Discovering Psychology the Science of Mind 1e by Cacioppo Freberg Test Bnak

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Discovering Psychology the Science of Mind 1e by Cacioppo Freberg Test Bnak

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COMPLETE TEST BANK WITH ANSWERS
 
Discovering Psychology the Science of Mind 1e by Cacioppo Freberg
SAMPLE QUESTIONS

 

 

 

 

Chapter Two: The Measure of Mind

Methods of Psychology

Learning Objective Related Questions  
Multiple

Choice

Essay
    1.  Describe the criteria that distinguish scientific observation and reasoning from casual, everyday thinking.

 

1-17 1
    2.  Articulate how science uses testable and falsifiable hypotheses, data collection, peer review, and replication to evaluate theories explaining psychological phenomena. 18-34  
    3.  Explain the main goal of descriptive research methods and the ways in which case studies, naturalistic observations, and surveys approach this goal. 35-48  
    4.  Differentiate the key features, strengths, and limitations of correlational and experimental methods, and apply this distinction in designing a new study or interpreting the results of a study. 49-74 1, 2
    5.  Compare and contrast cross-sectional versus longitudinal methods for studying change in psychological processes over time. 75-79  
    6.  Define reliability and validity, and evaluate a specific operational measure of a variable with respect to these criteria. 80-84  
    7.  Differentiate the kind of information conveyed by descriptive versus inferential statistics in describing scientific data, and interpret the meaning of specific statistics (e.g., mean, correlation coefficient). 85-104  
    8.  Evaluate specific psychology studies in terms of the ethical guidelines for using humans and animal participants in research. 105-115 3


Chapter Two: The Measure of Mind Methods of Psychology

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. Science comes from the Latin scientia, which means knowledge. According to your text, which of the following best describes science today?
a. A study of the physical world through objective and subjective observations
b. A method of assessment that uses all of a researchers senses
c. A special way of learning about reality through systematic observation and experimentation
d. A process of investigation through thoughtful and personal reflection

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Understand    REF:   What Is Science?

OBJ:   LO1

 

  1. One important difference between science and everyday observations is that science relies on ____.
a. objectivity c. perspective
b. introspection d. subjectivity

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember     REF:   What Is Science?

OBJ:   LO1

 

  1. Soma and Biresh are debating about the best places to live after college. Soma states that the Northeast offers a healthier lifestyle than the Southwest and insists that she is basing her conclusions on facts, without any influence of personal emotion or bias. In other words, Soma believes that she is showing ____.
a. subjectivity c. objectivity
b. neutrality d. perspective

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Apply             REF:   What Is Science?

OBJ:   LO1

 

  1. Deena, a licensed practical nurse, is assisting a psychology professor with a research study on the physiological and psychological reactions to violence in blockbuster films. After a participant views a film clip, she administers some basic tests. Which of the following is the most subjective result?
a. The participants blood pressure is 140/90.
b. The participant describes the level of film violence as 8 on a scale of 0 to 10.
c. The participants heart rate is 75.
d. The participant has perspiration on her brow and her pupils are dilated.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Analyze         REF:   What Is Science?

OBJ:   LO1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Any observation by a human being is, by definition, ____.
a. objective c. inferential
b. falsifiable d. subjective

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember     REF:   What Is Science?

OBJ:   LO1

 

  1. What is a research design that controls for placebo effects in which neither the participant nor the experimenter observing the participant knows whether the participant was given an active substance or treatment, or a placebo?
a. clinical trial c. double-blind procedure
b. Phase IV trial d. prospective cohort study

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Understand    REF:   What Is Science?

OBJ:   LO1

 

  1. An inactive substance or treatment that cannot be distinguished from a real, active substance or treatment is called a ____.
a. measure c. variable
b. placebo d. sample

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember     REF:   What Is Science?

OBJ:   LO1

 

  1. Mayra is participating in a double-blind study on the effectiveness of a new time-release antidepressant medication. Once a week, she receives a small white pill from Dr. Stanley, which she takes immediately. The first blind aspect of this study is that ____.
a. Dr. Stanley does not know if Mayra is being given a real substance or placebo until the experiment is over
b. Mayra does not know the purpose of the study
c. Dr. Stanley does not know the purpose of the study
d. Mayra does not know whether she has taken a real substance or a placebo

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Analyze         REF:   What Is Science?

