Discover Sociology 2nd Edition William J. Chambliss Test bank

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Discover Sociology 2nd Edition William J. Chambliss Test bank

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Chambliss and Eglitis, Discover Sociology, 2nd Edition
Chapter 13, Religion and Society

LEARNING OBJECTIVES
LO 13-1: Draw distinctions between churches, sects, and cults (or new religious movements), and provide examples of each.
LO 13-2: Identify the major world religions and describe their main tenets, early roots, and world presence.
LO 13-3: Compare and contrast classical theories on religion put forth by mile Durkheim, Max Weber, and Karl Marx.
LO 13-4: Apply a sociological understanding to religion, and analyze major world religions as social institutions.
LO 13-5: Identify major trends in religion in the United States and globally.
LO 13-6: Apply a gendered analysis to religion, and explain womens traditional roles in religion.

QUESTIONS

1. A system of common beliefs and rituals centered on sacred things that unites believers and provides a sense of meaning and purpose is referred to as _______.
a. culture
b. society
c. education
*d. religion
Learning Objective: LO 13-4
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: How Do Sociologists Study Religion?
Question Type: MC

2. A belief in one or more supernatural deities is known as _______.
a. polytheism
*b. theism
c. monotheism
d. theology
Learning Objective: LO 13-4
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: How Do Sociologists Study Religion?
Question Type: MC

3. Along with sociology, which other discipline understands religion as a form of culture?
*a. Anthropology
b. Psychology
c. Education
d. Economics
Learning Objective: LO 13-4
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: How Do Sociologists Study Religion?
Question Type: MC

4. Which of the following religions prescribes a path for overcoming the endless suffering of everyday life?
a. Judaism
b. Hinduism
*c. Buddhism
d. Confucianism
Learning Objective: LO 13-2
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: Buddhism
Question Type: MC

5. According to anthropologists, which of the following is linked to the early organized religion found at Gbekli Tepe?
a. Democracy
b. Economic activity
c. Multiculturalism
*d. Agriculture
Learning Objective: LO 13-3
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: Theoretical Perspectives on Religion and Society
Question Type: MC

6. Which of the following is NOT an example of a totem?
a. Animal figures carved into a temple
b. The wafer and wine used in a Catholic Mass
*c. Objects regarded as ordinary parts of routine, everyday life
d. The sacred status of bison in some Native American religions
Learning Objective: LO 13-3
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: The Classical View: Religion, Society, and Secularization
Question Type: MC

7. Which of the following is characteristic of conservative Protestantism?
a. Lack of political participation
b. Secular humanism
c. Flexible interpretation of the Bible
*d. Belief in spiritual rebirth
Learning Objective: LO 13-5
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: Trends in Religious Affiliation
Question Type: MC

8. Religion is the sigh of the oppressed creature, the sentiment of a heartless world, and the soul of soulless conditions. It is the opium of the people. Which of the following theoretical perspectives best fits with this statement?
a. Functionalism
*b. Conflict theory
c. Symbolic interactionism
d. Anthropology
Learning Objective: LO 13-3
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: The Classical View: Religion, Society, and Secularization
Question Type: MC

9. Which of the following did mile Durkheim and Karl Marx agree upon regarding religion?
*a. Secularization was inevitable.
b. Religion prevents the masses from recognizing the ways in which the ruling class exploits them.
c. Sacred rituals serve an important social function by bring communities together.
d. Disenchantment would lead modern society to become an iron cage, imprisoning people in lives that lacked spirituality and creativity.
Learning Objective: LO 13-5
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: The Classical View: Religion, Society, and Secularization
Question Type: MC

10. The separation of church and state is an example of _______.
*a. disestablishment
b. evangelicalism
c. religious nationalism
d. civil religion
Learning Objective: LO 13-5
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: Religion and Disestablishment
Question Type: MC

11. Which of the following is characteristic of the religious economy approach?
a. Individuals cannot choose to change their religious affiliations.
b. Religion weakens when challenged by competing religious or secular viewpoints.
c. Religions do not need to make efforts to attract followers.
*d. There is likely to be a religious option for just about everyone.
Learning Objective: LO 13-4
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: Contemporary Sociological Theory and the Religious Economy Perspective
Question Type: MC

