Deviant Behavior 11th Edition By Taylor Test Bank

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Deviant Behavior 11th Edition By Taylor Test Bank

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Deviant Behavior 11th Edition By Taylor Test Bank

CHAPTER TWO: POSITIVIST THEORIES

 

Multiple Choice Questions

 

  1. The theories of positivist sociologists attempt to explain the __________ of deviance.

 

  1. a) negative features
  2. b) functions
  3. c) causes
  4. d) meanings

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 17-18

Answer: c) causes

 

  1. Joe is a sociologist who is undertaking a study of drug use. He is interested in how broken families and poor neighborhoods lead to more problems of drug addiction. Joe is following a __________ theory of deviant behavior.

 

  1. a) positivist
  2. b) constructionist
  3. c) scientific
  4. d) historical

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 18

Answer: a) positivist

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT a primarily positivist theory of deviance?

 

  1. a) differential association
  2. b) anomie-strain theory
  3. c) control theory
  4. d) phenomenological theory

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 17-30

Answer: d) phenomenological theory

 

  1. The essence of several types of anomie-strain theory is that the experience of

 

  1. a) personal, psychological strain leads to deviant behavior.
  2. b) socially induced strain pressures individuals to commit deviant acts.
  3. c) significant social and political conflict leads to deviant acts.
  4. d) cultural change leads to social strain and outbreaks of deviant behavior.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 17-18

Answer: b) socially induced strain pressures individuals to commit deviant acts.

 

  1. According to Robert Mertons goal-means gap theory, the psychoanalytic approach to deviant behavior is wrong because that theory incorrectly assumes

 

  1. a) society discourages the individual from engaging in deviant behavior.
  2. b) society encourages the individual to engage in deviant behavior.
  3. c) society has no impact on human biological impulses.
  4. d) individuals freely choose to partake in deviant behavior.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 17-18

Answer: a) society discourages the individual from engaging in deviant behavior.

 

  1. Mertons version of anomie-strain theory is based on the premise that

 

  1. a) the breakdown of social norms, or anomie, allows deviance to occur.
  2. b) society encourages the individual to engage in deviance.
  3. c) deviant behavior is the expression of the individuals primitive psychological desires.
  4. d) society cannot restrain the individual from using power to prevent deviance.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 17-18

Answer: b) society encourages the individual to engage in deviance.

 

  1. According to Merton, the only cultural value of importance in American society is

 

  1. a) family relationships.
  2. b) hard work.
  3. c) material success.
  4. d) religious faith.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 17 -18

Answer: c) material success.

 

  1. According to Mertons anomie-strain theory, which of the following statements is true?

 

  1. a) All Americans have about the same chance of reaching high success goals.
  2. b) Both the cultural goals of success and the legitimate means of achieving high success goals are freely available to all Americans.
  3. c) Relatively few Americans believe that success is an important part of life.
  4. d) The legitimate means of achieving high success goals are not freely available to all classes of people.

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 17-19

Answer: d) The legitimate means of achieving high success goals are not freely available to all classes of people.

 

  1. According to Merton, when persons hold high success aspirations and are not given the opportunity to realize them, they might

 

  1. a) resort to illegitimate means of achieving their aspirations.
  2. b) reset their goals to an even higher level.
  3. c) feel irrepressible psychological pressures and become violent.
  4. d) become more religious.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page-Reference: 18

Answer: a) resort to illegitimate means of achieving their aspirations.

 

  1. All of Janes friends have jewelry and new clothes, but she had no money to buy them. She therefore resorted to shoplifting to get what she wanted. According to Mertons theory, her behavior is an example of

 

  1. a) conformity.
  2. b) innovation.
  3. c) ritualism.
  4. d) retreatism.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 18-19

Answer: b) innovation.

 

  1. Peter, disillusioned with the way things are going, decides to live in a hippie commune away from the rest of society. According to Mertons theory, his behavior is an example of

 

  1. a) conformity.
  2. b) innovation.
  3. c) ritualism.
  4. d) retreatism.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 18-19

Answer: d) retreatism.

 

  1. Joe, a steel worker in Cleveland, Ohio, has no aspirations of being rich and successful. Nevertheless, he works hard and takes pride in his job. According to Mertons theory, this is an example of
  2. a) conformity.
  3. b) innovation.
  4. c) ritualism.
  5. d) retreatism.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 18-19

Answer: c) Ritualism

 

  1. Albert Cohens theory is similar to Mertons approach, but Cohen replaced the word success with the word __________.

 

  1. a) wealth
  2. b) innovation
  3. c) anomie
  4. d) status

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 19-20

Answer: d) status

 

  1. According to Cohens theory, status frustration is most likely to occur among

 

  1. a) upper-class boys.
  2. b) middle-class boys.
  3. c) lower-class boys.
  4. d) lower-class girls.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 20

Answer: c) lower-class boys.

 

  1. According to Cohens theory, the place in American society where lower-class boys experience the greatest status frustration is

 

  1. a) home.
  2. b) school.
  3. c) neighborhood.
  4. d) the job.