OBJ:   LO1

 

  1. When we make conclusions based on observations of our immediate circle of acquaintances, friends and loved ones, we are engaging in ____.
a. systematic observations c. interpreted observations
b. repeated observations d. hit or miss observations

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Understand    REF:   What Is Science?

OBJ:   LO1

 

  1. Emily grew up in Boston and attends college there. She often notices clusters of people smoking outside of office buildings as she walks to class. Which of the following sources would provide the most reliable information regarding the prevalence of smoking in Boston?
a. A detailed personal study of the history of her extended family
b. Interviews with her classmates and professors
c. A review of her professors behavioral statistics study drawn from census data
d. Observations of campus fraternity and sorority life

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Apply             REF:   What Is Science?

OBJ:   LO1

 

  1. Researchers found that the widespread and highly publicized stereotype about female talkativeness is unfounded (Mehl, Vazire, Ramrez-Esparza, Slatcher, & Pennebaker, 2007). This conclusion illustrates that science relies primarily on ____.
a. strongly held beliefs c. observable, repeatable evidence
b. clinically conducted tests d. laboratory experiments

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Analyze         REF:   What Is Science?

OBJ:   LO1

 

  1. According to your text, which of the following best describes scientific knowledge?
a. historical and progressive c. qualitative and definitive
b. stable and changing d. quantitative and procedural

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Understand    REF:   What Is Science?

OBJ:   LO1

 

  1. The ability to think clearly, rationally, and independently is called ____.
a. moral reasoning c. free thinking
b. authoritative reasoning d. critical thinking

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember     REF:   What Is Science?

OBJ:   LO1

 

  1. Critical thinking is ____.
a. a skill people need to learn c. genetically determined
b. set before the teenage years d. based on cultural norms

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Understand    REF:   What Is Science?

OBJ:   LO1

 

  1. Which of the following questions demonstrates critical thinking?
a. What is your immediate reaction to this information?
b. What political party is expressing this point of view?
c. What evidence supports this position?
d. What did the professor give as the answer?

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Understand    REF:   What Is Science?

OBJ:   LO1

 

  1. You and your roommate are supporting different presidential candidates. You frequently debate the claims that each candidate makes against the other on various issues. Which of the following would be a sign that you are not thinking critically?
a. You question what you are being asked to believe by either candidate.
b. You think of alternative ways to interpret the claims of either candidate.
c. You consider the need for additional evidence or information to assess the claims of either candidate.
d. You are loyal to your candidate and defend the claims with evidence provided by the campaign.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Apply             REF:   What Is Science?

OBJ:   LO1

 

 

 

 

  1. The news headline, Recession Spurs Young in U.S. to Forgo or Delay Marriage, described ____.
a. a study that found a causal link between the U. S. recession and the decisions of young adults to marry
b. census data that indicated poverty was a primary cause of decreased marriage rates
c. data that could have been explained by the trend for Americans to marry at later ages
d. a study of historical data on marriage rates

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Understand    REF:   What Is Science?

OBJ:   LO1

 

  1. A set of facts and relationships between facts that can explain and predict related phenomena is called a(n) ____.
a. theory c. descriptive method
b. hypothesis d. experiment

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember     REF:   What Is Science?

OBJ:   LO2

 

  1. The best scientific theories not only explain and organize known facts, but they also generate new ____.
a. guesses c. hunches
b. predictions d. particulars

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember     REF:   What Is Science?

OBJ:   LO2

 

  1. As Sir Isaac Newton noted, scholars stand ____.
a. on shifting sands
b. beneath the tree of knowledge
c. on the shoulders of giants
d. at the intersection of history and knowledge

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Understand    REF:   What Is Science?

OBJ:   LO2

 

  1. A proposed explanation for a situation, usually taking the form if A happens then B will be the result is called a(n) ____.
a. theory c. experiment
b. research proposal d. hypothesis

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember     REF:   What Is Science?

