Developing Human Clinically Embryology 9th Edition By Moore Persaud Test Bank

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Developing Human Clinically Embryology 9th Edition By Moore Persaud Test Bank

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COMPLETE TEST BANK WITH ANSWERS
Developing Human Clinically Embryology 9th Edition By Moore Persaud Test Bank

 

Moore: The Developing Human, 9th Edition

 

Chapter 01: Gametogenesis and Fertilization

 

Test Bank

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

Directions: Each group of questions below consists of a numbered list of descriptive words or phrases accompanied by a diagram with certain parts indicated by letters or by a list of lettered headings. For each numbered word or phrase, select the lettered part or heading that matches it correctly and then insert the letter in the space to the right of the appropriate number. Sometimes more than one numbered word or phrase may be correctly matched to the same lettered part or heading.

 

  1. ________ Haploid nuclei that fuse to form a zygote
a. Polar body
b. Capacitation
c. Acrosome
d. Zona pellucida
e. Pronuclei

 

 

ANS:   E

The male and female pronuclei are the haploid nuclei of the sperm and oocyte, respectively. They fuse during fertilization to form the diploid nucleus of a zygote. The nucleus occupies most of the head of the sperm, and after it enters the oocyte, it swells to form the male pronucleus. The pronuclei are about equal in size and show similar features.

 

  1. ________ Changes occur in it that inhibit entry of sperm
a. Polar body
b. Capacitation
c. Acrosome
d. Zona pellucida
e. Pronuclei

 

 

ANS:   D

The zona pellucida undergoes changes, called the zona reaction, when a sperm contacts the cell membrane of a secondary oocyte. These changes, caused by the release of substances from the oocyte, prevent other sperms from passing through the zona pellucida and entering the oocyte.

 

  1. ________ Contains enzymes that digest a path for the sperm
a. Polar body
b. Capacitation
c. Acrosome
d. Zona pellucida
e. Pronuclei

 

 

ANS:   C

The acrosome is a caplike structure that invests the anterior half of the head of the sperm. It contains enzymes that pass through perforations in its wall and digest a path for the sperm to follow through the zona pellucida to fertilize the oocyte.

 

________ Polar body

a. A
b. B
c. C
d. D
e. E

 

 

ANS:   D

The first polar body forms during the first meiotic division. Note that it is inside the zona pellucida with the secondary oocyte. Although it may divide into two polar bodies, these cells degenerate. The secondary oocyte receives the same number of chromosomes as the polar body; however, it gets almost all the cytoplasm.

 

________ Zona pellucida

a. A
b. B
c. C
d. D
e. E

 

 

ANS:   C

The zona pellucida surrounds the secondary oocyte and the polar body. This membrane is surrounded by a layer of follicular cells called the corona radiata. The zona pellucida appears homogeneous in the fresh condition, but under the electron microscope it appears granular and shows some concentric layering.

 

________ Meiotic spindle

a. A
b. B
c. C
d. D
e. E

 

 

ANS:   E

Contact of a sperm with the cell membrane of the oocyte stimulates the secondary oocyte to complete its second meiotic division. This contact also brings about the zona reaction, preventing entry of more sperms. The sperm penetrates the cell membrane of the secondary oocyte and then passes into the cytoplasm of the oocyte, leaving its cell membrane outside the oocyte.

 

________ Corona radiata

a. A
b. B
c. C
d. D
e. E

 

 

ANS:   A

The corona radiata consists of one or more layers of follicular cells that surround the zona pellucida, the polar body, and the secondary oocyte. The corona radiata is dispersed during fertilization by enzymes released from the acrosomes of the sperms that surround the oocyte.

 

________ Haploid cell

a. A
b. B
c. C
d. D
e. E

 

 

ANS:   D

The polar body is the labeled haploid cell formed during the first meiotic division of the oocyte. The sperm is also a haploid cell zygote.

 

________ Embryoblast

a. A
b. B
c. C
d. D
e. E

 

 

ANS:   B

The embryoblast (inner cell mass) is recognizable about 4 days after fertilization. It is derived from the central cells of the morula. The embryoblast gives rise to the embryo and some extraembryonic tissues.