 

Difficulty:1

Page Reference: 20

Answer: b) school.

 

  1. According to Albert Cohen, when lower-class boys experience status frustration, they set up their own competitive system in the form of
  2. a) violent gangs.
  3. b) religious groups.
  4. c) delinquent subcultures.
  5. d) boys clubs.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 20

Answer: c) delinquent subcultures.

 

  1. Cohens theory of status frustration closely resembles Mertons goal-means gap because they both

 

  1. a) use similar styles of research.
  2. b) argue that deviant actions are the product of individual choice.
  3. c) assert that lower-class people are more likely to engage in deviant actions.
  4. d) assume that social class has little to do with deviant behavior.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 20

Answer: c) assert that lower-class people are more likely to engage in deviant actions.

 

  1. Cloward and Ohlin attempt to extend Mertons central idea that the lower classes are denied legitimate opportunity by introducing the concept of

 

  1. a) status frustration.
  2. b) the means-goal gap.
  3. c) differential illegitimate opportunity.
  4. d) differential legitimate opportunity.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 20-21

Answer: c) differential illegitimate opportunity.

 

  1. According to Cloward and Ohlin, lower-class boys experience different opportunities in the form of three subcultures, which are

 

  1. a) criminal, conflict, and rebellious.
  2. b) criminal, retreatist, and innovative.
  3. c) conflict, rebellious, and innovative.
  4. d) criminal, conflict, and retreatist.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 20-21

Answer: d) criminal, conflict, and retreatist.

 

  1. Cloward and Ohlin used the concept of differential illegitimate opportunity to mean that some members of the lower class have

 

  1. a) a greater chance to become middle class through use of illegitimate opportunities.
  2. b) more opportunities to pursue legitimate opportunities.
  3. c) more positivist cultural values than others.
  4. d) fewer opportunities to pursue illegitimate opportunities.

 

Difficulty:1

Page Reference: 20-21

Answer: d) fewer opportunities to pursue illegitimate opportunities.

 

  1. Recent developments in anomie-strain theory have located new sources of strain that might push individuals toward deviance. Which of the following is NOT one of those newly identified strains?

 

  1. a) American cultures anything goes mentality in the pursuit of success
  2. b) removal of positively valued stimuli such as the death of a friend
  3. c) the discrepancy between success aspirations and the opportunities for realizing those aspirations
  4. d) presentation of negative stimuli, such as the experience of child abuse or criminal victimization

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 22-23

Answer: c) the discrepancy between success aspirations and the opportunities for realizing those aspirations

 

  1. Many sociologists have criticized Mertons version of anomie-strain theory for assuming that lower-class people

 

  1. a) are entirely dishonest.
  2. b) have the same level of success aspirations as other social classes.
  3. c) have higher levels of success aspirations as others.
  4. d) are poor because they have deviant values.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 22-23

Answer: b) have the same level of success aspirations as other social classes.

 

  1. One positive contribution of anomie-strain theory is that

 

  1. a) society, not the individual, causes much deviance.
  2. b) the individual, not society, causes much deviance.
  3. c) sociology can actually discover very little about deviant behavior.
  4. d) almost all deviant behavior is committed by the lower classes.

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 23

Answer: a) society, not the individual, causes much deviance.

 

  1. According to Sutherlands differential association theory, a person becomes deviant or delinquent when there is a(n)

 

  1. a) economic strain produced by a lack of economic opportunity.
  2. b) political movement that calls for attacks on social inequality.
  3. c) excess of deviant contacts favorable to violation of the law.
  4. d) absence of deviant contacts calling for obeying the law.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 23-24

Answer: c) excess of deviant contacts favorable to violation of the law.

 

  1. Which of the following concepts constitutes the core of Sutherlands differential association theory?

 

  1. a) numerous associations with criminals
  2. b) an excess of criminal over anticriminal contacts
  3. c) a strong criminal personality
  4. d) an excess of criminal over anticriminal personality traits

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 24

Answer: b) an excess of criminal over anticriminal contacts

 

  1. Hank is a sociologist investigating the causes of crime. He is interested in how some areas of the city have traditions of crime that persist over generations, and how individuals easily move into groups following those traditions. What theory of deviance is guiding Hanks research?

 

  1. a) labeling theory
  2. b) control theory
  3. c) differential association theory
  4. d) strain theory

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 23-24

Answer: c) differential association theory

 

  1. Daniel Glaser felt that Sutherlands theory was too __________ and proposed that a process of identification with criminals also had to take place.

 

  1. a) liberal
  2. b) mechanistic
  3. c) voluntary
  4. d) sociological

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 24

Answer: b) mechanistic

 

  1. According to Glaser, before a person pursues criminal behavior, he or she must first __________ real or imaginary persons whose criminal behavior seems acceptable.

