | 5
TOP: CDA, RHS, I.B.1. Describe how to acquire radiographic images using various techniques | CDA, RHS, III.B. Apply the principles of radiation protection and hazards in the operation of radiographic equipment
MSC: NBDHE, 2.0 Obtaining and Interpreting Radiographs | NBDHE, 2.1 Principles of radiophysics and radiobiology

16. Which of the following changes will increase x-ray beam intensity?
a.
Decreasing the kilovoltage
b.
Decreasing the milliamperage
c.
Decreasing the exposure time
d.
Decreasing the source-to-film distance

ANS: D
Decreasing the kilovoltage will decrease x-ray beam intensity. Decreasing the milliamperage will decrease x-ray beam intensity. Decreasing the exposure time will decrease x-ray beam intensity. Decreasing the source-to-film distance will increase x-ray beam intensity.

DIF: Comprehension REF: Pages 27, 28 OBJ: 6
TOP: CDA, RHS, I.B.1. Describe how to acquire radiographic images using various techniques | CDA, RHS, III.B. Apply the principles of radiation protection and hazards in the operation of radiographic equipment
MSC: NBDHE, 2.0 Obtaining and Interpreting Radiographs | NBDHE, 2.1 Principles of radiophysics and radiobiology

17. According to the inverse square law, the intensity of radiation is __________ proportional to the ______________ from the source of radiation.
a.
directly; distance
b.
directly; square of the distance
c.
inversely; distance
d.
inversely; square of the distance

ANS: D
The intensity of radiation is inversely proportional to the square of the distance from the source of radiation.

DIF: Comprehension REF: Page 27 OBJ: 1 | 7
TOP: CDA, RHS, I.B.1. Describe how to acquire radiographic images using various techniques | CDA, RHS, III.B. Apply the principles of radiation protection and hazards in the operation of radiographic equipment
MSC: NBDHE, 2.0 Obtaining and Interpreting Radiographs | NBDHE, 2.1 Principles of radiophysics and radiobiology

18. According to the inverse square law, if the length of the PID is halved, the resultant beam is ___________ as intense.
a.
four times
b.
twice
c.
half
d.
one quarter

ANS: D
According to the inverse square law, if the length of the PID is halved, the resultant beam is four times as intense.

DIF: Comprehension REF: Pages 27, 29 OBJ: 7
TOP: CDA, RHS, I.B.1. Describe how to acquire radiographic images using various techniques | CDA, RHS, III.B. Apply the principles of radiation protection and hazards in the operation of radiographic equipment
MSC: NBDHE, 2.0 Obtaining and Interpreting Radiographs | NBDHE, 2.1 Principles of radiophysics and radiobiology

19. Aluminum filters are used to remove _______-energy, ________ wavelength x-rays.
a.
low; longer
b.
high; longer
c.
low; shorter
d.
high; shorter

ANS: A
Aluminum filters are used to remove low-energy, longer wavelength x-rays.

DIF: Recall REF: Page 29 OBJ: 8
TOP: CDA, RHS, I.B.1. Describe how to acquire radiographic images using various techniques | CDA, RHS, III.B. Apply the principles of radiation protection and hazards in the operation of radiographic equipment
MSC: NBDHE, 2.0 Obtaining and Interpreting Radiographs | NBDHE, 2.1 Principles of radiophysics and radiobiology

20. Aluminum filters
a.
remove more penetrating x-rays from the beam.
b.
decrease the mean penetrating ability of the x-ray beam.
c.
remove high-energy x-rays from the beam.
d.
reduce the intensity of the x-ray beam.

ANS: D
Aluminum filters remove less penetrating x-rays from the beam. Aluminum filters increase the mean penetrating ability of the x-ray beam. Aluminum filters remove low-energy x-rays from the beam. Aluminum filters reduce the intensity of the x-ray beam.