 

________ Gives rise to part of the placenta

a. A
b. B
c. C
d. D
e. E

 

 

ANS:   D

The trophoblast gives rise to the embryonic part of the placenta; the other part is derived from the endometrium. When the trophoblast becomes lined by extraembryonic somatic mesoderm, the combined layers are called the chorion. The trophoblast forms no part of the embryo.

 

________ Gives rise to the hypoblast

a. A
b. B
c. C
d. D
e. E

 

 

ANS:   B

At the end of the first week, differentiation of the embryoblast gives rise to the hypoblast. It appears as a flattened layer on the ventral surface of the inner cell mass. Later, it forms the roof of the umbilical vesicle (yolk sac) and is incorporated into the embryo as the lining of the primordial gut.

 

________ Degenerates and disappears

a. A
b. B
c. C
d. D
e. E

 

 

ANS:   A

The zona pellucida begins to degenerate about 4 days after fertilization as the blastocyst begins to expand rapidly. Implantation of the blastocyst begins on the sixth day.

 

________ Blastocystic cavity

a. A
b. B
c. C
d. D
e. E

 

 

ANS:   C

The blastocystic cavity forms as fluid passes into the morula from the uterus and accumulates. The spaces around the central cells of the morula coalesce to form the blastocystic cavity, converting the morula into a blastocyst. The uterine fluid in the blastocystic cavity bathes the ventral surface of the embryoblast and probably supplies nutrients to the embryonic cells.

 

________ Once filled the cavity of the ovarian follicle

a. A
b. B
c. C
d. D
e. E

 

 

ANS:   C

Follicular fluid fills the cavities of mature ovarian follicles. When the stigma of the follicle ruptures at ovulation, the oocyte is expelled with the fluid from the follicle and the ovary in a few seconds. The expulsion of the oocyte and the fluid is the result of intrafollicular pressure and, possibly, ovarian smooth muscle contraction.

 

________ Develops under luteinizing hormone influence

a. A
b. B
c. C
d. D
e. E

 

 

ANS:   E

The corpus luteum develops under the influence of the luteinizing hormone. It produces progesterone and some estrogen. These hormones act on the endometrium, bringing about the secretory phase and preparing the endometrium for implantation of a blastocyst. If the oocyte is fertilized, the corpus luteum enlarges into a corpus luteum of pregnancy and increases its hormone production. If the ovum is not fertilized, the corpus luteum begins to degenerate about 9 days after ovulation and is called a corpus luteum of menstruation.

 

________ Produces progesterone

a. A
b. B
c. C
d. D
e. E

 

 

ANS:   E

The corpus luteum usually produces progesterone for about 9 days. If the oocyte is fertilized, it produces progesterone until about the end of the fourth month of pregnancy.

 

________ Expelled with the follicular fluid

a. A
b. B
c. C
d. D
e. E

 

 

ANS:   B

The secondary oocyte is expelled with follicular fluid at ovulation. Ovulation is under FSH and LH influence and occurs through the ruptured stigma. The oocyte quickly leaves the peritoneal cavity and enters the infundibulum of the uterine tube.

 

________ Fimbriae

a. A
b. B
c. C
d. D
e. E

 

 

ANS:   D

The fimbriae of the uterine tube embrace the ovary at ovulation. The sweeping motion of the fimbriae and the motion of the cilia on their epithelial lining cells carry the oocyte into the uterine tube.

 

________ Derived from a primary oocyte

a. A
b. B
c. C
d. D
e. E

 

 

ANS:   B

The secondary oocyte is derived from a primary oocyte after the first meiotic division. This division produces two haploid cells, the secondary oocyte and the first polar body. By the time of ovulation, the secondary oocyte has begun the second meiotic division but progresses only to the metaphase stage, where division is arrested. If the oocyte is fertilized, it completes the division, forming a mature oocyte.

 

________ Cytotrophoblast

a. A
b. B
c. C
d. D
e. E

 

 

ANS:   D

The trophoblast of the implanting blastocyst differentiates into two layers. The internal layer is the cytotrophoblast. Rapid proliferation of cells of the cytotrophoblast give rise to the syncytiotrophoblast, a nucleated cytoplasmic mass.

 

________ Embryoblast

a. A
b. B
c. C
d. D
e. E

 

 

ANS:   C

The embryoblast gives rise to the embryo. It arises from cells that have segregated from the morula. This occurs about 4 days after fertilization. The remaining cells of the morula become the trophoblast of the blastocyst.