12. Which of the following is true of evangelical Protestant groups?
a. Have seen their numbers shrink considerably
b. Would be characterized as cults in the United States
*c. Tend to agree with conservative Republicans on most social issues
d. Do not have a duty to convert others to their faith
Learning Objective: LO 13-5
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: Trends in Religious Affiliation
Question Type: MC

13. Among U.S. adults who change their religious affiliation over the course of their life, which is the most common shift?
a. From the nonaffiliated group to a Christian group
b. From the nonaffiliated group to any religious group
*c. From a religious group to the nonaffiliated group
d. From a non-Christian group to a Christian group
Learning Objective: LO 13-5
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: Trends in Religious Affiliation
Question Type: MC

14. Max Webers concept of the routinization of charisma can be described as
*a. The institutionalization of a charismatic leaders beliefs into an organized religious structure
b. The loss of the charismatic figure from whose life a religion was born
c. The use of prescribed, tried-and-true techniques by a charismatic leader to achieve a mass following
d. The use of modern technology, such as radio, Internet, and television, to evangelize
Learning Objective: LO 13-3
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: The Classical View: Religion, Society, and Secularization
Question Type: MC

15. Which of the following is considered the most mainstream religious organization?
a. Sect
b. Cult
c. New religious movement
*d. Church
Learning Objective: LO 13-1
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: Church
Question Type: MC

16. Which of the following receives special rights and privileges from the state?
a. Sect
b. Denomination
*c. Ecclesia
d. Church
Learning Objective: LO 13-1
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: Church
Question Type: MC

17. Which of the following allows for more religious choice?
a. A prevailing religion
*b. Denomination
c. Ecclesia
d. Church
Learning Objective: LO 13-1
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: Church
Question Type: MC

18. A religious organization that has splintered off from an established church in an effort to restore perceived true beliefs and practices is referred to as a(n) _______.
a. denomination
b. cult
c. ecclesia
*d. sect
Learning Objective: LO 13-1
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: Sect
Question Type: MC

19. Which of the following is characteristic of religiosity in the United States?
a. The United States is one of the least religiously diverse countries in the world.
b. The number of conservative Protestants has seen a steady decrease.
c. More men than women claim religious affiliation.
*d. Compared to similar modern, economically developed nations, religiosity in the United States is relatively high.
Learning Objective: LO 13-5
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: Trends in Religious Affiliation
Question Type: MC

20. Which of the following would be considered a modern-day example of a sect?
a. Roman Catholicism
b. Lutheranism
c. Sunni Islam
*d. Evangelicalism
Learning Objective: LO 13-1
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: Sect
Question Type: MC

21. Which of the following is most likely to feature a charismatic leader?
a. Sect
b. Denomination
*c. Cult
d. Church
Learning Objective: LO 13-1
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: Cult
Question Type: MC

22. Which of the following is true of religious affiliation in the United States?
a. People are less likely to identify as unaffiliated.
*b. It is the most diverse in the world.
c. Older people are more likely to identify as unaffiliated.
d. About 60% self-identify as Christian.
Learning Objective: LO 13-5
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: Trends in Religious Affiliation
Question Type: MC

23. Which of the following is NOT true of new religious movements?
*a. They tend to be enduring institutions.
b. Their name came about as a more neutral way to refer to cults.
c. Most exist outside their countries religious mainstreams.
d. They are often based on the charisma of a single leader.
Learning Objective: LO 13-1
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: Cult
Question Type: MC

24. Which of the following is the worlds largest religion?
a. Judaism
b. Islam
*c. Christianity
d. Hinduism
Learning Objective: LO 13-2
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: Christianity
Question Type: MC

25. Which of the following is NOT a monotheistic religion?
a. Christianity
*b. Hinduism
c. Judaism
d. Islam
Learning Objective: LO 13-2
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: Christianity
Question Type: MC

26. Which of the following is NOT characteristic of the way sociologists study religion?
a. Ask questions about its role and function in society
b. Look at the ways religions create and reinforce social cohesion
*c. Study whether religious beliefs are true or false
d. Study what forces affect peoples commitment to religion
Learning Objective: LO 13-4
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: How Do Sociologists Study Religion?
Question Type: MC

27. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of Islam?
a. Its followers are referred to as Muslims.
b. About 20% of all Muslims live in the Middle East and North Africa.
*c. Worship of the Prophet Muhammad as the messiah
d. Belief in positive devotion to one God, Allah
Learning Objective: LO 13-2
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: Islam
Question Type: MC

28. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of Judaism?
a. One of the first religions to teach monotheism
b. Teaching of the Torah, which is codified in the Mishnah and the Talmud
c. The smallest of the worlds major religions
*d. Its followers distributed roughly evenly throughout Europe, Israel, and the United States
Learning Objective: LO 13-2
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: Judaism
Question Type: MC

29. Which of the following is NOT true of Zionism?
*a. It is embraced by all Jews.
b. It identifies Jerusalem as the center of the Jewish homeland.
c. It arose partially in reaction to a long global history of anti-Semitism.
d. Zionists established settlements in Palestine early in the 20th century.
Learning Objective: LO 13-2
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: Judaism
Question Type: MC

30. Which of the following is a characteristic of Hinduism?
a. One of the newest major religions, emerging in third-century India
b. It is based on the teachings of a single individual
*c. Belief in reincarnation and karma
d. It is monotheistic
Learning Objective: LO 13-2
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: Hinduism
Question Type: MC

31. Which of the following is a polytheistic religion?
a. Buddhism
*b. Hinduism
c. Islam
d. Confucianism
Learning Objective: LO 13-2
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: Hinduism
Question Type: MC

32. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of Buddhism?
*a. Worship of its founder, Siddhartha Gautama
b. Belief in divine spiritual forces rather than a God or gods
c. Followers seek enlightenment through ethical behavior, living a simple lifestyle, renunciation of material pleasures, and practicing meditation
d. Many people who practice Buddhism might not call themselves Buddhists
Learning Objective: LO 13-2
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: Buddhism
Question Type: MC

33. The Establishment Clause of the First Amendment of the U.S. Constitution is commonly understood as that which gives us separation of church and state.
*a. True
b. False
Learning Objective: LO 13-4
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: Religion and Disestablishment
Question Type: TF

34. As scientists, sociologists main research objective is to disprove or provide empirical evidence for certain religious beliefs.
a. True
*b. False
Learning Objective: LO 13-4
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: How Do Sociologists Study Religion?
Question Type: TF

35. Religion can have both a stabilizing and a destabilizing effect in any given society.
*a. True
b. False
Learning Objective: LO 13-4
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: How Do Sociologists Study Religion?
Question Type: TF

36. An example of a religious totem would be the wafer and wine used in Catholic mass.
*a. True
b. False
Learning Objective: LO 13-3
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: The Classical View: Religion, Society, and Secularization
Question Type: TF

37. According to mile Durkheim, sacred rituals strengthen solidarity and social bonds as people lose their sense of individuality and merge with the larger group.
*a. True
b. False
Learning Objective: LO 13-3
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: The Classical View: Religion, Society, and Secularization
Question Type: TF

38. According to Max Weber, capitalism developed in the United States and Europe first because they did not have religious values.
a. True
*b. False
Learning Objective: LO 13-3
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: The Classical View: Religion, Society, and Secularization
Question Type: TF

39. With 1.6 billion believers, Islam is the second-largest and the fastest-growing religion in the world.
*a. True
b. False
Learning Objective: LO 13-2
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: Islam
Question Type: TF

40. The terms Muslim and Islam can be used interchangeably.
a. True
*b. False
Learning Objective: LO 13-2
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: Islam
Question Type: TF

41. According to mile Durkheim, Australian Aborigines divided their world into the _______, or the sphere of routine, everyday life, and the _______, or the sphere endowed with spiritual meaning.
a. secular, spiritual
*b. profane, sacred
c. sacred, profane
d. sacrilegious, holy
Learning Objective: LO 13-3
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: The Classical View: Religion, Society, and Secularization
Question Type: FIB

42. About _______ of U.S. adults change their religious affiliation over the course of their lives.
a. 10%
*b. 28%
c. 33%
d. 45%
Learning Objective: LO 13-5
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: Trends in Religious Affiliation
Question Type: FIB

43. About _______ of U.S. adults indicate they are not affiliated with a religious group.
a. 5%
b. 10%
*c. 16%
d. 25%
Learning Objective: LO 13-5
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: Trends in Religious Affiliation
Question Type: FIB