 

  1. a) strongly reject
  2. b) rebel against
  3. c) identify with
  4. d) fall deeply in love with

 

Difficulty: 2

Page-Reference: 24

Answer: c) identify with

 

  1. Burgess and Akers argued that before one becomes criminal, a process of __________ must occur where he or she is rewarded for continuing deviant behavior.

 

  1. a) differential reinforcement
  2. b) differential revulsion
  3. c) differential learning
  4. d) differential rejection

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 25

Answer: a) differential reinforcement

 

  1. Burgess and Akers find Sutherlands differential association theory inadequate because Sutherland

 

  1. a) ignored the individuals choice-making ability.
  2. b) placed too much emphasis on the rewards, not the consequences, of deviant behavior.
  3. c) could not empirically test his theory.
  4. d) did not specify what is involved in the process of learning to become a criminal.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 25

Answer: d) did not specify what is involved in the process of learning to become a criminal.

 

  1. Which of the following statements is an accurate criticism of Burgess-Akerss social learning theory?

 

  1. a) It explains only why some commit crime without interaction with others.
  2. b) It cannot explain why a person initially commits a deviant act.
  3. c) It explains only why a person initially commits a deviant rather than a conforming act.
  4. d) It fails to explain why a person continues to commit deviant acts.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 25

Answer: b) It cannot explain why a person initially commits a deviant act.

 

  1. According to control theories of deviance, the central question is

 

  1. a) what causes deviance.
  2. b) what causes conformity.
  3. c) what causes criminality.
  4. d) what is the definition of deviance.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 26

Answer: b) what causes conformity.

 

  1. Most control theorists seem to

 

  1. a) imply that too much social control will force criminals to commit more crimes.
  2. b) accept the Freudian assumption that our inborn animal impulses, if unchecked, will turn into deviant behavior.
  3. c) accept the notion that one has to learn some skill and ideology in order to commit deviance.
  4. d) assume that social control often indirectly or unexpectedly causes deviant behavior.

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 26-27

Answer: b) accept the Freudian assumption that our inborn animal impulses, if unchecked, will turn into deviant behavior.

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT a kind of social control that can prevent deviance?

 

  1. a) bonds to society
  2. b) reintegrative shaming
  3. c) differential association
  4. d) legal punishment

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 27-29

Answer: c) differential association

 

  1. According to Hirschis theory of social control, if elements of bonding to society are weak, the individual might

 

  1. a) have strong self-control.
  2. b) have a good self-concept.
  3. c) develop a strong goal orientation.
  4. d) slide into deviance.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 27

Answer: d) slide into deviance.

 

  1. According to Hirschi, which of the following is NOT a way for individuals to bond themselves to society?

 

  1. a) a commitment to conformity
  2. b) an experience of a gap between goals and means
  3. c) a belief in moral validity of the rules
  4. d) involvement in conventional activities

 

Difficulty: 2

Page-Reference: 27

Answer: b) an experience of a gap between goals and means

 

  1. An expression of disapproval designed to invoke remorse in the wrongdoer is called

 

  1. a) labeling.
  2. b) denouncing.
  3. c) bonding.
  4. d) shaming.

 

Difficulty: 1

Page-Reference: 27-28

Answer: d) shaming.

 

  1. If a society makes a deviant feel guilty while showing understanding and forgiveness, it practices __________ shaming.
  2. a) bureaucratic
  3. b) disintegrative
  4. c) reintegrative
  5. d) degrading

 

Difficulty: 2

Page-Reference: 27-28

Answer: c) reintegrative

 

  1. According to the deterrence doctrine, all of the following would help reduce the rate of crime, EXCEPT for making punishment

 

  1. a) more certain.
  2. b) more swift.
  3. c) more general.
  4. d) more severe.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 28-29

Answer: c) more general.

 

  1. The deterrence doctrine assumes that human beings, when anticipating deviant behavior, are

 

  1. a) basically rational.
  2. b) basically irrational.
  3. c) nasty and evil.
  4. d) motivated to fight crime.

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 28-29

Answer: a) basically rational.

 

  1. According to critics, reintegrative shaming can work only with

 

  1. a) hardened criminals.
  2. b) embarrassed criminals.
  3. c) first-time offenders.
  4. d) sexual offenders.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 29-30

Answer: c) first-time offenders.

 

  1. Sociologists criticizing control theory point out that control can become a possible cause of deviance. They therefore conclude that most versions of this theory are too
  2. a) underdeveloped.
  3. b) oriented to adult deviance.
  4. c) simplistic.
  5. d) focused on societys unattainable goals.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 29-30

Answer: c) simplistic.

 

  1. ______________ study the underlying causes of deviance through social and environmental factors.

 

  1. a) Positivists
  2. b) Constructionists
  3. c) Scientists
  4. d) Historians

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 17-30

Answer: a) Positivists

 

True/False Questions

 

  1. In general, positivist theories focus on the meanings of deviance, while constructionist theories point to the causes of deviance.

True

False

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 17

Answer: False

 

  1. According to Merton, the access to the institutionalized means of achieving high success goals is not equally distributed in American society.