 

________ Endometrium

a. A
b. B
c. C
d. D
e. E

 

 

ANS:   A

The blastocyst attaches to the epithelium covering the compact layer of the endometrium about 6 days after fertilization. The endometrium is in the secretory phase of the uterine cycle, with abundant blood vessels and secreting glands. The endometrial cells are enlarged and filled with glycogen as well as lipids.

 

________ Hypoblast

a. A
b. B
c. C
d. D
e. E

 

 

ANS:   E

The hypoblast appears at about 7 days after fertilization. It is a flattened layer of cells on the surface of the inner cell mass facing the blastocyst cavity. The hypoblast gives rise to the embryonic endoderm and the endoderm of the umbilical vesicle.

 

________ Syncytiotrophoblast

a. A
b. B
c. C
d. D
e. E

 

 

ANS:   B

The syncytiotrophoblast, like the cytotrophoblast, is derived from the trophoblast. The trophoblast proliferates rapidly following implantation of the blastocyst. The syncytiotrophoblast is a multinucleated cytoplasmic mass with no discernible cell boundaries. The syncytiotrophoblast invades the uterine endometrium and facilitates implantation of the blastocyst.

Moore: The Developing Human, 9th Edition

 

Chapter 03: Formation of Germ Layers and Early Tissue and Organ Differentiation

 

Test Bank

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

Directions: Each group of questions below consists of a numbered list of descriptive words or phrases accompanied by a diagram with certain parts indicated by letters and a list of lettered headings. For each numbered word or phrase, select the lettered part or heading that matches it correctly and then insert the letter in the space to the right of the appropriate number. Sometimes more than one numbered word or phrase may be correctly matched to the same lettered part or heading.

 

________ Notochordal process

a. A
b. B
c. C
d. D
e. E

 

 

ANS:   B

The notochordal process is a rod-shaped structure composed of cells derived from the primitive node of the primitive streak. It is the primordium of the notochord, a cellular structure that defines the primordial axis of the embryo.

 

________ Site of the prechordal plate

a. A
b. B
c. C
d. D
e. E

 

 

ANS:   A

The site of the prechordal plate is indicated in the drawing by a dotted oval to indicate that it is not visible from the dorsal surface of the embryonic disc. The prechordal plate is a circular area of thickened embryonic endoderm in the cranial part of the roof of the umbilical vesicle. The prechordal plate, together with the overlying embryonic ectoderm, later constitutes the oropharyngeal membrane.

 

________ Gives rise to most of the embryonic mesoderm

a. A
b. B
c. C
d. D
e. E

 

 

ANS:   D

The primitive streak, a linear band of epiblast, gives rise to mesoderm mainly during the third week. The mesoderm extends laterally and becomes continuous with the extraembryonic mesoderm on the amnion and umbilical vesicle.

 

________ Primitive pit

 

 

ANS:   C

The primitive pit is a depression in the primitive node at the cranial end of the primitive streak. It extends into the notochordal process and forms the notochordal canal. Thus, it is the entrance to the notochordal canal. The pit later forms the opening of the neurenteric canal, which temporarily connects the amniotic cavity with the umbilical vesicle.

 

  1. ________ Aggregation of angioblasts
A. Allantois
B. Primitive streak
C. Notochord
D. Blood island
E. Neural plate

 

 

ANS:   D

Splanchnic mesenchymal cells known as angioblasts aggregate to form isolated masses called blood islands, which develop into vascular endothelium and primordial blood cells. Blood islands form first on the umbilical vesicle, chorion, allantois, and connecting stalk, but they develop in the embryo about 2 days later.

 

  1. ________ Diverticulum of umbilical vesicle (yolk sac)
A. Allantois
B. Primitive streak
C. Notochord
D. Blood island
E. Neural plate

 

 

ANS:   A

The allantois, a diverticulum of the umbilical vesicle, is a vestigial structure that later becomes the urachus (median umbilical ligament in an adult). It serves as a reservoir for excretory products in some species, but it is nonfunctional in human embryos. However, its blood vessels become the umbilical vessels.

 

  1. ________ Forms the basis of the axial skeleton
A. Allantois
B. Primitive streak
C. Notochord
D. Blood island
E. Neural plate

 

 

ANS:   C

The developing notochord and the adjacent paraxial mesoderm are thought to produce inductive substances that stimulate development of the neural plate from the overlying embryonic ectoderm. The notochord forms the basis of the axial skeleton. The vertebrae develop around it, and then it degenerates. In between the vertebrae, the notochord forms the primordium of the nucleus pulposus of the intervertebral disc.