OBJ:   LO2

 

  1. Scientific hypotheses must be both ____.
a. falsifiable and testable c. falsifiable and reliable
b. valid and replicable d. valid and testable

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Understand    REF:   What Is Science?

OBJ:   LO2

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Falsifiable is a characteristic of a scientific hypothesis in which ____.
a. the hypothesis is predicted to be wrong from the outset
b. you can imagine situations in which the hypothesis might be false
c. you can imagine situations in which the hypothesis cannot be false
d. the hypothesis is not testable

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember     REF:   What Is Science?

OBJ:   LO2

 

  1. Which of the following statements would be most difficult to falsify?
a. All swans are white. c. All men are mortal.
b. All women are immortal. d. All birds fly.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Apply             REF:   What Is Science?

OBJ:   LO2

 

  1. What feature of a hypothesis means that it can be evaluated using known scientific methods?
a. replicable c. reliable
b. testable d. valid

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember     REF:   What Is Science?

OBJ:   LO2

 

  1. How frequently can scientists prove that their hypotheses are true?
a. never c. sometimes
b. always d. often

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Understand    REF:   What Is Science?

OBJ:   LO2

 

  1. Jeanine, a research psychologist, has developed a falsifiable and testable hypothesis. Her next step is to ____.
a. interpret the data necessary to evaluate it
b. conduct the statistical analysis
c. undergo peer review of her hypothesis
d. collect the data necessary to evaluate it

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Apply             REF:   What Is Science?

OBJ:   LO2

 

  1. Arthur has developed a hypothesis and now is designing a study to test it. Which of the following can provide the best guidance regarding his choice of measures, types of data to be collected, and methods for interpreting the data?
a. Hypotheses from other, similar studies
b. The scientific literature in his area of interest
c. The independent variables used in his previous study
d. His personal observations during the development phase

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Apply             REF:   What Is Science?

OBJ:   LO2

 

 

 

 

  1. Professor Frankel is an editor for a psychology journal. She is considering which submissions to send out for peer review. Which of the following submissions is likely to receive the strongest consideration based on its research methods?
a. A professor from Utah who used well-established methods
b. A researcher from California who developed novel methods
c. A professor from Illinois who employed rarely-used methods
d. A postdoctoral fellow from Texas who used a controversial method

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Apply             REF:   What Is Science?

OBJ:   LO2

 

  1. Science is best described as a(n) ____ enterprise.
a. socialist c. hierarchical
b. vastly collaborative d. solitary

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember     REF:   What Is Science?

OBJ:   LO2

 

  1. The process of having other experts examine research prior to its publication is called ____.
a. quality assurance c. peer review
b. jury evaluation d. validation

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember     REF:   What Is Science?

OBJ:   LO2

 

  1. Keith feels that the results of his research study in autism among the elderly is finally ready for submission to a journal. For the journal editor to recommend his article for publication, what must the peer reviewers conclude?
a. His research is important, accurate, and explained thoroughly.
b. His methods are novel and could contribute to the field.
c. His statistical analysis is cutting edge.
d. His findings are the first of their kind and therefore replicable.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Apply             REF:   What Is Science?

OBJ:   LO2

 

  1. During the peer review process, whose work is most likely to be accepted rapidly into the body of scientific knowledge?
a. Dr. Guptas, whose research led to unexpected and unique results
b. Dr. Kochs, whose results fit with existing knowledge in her field
c. Dr. Antons, who used novel research methods and produced unconventional findings
d. Dr. Dunns, whose results are unreplicated in previous reports in his field

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Apply             REF:   What Is Science?

OBJ:   LO2

 

  1. Dr. Snape was skeptical after reading a study concluding that chocolate truffles reduced the symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder. Therefore, he initiated a similar study to determine whether he would achieve the same results. Dr. Snapes study would be termed a ____.
a. statistical sampling c. regressive analysis
b. validity test d. replication

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Apply             REF:   What Is Science?