44. _______ is the worlds largest religion while _______ is the worlds fastest growing.
a. Islam, Christianity
b. Buddhism, Hinduism
*c. Christianity, Islam
d. Hinduism, Buddhism
Learning Objective: LO 13-5
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: The Great World Religions
Question Type: FIB

45. Buddhism is an example of a _______ religion, in that it believes in the existence of divine spiritual forces rather than a God or gods.
*a. nontheistic
b. animistic
c. polytheistic
d. secular
Learning Objective: LO 13-2
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: Buddhism
Question Type: FIB

46. Extreme patriotism in the United States could be characterized as a(n) _______.
a. secular religion
*b. civil religion
c. new religious movement
d. ecclesia
Learning Objective: LO 13-5
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: Civil Religion in the United States
Question Type: FIB

47. _______ is the linkage of religious convictions with beliefs about a nation or ethnic groups social and political destiny.
a. Civic religion
*b. Religious nationalism
c. Disestablishment
d. Ecclesia
Learning Objective: LO 13-5
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: Religion and Global Societies
Question Type: FIB

48. A negative effect of _______ on religion has been the creation of conflict and tension as religious groups come into greater contact.
a. secularization
b. deindustrialization
c. nationalism
*d. globalization
Learning Objective: LO 13-5
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: Religion and Global Societies
Question Type: FIB

49. CHOOSE ALL THAT APPLY. Which of the following are characteristic of Confucianism?
*a. About 6 million practitioners worldwide
*b. Emphasizes respect for authority and hierarchy
*c. Associated with the principles of yin and yang
d. The official state religion of China
Learning Objective: LO 13-2
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: Confucianism
Question Type: MS

50. CHOOSE ALL THAT APPLY. Which of the following are characteristic of religion?
*a. Includes the ritualization and routinization of beliefs
b. Is not a form of culture
c. Can only occur in formal organizations
*d. Provides answers to questions about life, death, and fate
Learning Objective: LO 13-4
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: How Do Sociologists Study Religion?
Question Type: MS

51. CHOOSE ALL THAT APPLY. Sociologist Herbert Blumer suggested that the meaning of a thing for a person grows out of the ways in which others respond to the object and the persons actions toward it. Which of the following is an example of this?
*a. Burning the American flag is considered a serious taboo because it is viewed as unpatriotic.
*b. Many Catholics consider it offensive to wear the rosary as an everyday necklace.
c. A chronically ill man is cured following a week of prayer.
*d. Some Muslim women choose to wear hijab as a statement of their religious faith.
Learning Objective: LO 13-3
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: The Classical View: Religion, Society, and Secularization
Question Type: MS

52. CHOOSE ALL THAT APPLY. Which of the following are characteristic of early Protestantism in the United States, as described by Max Weber?
*a. A commitment to finding and fulfilling ones calling
*b. The belief that consumption-centered lifestyles are sinful
*c. A hard work ethic would lead to salvation
d. Wealth is an indicator of sin
Learning Objective: LO 13-3
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: The Classical View: Religion, Society, and Secularization
Question Type: MS

53. CHOOSE ALL THAT APPLY. Which of the following would be considered examples of a religious groups effort to gain more followers?
a. An individual inviting a fellow Christian to attend mass at their church
*b. Door-to-door outreach and flyering
*c. Free tours of the Scientology headquarters in Washington, DC
*d. The broadcasting of evangelical Christian church services
Learning Objective: LO 13-4
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: Contemporary Sociological Theory and the Religious Economy Perspective
Question Type: MS

54. CHOOSE ALL THAT APPLY. Which of the following would be considered examples of an ecclesia?
a. Confucianism in China
*b. Judaism in Israel
*c. Greek Orthodox Church in Greece
d. Christianity in the United States
Learning Objective: LO 13-1
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: Church
Question Type: MS

55. CHOOSE ALL THAT APPLY. Which of the following are characteristic of Christianity?
*a. Belief that Jesus Christ is the Messiah
*b. Emerged in Palestine about 2,000 years ago
c. It did not become an ecclesia until well after the 19th century
*d. Based in Judaism
Learning Objective: LO 13-2
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: Christianity
Question Type: MS

56. CHOOSE ALL THAT APPLY. Which of the following are characteristic of cults?
*a. Often led by charismatic figures
*b. Originate outside the religious mainstream
*c. Develop unique beliefs and practices
d. Are all eventually accepted into mainstream society
Learning Objective: LO 13-1
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: Cult
Question Type: MS