 

  1. ________ Gives rise to the brain and spinal cord
A. Allantois
B. Primitive streak
C. Notochord
D. Blood island
E. Neural plate

 

 

ANS:   E

The neural plate is a thickened area of ectoderm that overlies and extends on each side of the notochord. The neural plate invaginates to form a neural groove. In later development, the neural folds meet dorsally and fuse to form the neural tube. The cranial part of the neural tube develops into the brain, and the longer remaining part forms the spinal cord. The notochord and paraxial mesoderm produce inductive substances that stimulate or induce the overlying ectoderm to thicken and form the neural plate.

 

  1. ________ Source of mesenchyme
A. Allantois
B. Primitive streak
C. Notochord
D. Blood island
E. Neural plate

 

 

ANS:   B

The primitive streak produces mesoderm, which develops into mesenchyme (embryonic connective tissue). Mesenchyme forms a packing tissue around developing organs and develops into connective tissues and muscles.

 

  1. ________ Appears on extraembryonic membranes
A. Allantois
B. Primitive streak
C. Notochord
D. Blood island
E. Neural plate

 

 

ANS:   D

The blood islands first appear on the walls of the umbilical vesicle, allantois, and connecting stalk. These extraembryonic membranes are derived from the zygote, but they are not part of the embryo. Blood islands form in the embryo about 2 days after they appear on the umbilical vesicle.

 

________ Wall of amniotic sac

a. A
b. B
c. C
d. D
e. E

 

 

ANS:   C

The amnion encloses the amniotic cavity, forming an amniotic sac. It contains fluid that bathes the embryonic disc, forming its floor. The wall of this sac consists of an inner epithelial layer of cells covered externally by extraembryonic somatic mesoderm.

 

________ Neural groove

a. A
b. B
c. C
d. D
e. E

 

 

ANS:   A

The neural groove forms as the neural plate invaginates to form a neural fold on each side. The folds later fuse to form the neural tube, the primordium of the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord). The ectoderm lateral to the folds, surface ectoderm, gives rise to the epidermis of the skin.

 

________ Derived from primitive streak

a. A
b. B
c. C
d. D
e. E

 

 

ANS:   E

The intraembryonic mesoderm is derived from the primitive streak. The primitive streak produces mesoderm rapidly during the third and fourth weeks.

 

________ Embryonic ectoderm

a. A
b. B
c. C
d. D
e. E

 

 

ANS:   B

The embryonic ectoderm in the region indicated forms a neural fold. The neural folds soon fuse, converting the neural plate into the neural tube.

 

________ Derived from paraxial mesoderm

a. A
b. B
c. C
d. D
e. E

 

 

ANS:   C

The somites are paired cubical masses derived by segmentation of the paraxial mesoderm. The first pair of somites is formed a short distance caudal to the tip of the notochord, and successive somites are progressively formed from paraxial mesoderm. Most somites appear between days 20 and 30; they give rise to the axial skeleton and its associated musculature.

 

________ Derived from notochordal process

a. A
b. B
c. C
d. D
e. E

 

 

ANS:   E

The notochord arises by transformation of the notochordal process. The notochord is a cellular rod that defines the primordial axis of the embryo. Mesenchymal cells from the somites later surround it and give rise to the mesenchymal bodies of the vertebrae. The notochord within the developing vertebrae later degenerates.

 

________ Gives rise to an adult body cavity

a. A
b. B
c. C
d. D
e. E

 

 

ANS:   A

The intraembryonic coelom in the area indicated becomes part of the peritoneal cavity. The coelom appears here as a space within the lateral mesoderm, splitting it into somatic and splanchnic layers. The transverse section is cut through the caudal region of the lateral extensions of the horseshoe-shaped body cavity or coelom.

 

________ Splanchnopleure

a. A
b. B
c. C
d. D
e. E

 

 

ANS:   D

The splanchnopleure is composed of splanchnic mesoderm and endoderm and represents the future wall of the primordial gut. The endoderm gives rise to the epithelium and glands of the digestive tract, and the mesoderm gives rise to its muscular and fibrous elements.