DIF: Comprehension REF: Page 29 OBJ: 8
TOP: CDA, RHS, I.B.1. Describe how to acquire radiographic images using various techniques | CDA, RHS, III.B. Apply the principles of radiation protection and hazards in the operation of radiographic equipment
MSC: NBDHE, 2.0 Obtaining and Interpreting Radiographs | NBDHE, 2.1 Principles of radiophysics and radiobiology

21. You have been using a dental x-ray machine that has a 4-inch PID. Your new machine has an 8-inch PID. Given that all exposure factors remain the same, according to the inverse square law, the resultant beam would be ___________ as intense.
a.
four times
b.
twice
c.
half
d.
one quarter

ANS: D
According to the inverse square law, if the length of the PID is doubled, the resultant beam is one quarter as intense.

DIF: Application REF: Page 29 OBJ: 8
TOP: CDA, RHS, I.B.1. Describe how to acquire radiographic images using various techniques | CDA, RHS, III.B. Apply the principles of radiation protection and hazards in the operation of radiographic equipment
MSC: NBDHE, 2.0 Obtaining and Interpreting Radiographs | NBDHE, 2.1 Principles of radiophysics and radiobiology

22. (1) As kilovoltage, milliamperage, and time increase, x-ray beam intensity decreases. (2) As distance and filtration increase, the intensity of the x-ray beam increases.
a.
Both statements are true.
b.
Both statements are false.
c.
The first statement is true; the second statement is false.
d.
The first statement is false; the second statement is true.

ANS: B
Both statements are false; 1. An increase in kilovoltage, milliamperage, and/or time will increase the intensity of the x-ray beam. 2. An increase in distance and/or filtration will decrease the intensity of the x-ray beam.

DIF: Comprehension REF: Page 27 OBJ: 8
TOP: CDA, RHS, I.B.1. Describe how to acquire radiographic images using various techniques | CDA, RHS, III.B. Apply the principles of radiation protection and hazards in the operation of radiographic equipment
MSC: NBDHE, 2.0 Obtaining and Interpreting Radiographs | NBDHE, 2.1 Principles of radiophysics and radiobiology

23. You have taken your first dental image on your patient. The contrast is high and you are looking for periodontal disease. You are using a DC machine and you have control of your settings. You have a 60- to 70-kV range and a 6- to 8-mA range. You had the kV set at 60, the mA set at 7, and the impulses set at 6/100. While leaving all other settings the same, which setting would you adjust to create better contrast for detecting periodontal disease?
a.
Increase kV to 70.
b.
Increase mA to 8.
c.
Decrease mA to 6.
d.
Increase time to 7/100.

ANS: A
The only factor that affects contrast is kV. kV affects the penetrating ability of the x-ray beam. A higher kV creates a lower contrast image (more shades of gray) while a lower kV creates a higher contrast image (more black and white). A low-contrast image is preferred for detecting periodontal and periapical diseases. A high-contrast image is preferred for detecting caries. Increasing mA affects density, not contrast. Decreasing mA affects density, not contrast. Increasing and decreasing time affect density, not contrast.

DIF: Application REF: Page 25 OBJ: 2 | 5
TOP: CDA, RHS, I.B.1. Describe how to acquire radiographic images using various techniques | CDA, RHS, III.B. Apply the principles of radiation protection and hazards in the operation of radiographic equipment
MSC: NBDHE, 2.0 Obtaining and Interpreting Radiographs | NBDHE, 2.1 Principles of radiophysics and radiobiology

24. You are going to take dental images on your patient. He is larger than average. What machine setting adjustment should you make prior to taking dental images?
a.
Increase kV.
b.
Increase mA.
c.
Increase impulses.
d.
You dont need to make any adjustments.

ANS: C
Although an increase in kV will increase density, it is recommended that the only setting you change is impulses. Although an increase in mA will increase density, it is recommended that the only setting you change is impulses. It is recommended that impulses be increased when taking dental images on a patient who is larger than average. Failure to do so will result in an image that is too light and may require retakes or an adjustment of the enhancement software.

DIF: Application REF: Page 26 OBJ: 6
TOP: CDA, RHS, I.B.1. Describe how to acquire radiographic images using various techniques | CDA, RHS, III.B. Apply the principles of radiation protection and hazards in the operation of radiographic equipment
MSC: NBDHE, 2.0 Obtaining and Interpreting Radiographs | NBDHE, 2.1 Principles of radiophysics and radiobiology

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