True

False

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 18

Answer: True

 

  1. One of Mertons great contributions to the study of deviance was to locate the cause of deviance in the individual, not society.

True

False

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 17-19

Answer: False

 

  1. Mertons theory indicates that individual acts of deviance have a social origin.

True

False

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 18-19

Answer: True

 

  1. Mertons theory assumes the premise that lower-income people have a higher propensity to commit deviant acts compared to higher-income people.

True

False

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 18-19

Answer: True

 

  1. Mertons ritualists and retreatists have one thing in common, which is the absence of high success goals in their lives.

True

False

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 19

Answer: True

 

  1. According to Cohen, the major frustration lower-class people experience is the lack of status, not material success.

True

False

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 20

Answer: True

 

  1. By introducing their concept of differential illegitimate opportunity, Cloward and Ohlin totally reject Mertons version of anomie-strain theory.

True

False

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Number: 21-22

Answer: False

 

  1. Cloward and Ohlin called members of the retreatist subculture double failures because they fail to gain success in other deviant subcultures and the larger society.

True

False

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 20-21

Answer: True

 

  1. There is no reliable evidence to support anomie-strain theorys claim that people of the lower classes are more likely than those of other classes to engage in deviant behavior.

True

False

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 22-23

Answer: True

 

  1. Sutherland developed his theory of differential association in order to explain criminality as an individual, but not a group phenomenon.

True

False

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 24-25

Answer: False

 

  1. One essential part of differential association theory is the assertion that the process of learning to become a criminal is the same as the process of learning to become a normal person.

True

False

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 24

Answer: True

 

  1. Glaser tried to extend Sutherlands theory by arguing that the individual must first identify with criminals before being influenced by them.

True

False

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 24

Answer: True

 

  1. Burgess and Akers argued that differential association can occur without reinforcement or social learning.

True

False

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 24-25

Answer: False

 

  1. One criticism of differential association theory is that it is hard to define precisely what differential association is in real-life situations.

True

False

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 25-26

Answer: True

 

  1. The concept of differential reinforcement is best at explaining why a person continues to commit a deviant act, not why he or she does so in the first place.

True

False

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 25-26

Answer: True

 

  1. Like Merton and Sutherland, control theorists seek the cause of deviance directly by asking, What causes deviance?

True

False

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 26

Answer: False

 

  1. Attachment to conventional people and institutions, and commitment to conformity, are two ways individuals bond to conventional society.

True

False

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 27

Answer: True

 

  1. According to the deterrence doctrine, certainty and swiftness of punishment are two ways crime can be reduced.

True

False

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 28-29

Answer: True

 

  1. Reintegrative shaming is another form of negative stigmatizing.

True

False

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 27-28

Answer: False

 

  1. Research has shown that strong social controls can almost totally prevent deviant behavior from occurring.

True

False

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 29-30

Answer: False

 

  1. Social control can actually cause deviant behavior as well as prevent it.

True

False

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 29-30

Answer: True

 

Fill-In Questions

 

  1. If persons lower their aspirations or abandon high success goals but continue to work hard, they are involved in what Merton called __________.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 19

Answer: ritualism

 

  1. The kind of deviant subculture Ohlin and Cloward studied that provides the best illegitimate opportunity for achieving success goals is the __________ subculture.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 21

Answer: criminal

 

  1. The theory of __________ association says that if a person associates with criminal patterns more than with anticriminal patterns, that person is likely to become criminal.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 23-24

Answer: differential

 

  1. According to control theory, the absence of __________ causes deviance.

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 26

Answer: social controls

 

  1. If a wrongdoer is punished in such a way as to be stigmatized, rejected, or ostracized, the individual experiences __________ shaming.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page-Reference: 27-28

Answer: a. disintegrative

 

Essay Questions

 

  1. Compare and contrast strain and control theories. What does each say about the causes of deviance? Which one seems more sensible?

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 17-31

 

  1. According to Merton, how might an individual deal with the strain created by a failure to achieve the cultural goal of success through legitimate means? What are some ways one can adapt to this strain?

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 18-19

 

  1. Using Mertons theory, explain the hippie counter-culture movement of the 1960s.

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 18-19

 

  1. How does social learning theory explain deviant behavior? What social forces does this theory locate that would pressure someone toward deviance?

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 23-26

 

  1. Discuss the essential premise of control theory that we are all deviant by nature. Do we have animalistic impulses that need control? Why or why not?

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 26-30

 

  1. Evaluate the overall contribution of positivist theories of deviance. What ideas seem to make sense? Why?

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 29-30

 

  1. What are the strengths and weaknesses in the positivist theory in explaining deviance?

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 16-30

 

  1. Using Mertons model, what are the preconditions for rebellion?

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 18-19

 

 

CHAPTER 4: PHYSICAL VIOLENCE

 

Multiple Choice Questions

 

  1. Murder is an especially serious type of deviance because
  2. it is the type of deviance most involving strangers.
  3. it totally disgusts most Americans.
  4. its cost to the victim is forever irreparable.
  5. it is a widespread form of deviance.