 

________ Fusing to form neural tube

a. A
b. B
c. C
d. D
e. E

 

 

ANS:   B

The neural folds are fusing to form the neural tube, the primordium of the brain and spinal cord. These folds form as the neural plate invaginates along its central axis to form a neural groove.

 

________ Umbilical artery

a. A
b. B
c. C
d. D
e. E

 

 

ANS:   B

The paired umbilical arteries are branches of the dorsal aortae. They transport deoxygenated blood and waste products from the embryo to the chorionic villi of the placenta.

 

________ Vitelline artery

a. A
b. B
c. C
d. D
e. E

 

 

ANS:   E

The vitelline arteries are branches of the dorsal aortae to the umbilical vesicle. The vitelline arteries and vitelline veins are in communication through the vascular plexus on the umbilical vesicle.

 

________ Sinus venosus

a. A
b. B
c. C
d. D
e. E

 

 

ANS:   A

Blood enters the sinus venosus from the embryo through the cardinal veins, from the developing placenta via the umbilical vein, and from the umbilical vesicle via the vitelline veins. Blood from the sinus venosus enters the primordial heart.

 

________ Contains umbilical vessels

a. A
b. B
c. C
d. D
e. E

 

 

ANS:   D

The umbilical cord develops from the connecting stalk. It contains the paired umbilical arteries and the umbilical vein. The umbilical cord is the vital connection between the embryo and the placenta because the umbilical vessels transport gases (e.g., oxygen), nutrients, essential substances, and waste products.

 

________ Tertiary chorionic villus

a. A
b. B
c. C
d. D
e. E

 

 

ANS:   C

By the end of the third week, blood vessels differentiate from mesenchymal cells in the core of the secondary villi to form the tertiary chorionic villi. The blood vessels in these villi soon become connected with the primordial heart via blood vessels that differentiate in the mesenchyme of the chorion and connecting stalk. A primordial embryonic circulation is established by the end of the third week. Oxygen and nutrients in the maternal blood in the intervillous spaces diffuse through the walls of the villi and enter the embryos blood. Carbon dioxide and waste products diffuse from fetal blood through the walls of the villi into the maternal blood.

Moore: The Developing Human, 9th Edition

 

Chapter 11: Urogenital System

 

Test Bank

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

Directions: Each group of questions below consists of a numbered list of descriptive words or phrases accompanied by a diagram with certain parts indicated by letters or by a list of lettered headings. For each numbered word or phrase, select the lettered part or heading that matches it correctly and then insert the letter in the space to the right of the appropriate number. Sometimes more than one numbered word or phrase may be correctly matched to the same lettered part or heading.

 

________ Urogenital sinus

a. A
b. B
c. C
d. D
e. E

 

 

ANS:   B

The urogenital sinus gives rise to the epithelium of the urinary bladder. Distally, it also gives rise to the epithelium of the urethra, except for the terminal part of the spongy urethra (navicular fossa); this part is derived from surface ectoderm. Other parts of the walls of these structures differentiate from the adjacent splanchnic mesenchyme.

 

________ Gives rise to collecting system of the kidney

a. A
b. B
c. C
d. D
e. E

 

 

ANS:   D

The metanephric diverticulum gives rise to the collecting system of the kidney (i.e., the ureter, renal pelvis, calices, and collecting tubules). As the diverticulum grows dorsocranially, it slowly invades the metanephric mass of mesoderm. This mesenchyme stimulates the metanephric diverticulum to differentiate into calices and other parts of the collecting system of the permanent kidney. These structures then induce the mesenchyme to differentiate into nephrons.

 

________ Partitions the cloaca

a. A
b. B
c. C
d. D
e. E

 

 

ANS:   E

The urorectal septum is a coronal wedge of mesenchyme between the allantois and the hindgut. As it grows toward the cloacal membrane, it produces infoldings of the lateral walls of the cloaca. When these infoldings fuse, they divide the cloaca into the rectum dorsally and the urogenital sinus ventrally. The urorectal septum also divides the cloacal membrane into the anal membrane and the urogenital membrane. The area of fusion of the urorectal septum with the cloacal membrane becomes the perineal body (tendinous center of perineum).