OBJ:   LO2

 

  1. Research methods designed for making careful, systematic observations are called ____.
a. correlational methods c. experimental methods
b. inferential methods d. descriptive methods

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember

REF:   How Do Psychologists Conduct Research?                                OBJ:    LO3

 

  1. Which of the following lends itself to the use of a descriptive method?
a. Daniel seeks to test his hypothesis that stress in early childhood is positively related to heart disease in adulthood.
b. Bina would like to find whether there is a correlation between stress in early childhood and learning difficulties in school.
c. Jonathan would like to develop a hypothesis regarding the role of parental expression of affection in reducing toxic stress in early childhood.
d. Heather is conducting data analysis regarding health disparities and depression among children from different socio-economic and racial groups.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Analyze

REF:   How Do Psychologists Conduct Research?                                OBJ:    LO3

 

  1. Dr. Crane is studying patients who are in the residual phase of schizophrenia. His colleague, Dr. Mellus, takes detailed notes during a series of interviews and interactions that Dr. Crane has with one such patient for later analysis. What research method are these doctors employing?
a. experimental study c. correlational study
b. case study d. experiential study

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Apply

REF:   How Do Psychologists Conduct Research?                                OBJ:    LO3

 

  1. Professor Scott conducts research on teenage risk-taking behavior. He would like to develop a hypothesis on the parental influence on teenage risk-taking at the extreme end of the spectrum, with a focus on teenagers who sail around the world alone. Would a case study be an appropriate first step, and why or why not?
a. Yes, because Professor Scott already knows that parents are the driving influence behind teenage circumnavigation.
b. No, because it will not generate a sufficient amount of data to be tested statistically.
c. Yes, because teenage circumnavigators are rare and the data will help generate new, or possibly falsify existing, hypotheses.
d. No, because case studies are too idiosyncratic and lack scientific rigor.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Analyze

REF:   How Do Psychologists Conduct Research?                                OBJ:    LO3

 

  1. You decide to study weekend dorm life for a sociology term paper. In order to do this, you attend several fraternity parties at a large university, week after week. What method of research are you employing?
a. case study c. survey
b. naturalistic observation d. experiential observation

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Apply

REF:   How Do Psychologists Conduct Research?                                OBJ:    LO3

 

 

 

  1. What is one advantage of using naturalistic observation over the case study method?
a. Looking at a much larger group supports application of the results to the general population.
b. Observing individuals in their natural setting without their knowledge is the most accepted form of research.
c. Observing individuals outside of their everyday circumstances encourages candor.
d. Looking at a much larger group supports hypothesis testing as well as hypothesis generation.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Understand

REF:   How Do Psychologists Conduct Research?                                OBJ:    LO3

 

  1. Seth, a psychologist, would like to conduct research in the form of naturalistic observation of drug sales and use among teenagers in his citys poorest neighborhood without their knowledge. What problem does this raise?
a. The research may be unethical.
b. People often behave differently when they know they are being observed.
c. His sample is insufficiently representative for naturalistic observation.
d. Study participants tend to want to appear socially appropriate.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Apply

REF:   How Do Psychologists Conduct Research?                                OBJ:    LO3

 

  1. Naturalistic observation is best suited for ____.
a. testing hypotheses
b. establishing a correlation between two concepts
c. developing hypotheses
d. establishing whether the relationship between two concepts is positive or negative

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Understand

REF:   How Do Psychologists Conduct Research?                                OBJ:    LO3

 

  1. A survey is a descriptive method in which the participants are asked ____.
a. open-ended questions
b. to journal their own thoughts
c. the same questions
d. to converse with other survey members

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember

REF:   How Do Psychologists Conduct Research?                                OBJ:    LO3

 

  1. Which of the following is an advantage of survey research?
a. Survey participants are easy to recruit since the typical sample is small.
b. Survey participants are more likely to be truthful than participants of other research methods.
c. Surveys provide insight into real-world behaviors in their natural setting.
d. Surveys provide large amounts of data quickly and relatively inexpensively.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Understand

REF:   How Do Psychologists Conduct Research?                                OBJ:    LO3

 

 

 

 

  1. A subset of a population being studied is called a ____.
a. sample c. demographic
b. cohort d. cluster

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember

REF:   How Do Psychologists Conduct Research?                                OBJ:    LO3

 

  1. Surveys results can be influenced by peoples natural tendency to want to appear socially appropriate because surveys rely on ____.
a. later publication c. peer review
b. public funding d. self-report

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember

REF:   How Do Psychologists Conduct Research?                                OBJ:    LO3