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 57-70

Answer: c) its cost to the victim is forever irreparable.

 

  1. The factor most commonly associated with murder is
  2. sex.
  3. race.
  4. age.
  5. poverty.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 58-59

Answer: d) poverty.

 

  1. Homicides occur most frequently during
  2. the weekdays.
  3. the afternoons.
  4. the morning.
  5. the weekends.

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 62

Answer: d) the weekends.

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT a way poverty causes homicide?
  2. The poor are more likely to have financial, marital, and other stressful problems.
  3. Genetic factors cause both poverty and homicidal tendencies.
  4. Poverty causes more interpersonal conflict.
  5. The poor tend more to resort to physical violence to deal with interpersonal conflict.

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 58-59

Answer: b) Genetic factors cause both poverty and homicidal tendencies.

 

  1. Regarding the racial backgrounds of offender and victim, murder
  2. is mostly intraracial.
  3. is mostly interracial.
  4. is equally intraracial and interracial.
  5. does not have any observable racial pattern.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 56

Answer: a) is mostly intraracial.

 

  1. According to some sociologists, the extremely high rate of homicide in parts of the South is a striking example of
  2. the massive oppression of the poor.
  3. the power of the drug cartels.
  4. a deep distrust of strangers.
  5. a widespread culture of violence.

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 60

Answer: d) a widespread culture of violence.

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT one of the reasons why the South is the region with the nations highest murder rate?
  2. the subculture of violence in the South
  3. the prevalence of rurality, forcing family members and friends to spend too much time with each other
  4. the prevalence of population heterogeneity, which leads to a lack of community
  5. the reduction of community integration through population dispersion

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 60-61

Answer: c) the prevalence of population heterogeneity, which leads to a lack of community

 

  1. Murders committed by people who are poor are often
  2. premeditated.
  3. committed on impulse.
  4. accidental.
  5. self-inflicted.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 63

Answer: b) committed on impulse.

 

  1. Research suggests that most men who kill their wives or girlfriends
  2. have previously shown few violent tendencies toward their victims.
  3. have previously kept their victims in abusive relations.
  4. have predominantly experienced family economic problems.
  5. are psychologically normal men.

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 61

Answer: b) have previously kept their victims in abusive relations.

 

  1. Which one of the following variables is MOST likely to be the greatest contributing factor toward murder?
  2. the weather
  3. ones geographical location
  4. accessibility to handguns
  5. ones socio-economic status

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 64

Answer: c) accessibility to handguns

 

  1. Which of the following statements is most likely to be true today?
  2. Young adults from 20 to 29 are more likely than teenagers to kill.
  3. Teenagers are more likely than young adults from 20 to 29 to kill.
  4. Older people are more likely than young people to kill.
  5. If embroiled in a quarrel, older people tend more to kill than to be killed by younger persons.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 61-62

Answer: b) Teenagers are more likely than young adults from 20 to 29 to kill.

 

  1. If guns were less available, many heated arguments would result in
  2. just about as many murders as take place at the present time.
  3. more murders rather than aggravated assaults.
  4. the use of weapons more deadly than guns.
  5. aggravated assaults rather than murders.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 64

Answer: d) aggravated assaults rather than murders.

 

  1. Poor people are more likely to use firearms than other weapons when they kill because guns
  2. are very inexpensive to purchase.
  3. provide barriers between individuals in poor neighborhoods.
  4. give a sense of power to the poor.
  5. are less risky to use than knives or rope.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 64

Answer: c) give a sense of power to the poor.

 

  1. Which of the following statements about the characteristics of homicide is true?
  2. Research suggests that lunar events do influence homicide rates.
  3. Murder rates occur at about the same rate throughout the year.
  4. Women are more likely to be killed at home.
  5. Men are most often killed in the bedroom.

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 63

Answer: c) Women are more likely to be killed at home.

 

  1. One reason why we are more likely to be killed by those we know than by strangers is that murder most often
  2. requires a great deal of planning to scheme against persons we know.
  3. requires a great deal of emotion, which is more likely to be generated by intimate relations.
  4. occurs in large cities and the rural South.
  5. takes place in an arbitrary way, and therefore people we know have a greater chance to be a victim.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 65

Answer: b) requires a great deal of emotion, which is more likely to be generated by intimate relations.

 

  1. The criminologist Marvin Wolfgang studied victims of self-precipitated murder and determined that victims
  2. genuinely tried to kill their murderers but failed.
  3. ingeniously planned to have their killers convicted for first-degree murder.
  4. secretly wished to kill themselves.
  5. merely intended to engage in a fist fight.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 66

Answer: c) secretly wished to kill themselves.

 

  1. One reason why more poor people commit murders over very trivial acts is
  2. the impact of economic and social oppression on ones sense of honor.
  3. the poor are more deeply involved in trivial behavior.
  4. the poor have more verbal rather than written or analytic skills and talk themselves into murder.
  5. the role of women in the family, which causes more tension and hardship.