57. Discuss the four primary ways sociologists approach the study of religion in society.
*a. Study the way beliefs are socially constructed. Study religion as a social institution and its social organization. Study the function of religions as sources of solidarity. Study the ways social forces affect peoples commitment to religion.
Learning Objective: LO 13-4
Cognitive Domain: Analysis
Answer Location: How Do Sociologists Study Religion?
Question Type: SA

58. Explain what is meant by the term religious economy, and identify two ways that competition leads to increased engagement in religious organizations.
*a. Religious economy: religions are organizations in competition for followers. Competition leads to increased engagement as religions exert more effort and strategies to gain followers, and it creates an environment where there is something for everyone.
Learning Objective: LO 13-4
Cognitive Domain: Analysis
Answer Location: Contemporary Sociological Theory and the Religious Economy Perspective
Question Type: SA

59. Provide definitions and explain the differences between cults, sects, and churches, and provide an example of each.
*a. Church: a well-established religious organization that exists in a fairly harmonious relationship with the larger society. Sect: a religious organization that has splintered off from an established church, in an effort to restore perceived true beliefs and practices believed to have been lost by the established religious organization. Cult: a religious organization that is thoroughly unconventional with regard to the larger society. Examples vary.
Learning Objective: LO 13-1
Cognitive Domain: Analysis
Answer Location: Types of Religious Organizations
Question Type: SA

60. Provide definitions and explain the relationships between a church, a denomination, and an ecclesia, and provide an example of each.
*a. Church: a well-established religious organization that exists in a fairly harmonious relationship with the larger society. Example: Presbyterian, United Methodist, Greek Orthodox, and Roman Catholic. Ecclesia: formally allied with the state and is the official religion of the society. Example: Greek Orthodox Church in Greece. Denomination: a church that is not formally allied with the state. Example: all churches in the United States. A church can be either an ecclesia or a denomination. While ecclesia might or might not prevent the practice of other religions, they do receive special rights and privileges from the state. Denominations provide greater religious freedom of choice and competition, as none are favored by the state.
Learning Objective: LO 13-1
Cognitive Domain: Analysis
Answer Location: Church
Question Type: SA

61. Explain the term new religious movement and why usage of this term is growing in popularity.
*a. New religious movements (NRMs): new spiritual groups or communities that occupy a peripheral place in a countrys dominant religious landscape. Considered a more neutral sociological term for cults.
Learning Objective: LO 13-1
Cognitive Domain: Application
Answer Location: Cult
Question Type: SA

62. Religion is considered one of the major agents of socialization. Discuss a few of the ways religion socializes people into roles and behaviors.
*a. Varies. Can talk about gender roles, religious teachings that prescribe certain behaviors, roles within the church, political beliefs, social issue beliefs, interactions with others, and so on.
Learning Objective: LO 13-4
Cognitive Domain: Application
Answer Location: How Do Sociologists Study Religion?
Question Type: SA

63. Describe the main tenets and roots of Zionism, and discuss its relationship to Judaism.
*a. Zionism: a movement calling for the return of Jews to Palestine and the creation of a Jewish state. Established settlements in Palestine early in the 20th century, living, for the most part, peacefully with their Arab and Palestinian neighbors at the time. Following World War II and Nazi extermination of 6 million Jews, the State of Israel was created as a homeland for the survivors, igniting political tensions with Palestinians.
Learning Objective: LO 13-2
Cognitive Domain: Application
Answer Location: Judaism
Question Type: SA

64. Discuss the relationship between religion and caste in Hindu culture.
*a. Indian social structure is characterized by a caste system, officially abolished in 1949 but still powerful, in which people are believed to be born to a certain status that they must occupy for life. It has its origins in Hindu beliefs that an ideal life is partly achieved by performing the duties appropriate to ones caste. Hindus, like Buddhists, believe in samsara, the reincarnation of the soul according to a persons karma, or actions on earth. Whether someone is reborn into a higher or lower caste depends on the degree to which the person is committed to dharma, or the ideal way of life. Although orthodox Hinduism requires observance of caste duties, for the past 500 years, religious societies have organized around gurus who break with caste conventions, emphasizing devotional love as the central spiritual act. This tradition influenced Mahatma Gandhi, the leader of Indias independence movement, and others who have viewed Hinduism as a vehicle for social reform.
Learning Objective: LO 13-2
Cognitive Domain: Analysis
Answer Location: Hinduism
Question Type: SA