 

  1. Participants in the following surveys are guaranteed that their answers will remain confidential and anonymous. In which case are survey respondents least likely to shade the truth?
a. A survey regarding personal displays of racial prejudice
b. A survey regarding sexual infidelity
c. A survey regarding preferences as to online news sources
d. A survey regarding the purchase, sale, or use of illegal drugs

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Apply

REF:   How Do Psychologists Conduct Research?                                OBJ:    LO3

 

  1. The text described a survey that asked a representative sample of middle school students to respond to seventeen motives for playing violent video games on a four-point scale. Surprisingly, approximately 25% of boys indicated that they liked to play these games in order to ____.
a. make new friends c. feel less bored
b. help get their anger out d. teach others to play

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Understand

REF:   How Do Psychologists Conduct Research?                                OBJ:    LO3

 

  1. A measure of the direction and strength of the relationship between two variables is called ____.
a. statistical power c. standard deviation
b. its distribution d. a correlation

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember

REF:   How Do Psychologists Conduct Research?                                OBJ:    LO4

 

  1. A factor that has a range of values is called a ____.
a. measure c. set
b. variable d. parameter

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember

REF:   How Do Psychologists Conduct Research?                                OBJ:    LO4

 

  1. A measure is a method for describing a variables ____.
a. quantity c. fluctuation
b. reliability d. deviation

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember

REF:   How Do Psychologists Conduct Research?                                OBJ:    LO4

 

  1. A newspaper headline states Autism correlation to wealth affirmed. Researchers found that affluent youngsters were almost twice as likely as the poorest children in the study to have autism. This is a ____.
a. positive correlation c. negative correlation
b. reciprocal correlation d. zero correlation

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Apply

REF:   How Do Psychologists Conduct Research?                                OBJ:    LO4

 

  1. A correlational study found that affluent youngsters were almost twice as likely as the poorest children in the study to have autism. What is the likely reason?
a. Autism and the traits of high achievers lie on the same continuum.
b. The reason is impossible to determine from this correlation.
c. Wealthier parents tend to put off child-bearing until theyre older, which increases the risk of autism.
d. Poorer children have less access to diagnosis and services for autism.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Analyze

REF:   How Do Psychologists Conduct Research?                                OBJ:    LO4

 

  1. Consider the following relationships between two variables. Which pair is most likely to have the weakest correlation?
a. hair color and intelligence c. salary and educational level
b. height and weight d. age and verbal ability up to age 20

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Analyze

REF:   How Do Psychologists Conduct Research?                                OBJ:    LO4

 

  1. Consider the observation that many school shootings have been perpetrated by people who had been bullied relentlessly by others. What is the third variable in this scenario?
a. The school shootings
b. The experience of having been bullied
c. The tendency to engage in aggressive behavior
d. The permissiveness of the environment

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Analyze

REF:   How Do Psychologists Conduct Research?                                OBJ:    LO4

 

  1. In his study of American cities, Professor Smith finds a strong positive correlation between the number of preschools and the number of bars. What is the most likely explanation of this relationship?
a. Parents of small children need to take an occasional break.
b. The relationship is due to a third variable, population size.
c. The relationship is due to a third variable, socio-economic status.
d. People who regularly frequent bars often meet their life partner and procreate.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Apply

REF:   How Do Psychologists Conduct Research?                                OBJ:    LO4

 

 

 

  1. A newspaper headline reads Are intellectual pursuits key to preventing Alzheimers disease? The researchers in the cited study scanned the brains of healthy seniors with no memory loss and asked the seniors to recall how much reading, writing, and game-playing they did in their childhood. The researchers found that those who reported doing daily brain activities from a young age had very low levels of amyloid plaques, which are associated with Alzheimers disease. Which of the following best describes this study?
a. This study found a positive correlation between intellectual pursuits and the presence of amyloid plaques.
b. This study controlled for all potential third variables.
c. This study is proof that intellectual pursuits prevent Alzheimers disease.
d. This study found a negative correlation between intellectual pursuits and the presence of amyloid plaques.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Analyze

REF:   How Do Psychologists Conduct Research?                                OBJ:    LO4

 

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