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 65-66

Answer: a) the impact of economic and social oppression on ones sense of honor.

 

  1. Sociologists think that the homicide-suicide type of murder is normal because, after the killing, the murderer is
  2. in a psychotic state.
  3. able to feel remorse.
  4. able to feel a sense of moral superiority.
  5. anticipating an after-life reunion with the victim.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 68

Answer: b) able to feel remorse.

 

  1. Sociologist David Phillips discovered that some persons can conceal their suicidal wishes but carry them out with more ingenuity. He studied __________ to document this pattern of murder-suicide.
  2. teenage alcoholics
  3. poor, inner-city youth
  4. bridge jumpers
  5. airplane pilots

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 67

Answer: d) airplane pilots

 

  1. A type of murder involving killing a number of people one at a time is called

a, warm-blooded murder.

  1. mass murder.
  2. serial murder.
  3. an adjunct to suicide.

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 69-70

Answer: c) serial murder.

 

  1. All of the following are types of mass murderers, EXCEPT for
  2. murderers who stalk and torture their victims.
  3. pseudocommandos.
  4. team members under the direction of the charismatic leader.
  5. disgruntled employees.

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 69-70

Answer: a) murderers who stalk and torture their victims.

 

  1. According to the Social Profile of Serial Killers, which of the following statements about serial killers is probably UNTRUE?
  2. They are mostly college educated.
  3. They are mostly white men in their late 20s or 30s.
  4. They are most likely to kill strangers.
  5. They are motivated by an intense desire for power and sadism.

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 70

Answer: a) They are mostly college educated.

 

  1. This type of killing is done to save the face and name of the family.
  2. mercy killing
  3. honor killing
  4. family killing
  5. communal killing

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 71

Answer: b) honor killing

 

  1. School violence is caused by all of the following, except for
  2. increased availability of guns.
  3. media violence.
  4. violent sports competition.
  5. the culture of violence.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 71-72

Answer: c) violent sports competition.

 

  1. Which of the following statements about school violence is TRUE?
  2. School violence is relatively common in America today.
  3. The environment of the school has little impact on school violence.
  4. A school environment conducive to school violence seriously affects only a few students.
  5. Northern states like New York and New Jersey have more firearm deaths among children than other areas.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 71-72

Answer: c) A school environment conducive to school violence seriously affects only a few students.

 

  1. Pursuing someone in a way that creates fear of being assaulted or killed is called
  2. a) stalking.
  3. b) aggravated assault.
  4. c) domestic terrorism.
  5. d) harassment.

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 72-73

Answer: a) stalking.

 

  1. Which of the following is TRUE about stalking?
  2. Stalkers usually pick strangers to follow and threaten.
  3. Stalking helps distract people from other kinds of deviance.
  4. Most stalkers know their victims.
  5. Most stalkers are psychologically normal.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 72-73

Answer: c) Most stalkers know their victims.

 

  1. Hate-motivated killers
  2. personally know their victims.
  3. are very common in the U.S. today.
  4. are more likely to belong to an organized hate group.
  5. mostly attack members of their own racial or religious groups.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 74

Answer: c) are more likely to belong to an organized hate group.

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT a type of hate killer?
  2. thrill hate killers
  3. defensive hate killers
  4. mission hate killers
  5. racist hate killers

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 74

Answer: d) racist hate killers

 

  1. The wholesale killing of members of a racial or ethnic group is the definition of
  2. hate killing.
  3. genocide.
  4. terrorism.
  5. mission killing.

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 74-76

Answer: b) genocide.

 

  1. The perpetrators of genocide are
  2. monsters, psychopaths, and sadists.
  3. mostly normal people.
  4. strongly resisted by their countrys average citizens.
  5. never upset about what they were doing.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 74-76

Answer: b) mostly normal people.

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT a theory that attempts to explain genocide?
  2. Genocide is based on the physical and psychological separation between perpetrators and victims.
  3. Genocide is based on obedience to authority.
  4. Genocide is based on power.
  5. Genocide is based on personal prejudice.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 74-76

Answer: a) Genocide is based on the physical and psychological separation between perpetrators and victims.

 

  1. With terrorism, the victims are usually
  2. political leaders.
  3. followers of a certain religion.
  4. innocent citizens.
  5. military personnel.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 76-77

Answer: c) innocent citizens.

 

  1. The terrorists who attacked the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001, were
  2. most likely insane.
  3. loyal members of a religious group.
  4. purely evil persons.
  5. psychologically frustrated men.

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 76-77

Answer: b) loyal members of a religious group.