65. Define the term civil religion, and provide three examples of civil religion in the United States.
*a. Varies. Civil religion: a set of sacred beliefs and practices that become part of how a society sees itself. God-like language, historical myths, sacred beliefs, and restrictions on membership.
Learning Objective: LO 13-5
Cognitive Domain: Analysis
Answer Location: Civil Religion in the United States
Question Type: SA

66. Discuss the relationship between the dominance of Christianity and the family structure in the United States. How have Christian values shaped family structure?
*a. Varies. Can talk about the idolizing of the nuclear, two-parent, heterosexual family and demonization of single mothers, teenage mothers, unwed mothers, and gay families.
Learning Objective: LO 13-2
Cognitive Domain: Application
Answer Location: Christianity
Question Type: SA

67. Explain the major differences between theism, polytheism, monotheism, and animism.
*a. Theism: a belief in one or more supernatural deities; common characteristic of religion. Polytheism: the belief that different gods represent various categories of natural forces. Monotheism: belief in a single, all-knowing, all-powerful God. Animism: the belief that naturally occurring phenomena, such as mountains and animals, are possessed of indwelling spirits with supernatural powers.
Learning Objective: LO 13-4
Cognitive Domain: Analysis
Answer Location: The Great World Religions
Question Type: SA

68. Explain the process of the routinization of charisma in religion.
*a. After the loss of the charismatic figure from whose life the religion was born, there is a crisis among followers, but there can also be a subsequent routinization of charisma, which institutionalizes the religion and beliefs into an organizational structure.
Learning Objective: LO 13-3
Cognitive Domain: Application
Answer Location: Types of Religious Organizations
Question Type: SA

69. mile Durkheims The Elementary Forms of the Religious Life set forth one of the most influential and enduring theories in the sociology of religion. Provide an explanation of Durkheims theory, as well as a critique of its strengths and weaknesses.
*a. Varies. Durkheim argued that totemism was the most primitive form of religion. Example: Some Native Americans placed sacred status on the bison; body and blood of Christ through wafer and wine in Catholicism. During sacred rituals and ceremonies, people experience heightened emotional awareness and a spiritual connection with divine forces and other members of the community. They lose their sense of individuality and merge with the larger group. The sacred is the group, endowed with divine powers and purpose. By worshipping the sacred, society worships itself, becoming stronger and more cohesive as a result. Durkheim believed the sacred was disappearing from modern industrial society, but we could create secular forms of religion with the same function.
Learning Objective: LO 13-3
Cognitive Domain: Analysis
Answer Location: The Classical View: Religion, Society, and Secularization
Question Type: ESS

70. Discuss the role of women in religion. Apply a feminist/conflict-oriented perspective to explain what womens roles have been.
*a. Varies. The principal deities, prophets, and leaders are often male. God is depicted as male, beliefs typically emphasize male religious and political superiority, and women are often excluded from positions of theological power. Religions were initially developed by men within patriarchal societies and therefore reflect patriarchal norms and values. Women have long played an important but unheralded role in religion. Upsurge of feminist spirituality. Some have turned to goddess-based religions. Fight for the reimagination of God as ungendered, call for nonsexist language in Scripture and services, and redesign of traditions and rituals along nonsexist lines.
Learning Objective: LO 13-6
Cognitive Domain: Application
Answer Location: Women and Religion
Question Type: ESS

71. Identify the major tenets, provide a brief historical background, and discuss the global presence of Judaism, Islam, and Christianity.
*a. Varies.
Learning Objective: LO 13-2
Cognitive Domain: Analysis
Answer Location: The Great World Religions
Question Type: ESS

72. Introduce and discuss three major trends in religious affiliation and religiosity in the United States. Theorize and provide sociological explanations for these trends.
*a. Varies. U.S. believers are unusually religious compared to other modern industrial nations. Most U.S. adults profess an affiliation with a religious group. Church membership has grown steadily over time. Youth and young adults in the United States today are less likely to claim a religious affiliation than older adults. The conservative strand of U.S. Protestantism is growing in both membership and influence. Many U.S. voters political beliefs and actions are shaped by religious faith. The United States is the most religiously diverse country in the world, with over 1,500 distinct religions.
Learning Objective: LO 13-5
Cognitive Domain: Application
Answer Location: Trends in Religious Affiliation
Question Type: ESS