 

________ Primordium of the renal pelvis and calices

a. A
b. B
c. C
d. D
e. E

 

 

ANS:   D

The metanephric diverticulum is the primordium of the renal pelvis, calices, and collecting tubules. The metanephric mesenchyme stimulates the ampulla (future renal pelvis) of the diverticulum to divide into the calices and the collecting tubules to grow into the metanephric mesenchyme from the cuplike calices. Subsequently, these tubules contact and become confluent with the nephrons to form uriniferous tubules.

 

________ Becomes median umbilical ligament

a. A
b. B
c. C
d. D
e. E

 

 

ANS:   A

The allantois becomes the urachus in the fetus and forms the median umbilical ligament in the adult. Remnants of the allantois that do not become ligamentous may give rise to urachal sinuses, fistulas, or cysts. Urachal remnants are not usually detected unless they become infected.

 

________ Degenerates in females

a. A
b. B
c. C
d. D
e. E

 

 

ANS:   C

The mesonephros degenerates in females; almost all of it also degenerates in males. Some caudal mesonephric tubules persist in males as the efferent ductules of the testis. Before the mesonephros degenerates, the metanephric diverticulum grows from the mesonephric duct and forms the collecting system of the kidneys. Remnants of mesonephric tubules and the mesonephric duct may persist in females and give rise to cysts (e.g., cysts of the epophoron).

 

________ Vestigial structure in human embryos

a. A
b. B
c. C
d. D
e. E

 

 

ANS:   A

The allantois is a vestigial structure in the human embryo; it develops during the second week as a diverticulum from the caudal wall of the umbilical vesicle (yolk sac). In some species it serves as a reservoir for excretory products, but in the human embryo it remains small and becomes the urachus in the fetus and the median umbilical ligament in the adult. Although it may contribute to the apex of the urinary bladder, it is believed that the entire bladder develops from the urogenital sinus and the adjacent mesenchyme.

 

________ Temporary embryonic kidney

a. A
b. B
c. C
d. D
e. E

 

 

ANS:   C

The mesonephros is the second kidney to develop in the human embryo. The first one (pronephros) is rudimentary, but the mesonephros is believed to function for a few weeks while the metanephros or permanent kidney is developing.

 

  1. ________ Source of nephrons
A. Renal agenesis
B. Nephrogenic cord
C. Metanephric diverticulum
D. Kidney lobes
E. Polycystic kidney

 

 

ANS:   B

The metanephric mesenchyme in the nephrogenic cords gives rise to nephrons. When stimulated by a substance produced by the metanephric diverticulum, the metanephric mesenchyme begins to differentiate into nephrons.

 

  1. ________ Caused by dilations of the nephron loops
A. Renal agenesis
B. Nephrogenic cord
C. Metanephric diverticulum
D. Kidney lobes
E. Polycystic kidney

 

 

ANS:   E

Congenital polycystic disease of the kidneys is transmitted on an autosomal basis (ARPKD). The cysts may result from failure of the first formed rudimentary nephrons to degenerate; later, these remnants may accumulate fluid and form cysts. Cysts may also develop from detached parts of metanephric tissue, which gives rise to rudimentary renal vesicles. It is now widely believed that these cysts are dilations of the nephrons, particularly of the nephron loops.

 

  1. ________ Oligohydramnios
A. Renal agenesis
B. Nephrogenic cord
C. Metanephric diverticulum
D. Kidney lobes
E. Polycystic kidney

 

 

ANS:   A

Oligohydramnios (an abnormally small volume of amniotic fluid) may be associated with renal agenesis (absence of kidneys). In the neonate, renal agenesis is suggested by large, low-set ears. This type of auricle also suggests numerical chromosomal abnormalities (e.g., trisomy 18). The fetal kidneys normally produce large amounts of urine, which is excreted into the amniotic fluid. When one or both kidneys fail to form or there is urethral obstruction, the volume of amniotic fluid is small because urine production fails to occur or the urine cannot pass into the amniotic fluid.

 

  1. ________ Mesonephric duct
A. Renal agenesis
B. Nephrogenic cord
C. Metanephric diverticulum
D. Kidney lobes
E. Polycystic kidney

 

 

ANS:   C

The metanephric diverticulum develops as an outgrowth of the mesonephric duct near its opening into the urogenital sinus. This diverticulum gives rise to the ureter, renal pelvis, calices, and collecting tubules.