 

  1. Which of the following reflects a cultural approach to combating terrorism?
  2. seeking support from around the world to fight terrorism
  3. totally destroying al Qaeda and other terrorist organizations
  4. appearing on television to counter anti-American bias
  5. converting as many Muslims as possible to Christianity

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 76-77

Answer: c) appearing on television to counter anti-American bias

 

  1. According to external restraint theory, suicide and homicide are
  2. both acts of aggression resulting from frustration.
  3. essentially different forms of deviant behavior.
  4. both caused by subcultures of violence.
  5. caused by psychological forces.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 78-79

Answer: a) both acts of aggression resulting from frustration.

 

  1. The external restraint theory holds that
  2. weak external restraint leads to homicide.
  3. strong external restraint leads to homicide.
  4. strong external restraint leads to suicide.
  5. weak internal restraint leads to weak external restraints.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 78-79

Answer: b) strong external restraint leads to homicide.

 

  1. Gold attempted to add to external restraint theory by arguing that socialization plays a role in determining who becomes a murderer. He felt that
  2. physical punishment in childhood leads to homicide.
  3. physical punishment in childhood leads to suicide.
  4. psychological punishment in childhood leads to homicide.
  5. a combination of physical and psychological punishment leads to suicide.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 78-79

Answer: a) physical punishment in childhood leads to homicide.

 

  1. According to Marvin Wolfgangs subculture of violence theory, the subculture upholds all of the following practices, EXCEPT for
  2. defining personal assaults as proper and justified.
  3. approving quick resort to physical aggression.
  4. providing strong external restraints leading to homicide.
  5. treating violence as a familiar and often deadly partner in lifes struggles.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 79

Answer: c) providing strong external restraints leading to homicide.

 

  1. According to the subculture of violence theory, the poor are more violent than people in the larger culture because
  2. the poor are psychologically weak and cannot resist the subculture.
  3. the poor are genetically more inclined to violence.
  4. the larger culture is more violent and thus avoided by the poor.
  5. the violent subculture has a powerful grip on the poor.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 79

Answer: d) the violent subculture has a powerful grip on the poor.

 

  1. The author of the text points to recent studies that suggest the cause of higher violence rates among poor African Americans is
  2. the culture of violence.
  3. violent media programs and video games.
  4. rapid social change.
  5. poverty and social inequality.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 79

Answer: d) poverty and social inequality.

 

  1. Evidence shows that the murder rates in states with capital punishment are
  2. higher.
  3. lower.
  4. almost undetectable.
  5. about the same.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 80-82

Answer: a) higher.

 

  1. Most evidence about the impact of capital punishment on murder rates supports the conclusion that capital punishment
  2. has greatly deterred murder in other cultures but not in America.
  3. greatly increases the number of murders committed.
  4. is an effective deterrent to murder.
  5. is not an effective deterrent to murder.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 80-82

Answer: d) is not an effective deterrent to murder.

 

  1. According to the author, one reason why people advocate the death penalty, even though it does not act as a deterrent, is because
  2. it prevents the murderer from doing harm to others again.
  3. it helps distract people from other kinds of deviance.
  4. Americans have developed civilized ways of killing people.
  5. many American religions call for the execution of murderers.

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 80-82

Answer: a) it prevents the murderer from doing harm to others again.

 

  1. Of all the variables mentioned, this has the most significant effect when it come to murder.
  2. sex
  3. race
  4. age
  5. poverty

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 59

Answer: d) poverty

 

True/False Questions

  1. Aggravated assault involves an atrocious attack with the intent to kill or the use of a deadly weapon.

True

False

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 58

Answer: True

 

  1. There is a correlation between the type of murders and ones socio-economic status.

True

False

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 59-60

Answer: False

 

  1. Most murders are committed by the victims acquaintances, friends, lovers, or relatives.

True

False

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 64-65

Answer: True

 

  1. Most murders are committed by strangers.

True

False

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 64-65

Answer: False

 

  1. Most murders are inter-racial.

True

False

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 59

Answer: False

 

  1. Murderers are pretty well represented in all of the major social classes.

True

False

 

Difficulty: 1

Page-Reference: 62

Answer: False

 

  1. Most murders are committed by strangers.

True

False

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 64-65

Answer: False

 

  1. When it comes to the murder of women, the home is more dangerous than the streets.

True

False

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 64-65

Answer: True

 

  1. The United States has about the same homicide rate as most industrialized countries in Europe.

True

False

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 71

Answer: False

 

  1. Compared to other developed countries, the United States has the lowest homicide rates.

True

False

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 71

Answer: False

 

  1. Most homicides are committed by strangers.

True

False

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 64

Answer: False

 

  1. Blacks are more likely to kill other blacks than whites, while whites tend to murder other whites rather than blacks.

True

False

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 57

Answer: True

 

  1. Most murders are intra-racial.

True

False

 

Difficulty: 1

Page-Reference: 57

Answer: True

 

  1. When it comes to murders committed by women, they tend to kill those of the same sex.

True

False

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 61

Answer: False

 

  1. Saturday night is the most popular time for committing murder.

True

False

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 62

Answer: True

 

  1. Firearms in themselves cannot cause homicide because they are simply a means to kill.

True

False

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 63-64

Answer: True

 

  1. Were guns less available, many heated arguments might have resulted in aggravated assaults rather than murders.

True

False

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 64

Answer: True

 

  1. We are far less likely to become victims of cold-blooded murders carried out by strangers than we are likely to die from warm-blooded emotional murders at the hands of relatives and acquaintances.