73. Compare and contrast the theories of Max Weber and Karl Marx when it comes to analysis of religion.
*a. Max Weber: concluded that capitalism first appeared where the Protestant Reformation had taken hold and that the driving force behind its development was Protestantisms religious tenets and the economic behaviors they fostered. God places each person on Earth to fulfill a particular calling. People could find evidence of Gods plan in a life dedicated to hard work because economic success was an indicator of salvation. Protestantism held that consumption-centered lifestyles were sinful, and believers were expected to live simple lives, work hard, and save and reinvest their earnings rather than enjoy the immediate gratifications of idleness or acquisition. Once capitalism took hold, it became institutionalized and shed the religious ethic that fueled its development. Society becomes an iron cage, imprisoning people in rationalized but irrational bureaucratic structures, rote work, and lives bereft of spirituality or creativity. Karl Marx: Religion serves the interests of the ruling class by providing an outlet for human misery that obscures the true source of suffering among the subordinate classes: their exploitation by the ruling class. Believed once capitalism was overthrown, religion would cease to exist. Secularization: the rise in worldly thinking, particularly as seen in the rise of science, technology, and rational thought and a simultaneous decline in the influence of religion.
Learning Objective: LO 13-3
Cognitive Domain: Application
Answer Location: Theoretical Perspectives on Religion and Society
Question Type: ESS

74. Discuss the relationships between globalization, war and conflict, and religious nationalism.
*a. Growing contact between large religions with mass followings that claim to possess exclusive accounts of history and the nature of reality. This contact is both a potential and an actual source of tension and conflict, which can fuel culture wars, as well as real wars that leaders cast as battles between religions and values or even between good and evil. Religious nationalism: the linkage of religious convictions with beliefs about a nations or ethnic groups social and political destiny.
Learning Objective: LO 13-5
Cognitive Domain: Application
Answer Location: Religion and Global Societies
Question Type: ESS

75. Explain how globalization and technology have had an effect on the growth and spread of religion.
*a. Globalization has transformed religion to a more fluid form that easily crosses boundaries and mixes traditions from different areas. While religions have always evolved, todays sustained and regular contact between them is unprecedented. The embrace of new ideas may create harmony, tension, or even violence.
Learning Objective: LO 13-5
Cognitive Domain: Analysis
Answer Location: Religion and Global Societies
Question Type: ESS

76. Discuss the historical and contemporary relationships between class, capitalism, and religion.
*a. Varies. May discuss Webers analysis of Protestantism and the rise of capitalism, Marxs critique of religion, and present-day relationship between religiosity or religious affiliation and social class.
Learning Objective: LO 13-4
Cognitive Domain: Application
Answer Location: The Classical View: Religion, Society, and Secularization
Question Type: ESS

77. Conventional wisdom tells us that in the United States, there is a separation of church and state. Critically examine the truth of this statement. Provide support for whether you agree or disagree.
*a. Varies.
Learning Objective: LO 13-4
Cognitive Domain: Analysis
Answer Location: Religion in the United States
Question Type: ESS

78. Compare and contrast the major tenets, roots, and presence of Buddhism, Confucianism, and Hinduism.
*a. Varies.
Learning Objective: LO 13-2
Cognitive Domain: Application
Answer Location: The Great World Religions
Question Type: ESS

79. Discuss the rise of evangelicalism in the United States and its relationship to the family, politics, and the media.
*a. Varies.
Learning Objective: LO 13-5
Cognitive Domain: Application
Answer Location: Trends in Religious Affiliation
Question Type: ESS

80. Propose a research study that examines the relationship between religion and the political landscape. Identify the research topic, include discussion of how you would frame your research question and what theory or theories you would use, select an appropriate research methodology, weigh any ethical implications, and discuss any challenges or threats to data collection, reliability, or validity that may arise.
*a. Varies.
Learning Objective: LO 13-4
Cognitive Domain: Application
Answer Location: How Do Sociologists Study Religion?
Question Type: ESS

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