 

  1. ________ Intermediate mesoderm
A. Renal agenesis
B. Nephrogenic cord
C. Metanephric diverticulum
D. Kidney lobes
E. Polycystic kidney

 

 

ANS:   B

The intermediate mesoderm in the early embryo forms a longitudinal mass on each side called the nephrogenic cord. These cords give rise to nephrons, which connect with the collecting tubules formed from the metanephric diverticula.

 

  1. ________ External evidence of them disappears during infancy
A. Renal agenesis
B. Nephrogenic cord
C. Metanephric diverticulum
D. Kidney lobes
E. Polycystic kidney

 

 

ANS:   D

The external evidence of the kidney lobes disappears during infancy, usually by the end of the first year. Thereafter, lobes are observed only in sections of the kidney and are defined as a medullary pyramid with its cap of cortical tissue.

 

________ Opens at the umbilicus

a. A
b. B
c. C
d. D
e. E

 

 

ANS:   A

A urachal sinus may open at the umbilicus and produce a discharge. The allantois, running between the umbilicus and the urinary bladder, usually becomes the urachus and, eventually, the median umbilical ligament. If the cranial part of the allantois remains patent, a sinus may form. More often, the caudal end of the allantois remains patent and gives rise to a sinus that may be continuous with the cavity of the urinary bladder.

 

________ May undergo exstrophy

a. A
b. B
c. C
d. D
e. E

 

 

ANS:   D

The posterior wall of the urinary bladder may protrude through a defect in the anterior abdominal wall; this defect is called exstrophy of the bladder. The trigone and ureteral orifices are exposed, and urine dribbles intermittently.

 

________ Becomes the median umbilical ligament

a. A
b. B
c. C
d. D
e. E

 

 

ANS:   C

The urachus, a derivative of the allantois, usually becomes a fibrous cord after birththe median umbilical ligament, which extends from the apex of the urinary bladder to the umbilicus.

 

________ Urachal sinus

a. A
b. B
c. C
d. D
e. E

 

 

ANS:   A

Failure of closure of a part of the intraembryonic part of the allantois may result in the formation of a urachal sinus that opens at the umbilicus or into the urinary bladder. These sinuses usually are not detected unless they become infected and produce a discharge at the umbilicus or a bladder infection.

 

________ Cystic remnant of the urachus

a. A
b. B
c. C
d. D
e. E

 

 

ANS:   B

Remnants of the urachus that do not become fibrous and form the median umbilical ligament may accumulate fluid and become cystic. Small cysts commonly are detected in sections of the urachus or median umbilical ligament, but most cysts are not detected in living people unless they become infected and enlarge.

 

________ Short tube derived from urogenital sinus and splanchnic mesenchyme

a. A
b. B
c. C
d. D
e. E

 

 

ANS:   E

The urethra in the female is a short tube that extends from the urinary bladder to the external orifice. The epithelium of the urethra is derived from the endodermal urogenital sinus; all other layers of its wall are derived from the adjacent splanchnic mesenchyme.

 

________ Derivative of the paramesonephric duct

a. A
b. B
c. C
d. D
e. E

 

 

ANS:   C

The uterine tube is a derivative of the paramesonephric duct. The fused parts of these ducts give rise to the uterus.

 

________ Corresponds to the epididymis

a. A
b. B
c. C
d. D
e. E

 

 

ANS:   B

The epophoron appears in the broad ligament between the ovary and the uterine tube. It is a remnant of the mesonephric duct and some mesonephric tubules and is homologous with the epididymis in males. It may become cystic and give rise to a large parovarian cyst.

 

________ Passes through the inguinal canal

a. A
b. B
c. C
d. D
e. E

 

 

ANS:   A

The round ligament of the uterus passes through the inguinal canal and attaches to the labium majus. It is continuous with the ovarian ligament because they are both derived from the embryonic gubernaculum.

 

________ Composed of endodermal cells

a. A
b. B
c. C
d. D
e. E

 

 

ANS:   E

The vaginal plate is composed of endodermal cells derived from the urogenital sinus. Later, the central cells of this plate break down, forming the lumen of the vagina. Failure of this canalization to occur results in vaginal atresia.

 

________ Derivative of the gubernaculum

a. A
b. B
c. C
d. D
e. E

 

 

ANS:   A

The round ligament is a derivative of the gubernaculum, a fibromuscular cord that passes from the inferior pole of the gonad. It descends obliquely through the developing abdominal wall (future site of the inguinal canal) and attaches to the labioscrotal fold (future labium majus).