True

False

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 64

Answer: True

 

  1. We are more likely to be victims of cold-blooded murder than warm-blooded murders.

True

False

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 64-65

Answer: False

 

  1. Members of the lower class tend to commit premeditated murders more than impulse murders.

True

False

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 59

Answer: False

 

  1. According to Wolfgangs studies, many self-precipitated murder victims may have secretly wanted to kill themselves.

True

False

 

Difficulty: 2

Page-Reference: 66

Answer: True

 

  1. It is unheard of for a man to kill another as a way of settling an argument over a one-dollar debt.

True

False

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 66-67

Answer: False

 

  1. People from the lower income strata tend to commit murders over trivial matters.

True

False

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 66-67

Answer: True

 

  1. Both sociologists and psychiatrists tend to see homicide-suicide as a symptom of psychological abnormality.

True

False

 

Difficulty: 2

Page-Reference: 68

Answer: False

 

  1. Despite the shocking nature of their crime, most mass murderers are not mentally ill.

True

False

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 69

Answer: True

 

  1. Juvenile killings are now a relatively common event in U.S. schools.

True

False

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 71-72

Answer: False

 

  1. Most stalkers are loners, mentally unhealthy, and socially incompetent.

True

False

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 72

Answer: True

 

  1. Most hate-motivated killers act alone, often having stalked their victims for weeks or months.

True

False

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 74

Answer: False

 

  1. According to the subculture of violence theory, beliefs in using violence to solve interpersonal problems, especially among the poor, gives rise to higher homicide rates.

True

False

 

Difficulty: 2

Page-Reference: 78-79

Answer: True

 

  1. The perpetrators of genocide are normal people who are following orders to kill.

True

False

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 75

Answer: True

 

  1. Terrorism is not considered deviant behavior because it usually involves one governments attack upon another.

True

False

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 76-77

Answer: False

 

  1. Henry and Sorts external restraint theory assumes that frustration alone may cause homicide but not suicide.

True

False

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 78-79

Answer: False

 

  1. There is strong evidence to show that homicide rates are lower in the states that still retain capital punishment than in those that have abolished it.

True

False

 

Difficulty: 1

Page-Reference: 80-82

Answer: False

 

  1. Serial killers are generally insane.

True

False

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 70

Answer: False

 

  1. According to Wolfgangs studies, many self-precipitated murder victims may have had a secret death wish.

True

False

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 79

Answer: True

 

  1. Most murders are committed by someone the victim knows.

True

False

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 64-65

Answer: True

 

  1. The death penalty is an excellent deterrent to murder.

True

False

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 80-82

Answer: False

 

Fill-In Questions

 

  1. _____________ is a crime most often committed by relatives and acquaintances rather than strangers.

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 64

Answer: Homicide

 

  1. In poor neighborhoods, the most common method of killing is the use of a __________.

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 63-64

Answer : firearm

 

  1. Most serial killers appear very __________.

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 69-70

Answer: normal

 

  1. _________murder involves killing a number of people at about the same time and place and is extremely rare.

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 69

Answer: Mass

 

  1. _____________killers are more likely to target gays and African Americans and use their killing to intimidate the entire group of which the victim is a member.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 74

Answer: Hate-motivated

 

  1. __________restraint theory is intended to show why some people who are frustrated commit suicide, whereas others who are just as frustrated turn to homicide.

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 78-79

Answer: External

 

Essay

 

  1. Discuss some of the reasons why America has such a high homicide rate. What factors seem to account for this high rate, especially in comparison to other cultures?

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 71

 

  1. Analyze the problem of stalking. What kinds of people engage in stalking and what are the consequences of their behavior for their victims? What can victims do to counteract stalking?

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 72-73

 

  1. Discuss the problems posed by the September 11, 2001, terrorist attack on America. How should Americans think about the terrorists, based on ideas in the chapter? How should the government respond to this attack?

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 76

 

  1. Compare and contrast the two major sociological theories of physical violence. That is, what is the main idea of each theory, and how do they differ from each other? Which theory seems to explain the most violence?

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 78-79

 

  1. State and defend your position on the death penalty. Are you for or against it? Why?

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 80-82

 

  1. Is the death penalty an effective deterrent to committing murder? If so, why? If not, why not?

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 80-82

 

  1. Are there differences, if any, between murders committed by the poor compared to those committed by members of the middle and upper classes?

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 58-64

 

  1. Describe a serial killer. How is the publics perception of serial killers different from the reality?

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 70

 

  1. Compare and contrast the homicide rates of the U.S. and that of other countries.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 71

 

  1. Describe the role mental illness plays in school shootings. With this information in mind, propose a solution for reducing cases of school violence.

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 71-72

 

 

 

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