 

________ Derivative of the urogenital sinus

a. A
b. B
c. C
d. D
e. E

 

 

ANS:   E

The vaginal plate is derived from a pair of sinovaginal bulbs that grow out from the urogenital sinus and fuse to form a solid cord of endodermal cells called the vaginal plate. The central cells of this plate subsequently degenerate, forming the lumen of the vagina.

 

________ Epophoron

a. A
b. B
c. C
d. D
e. E

 

 

ANS:   B

The epophoron is a vestigial structure that lies in the broad ligament between the ovary and the uterine tube. It consists of a few blind tubules connected to a short duct. If the epophoron becomes distended with fluid, it forms a parovarian cyst. Most are small, but some are very large.

 

________ Gartner duct cyst

a. A
b. B
c. C
d. D
e. E

 

 

ANS:   D

Gartner duct cysts are derived from remnants of caudal parts of the mesonephric duct in females. They are located between the layers of the broad ligament along the lateral wall of the uterus or in the wall of the vagina. Gartner duct cysts seldom are detected unless they become infected and enlarged.

 

  1. ________ Suprarenal medulla
A. Adrenal hyperplasia
B. Penile hypospadias
C. Zona reticularis
D. Neuroectoderm
E. Coelomic epithelium

 

 

ANS:   D

The medulla of the suprarenal gland is derived from neuroectoderm. Neural crest cells, comparable to those that form sympathetic ganglia, invade the mesodermal suprarenal cortex on its medial side and soon become surrounded by it.

 

  1. ________ Gives rise to the suprarenal cortex
A. Adrenal hyperplasia
B. Penile hypospadias
C. Zona reticularis
D. Neuroectoderm
E. Coelomic epithelium

 

 

ANS:   E

The fetal suprarenal cortex is derived from mesenchymal cells that arise from the coelomic epithelium. These large cells make up most of the suprarenal cortex before birth, forming the massive fetal cortex. The fetal cortex gradually involutes after birth and usually is not recognizable after the first year.

 

  1. ________ Differentiates after birth
A. Adrenal hyperplasia
B. Penile hypospadias
C. Zona reticularis
D. Neuroectoderm
E. Coelomic epithelium

 

 

ANS:   C

At birth, the suprarenal gland consists mainly of fetal cortex. The zona reticularis of the adrenal cortex forms after birth. It usually is recognizable by the end of the third year. The other two layers of the permanent cortex (zona glomerulosa and zona fasciculata) are present at birth but are not fully differentiated.

 

  1. ________ Unfused urogenital folds
A. Adrenal hyperplasia
B. Penile hypospadias
C. Zona reticularis
D. Neuroectoderm
E. Coelomic epithelium

 

 

ANS:   B

Failure of the urogenital folds to fuse in males results in hypospadias. In most cases, the urethra opens on the ventral surface near the junction of the glans and the body of the penis.

 

  1. ________ Ambiguous external genitalia
A. Adrenal hyperplasia
B. Penile hypospadias
C. Zona reticularis
D. Neuroectoderm
E. Coelomic epithelium

 

 

ANS:   A

Ambiguous external genitalia often indicate virilization of a female, resulting from congenital virilizing adrenal hyperplasia. Excessive production of adrenal androgens by the hyperplastic fetal cortices of the suprarenal glands causes masculinization of the external genitalia. A neonate with ambiguous genitalia, a palpable uterus, but no palpable gonads usually is a female pseudohermaphrodite whose condition is caused by adrenocortical hyperplasia.

 

  1. ________ Associated with chordee
A. Adrenal hyperplasia
B. Penile hypospadias
C. Zona reticularis
D. Neuroectoderm
E. Coelomic epithelium

 

 

ANS:   B

Chordee, a curving downward of the penis, often is associated with hypospadias, especially with the more severe types (e.g., penoscrotal hypospadias).

 

________ Primordium of the suprarenal medulla

a. A
b. B
c. C
d. D
e. E

 

 

ANS:   C

The medulla of the suprarenal gland is derived from neuroectoderm. Neural crest cells, comparable to those that give rise to sympathetic nerve cells, migrate to the developing suprarenal cortex and later give rise to the suprarenal medulla.

 

________ Gives rise to the interstitial cells

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