Diversity and Society Race Ethnicity and Gender 5th Edition by Joseph F. Healey Andi Stepnick Test bank

Diversity and Society Race Ethnicity and Gender  5th Edition by Joseph F. Healey Andi Stepnick  Test  bank
Product Code: 222
Availability: In Stock
Price: $24.99
Qty:     - OR -   Add to Wish List
Add to Compare

Description

Chapter 4: Industrialization and Dominant-Minority Relations: From Slavery to Segregation and the Coming of Postindustrial Society

Multiple Choice

1. The ________ Amendment to the Constitution, passed in 1870, stated that the right to vote cannot be denied on the grounds of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.
a. 19th
*b. 15th
c. 4th
d. 2nd
e. 10th
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: Reconstruction; p. 141
Question Type: MC

2. By 1930, 90% of employed black women were still in two occupational categories:
a. Agricultural and factory work
*b. Domestic and agricultural work
c. Factory and domestic work
d. Clerical and personal service work
e. Agricultural and clerical work
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: Gender and Race; p. 153
Question Type: MC

3. Which of the following statements about bureaucracies is true?
a. Bureaucracies are impersonal.
b. Bureaucracies run by the book.
c. Bureaucracies are governed by rules and regulations.
d. Bureaucracies are rational.
*e. All of the above
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: Bureaucracy and Rationality; p. 155
Question Type: MC

4. Assembly line jobs that transform various materials into finished automobiles are an example of jobs in the ________ sector.
a. tertiary
*b. secondary
c. quaternary
d. quinary
e. none of the above
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: Manufacturing (or Secondary) Occupations; p. 156
Question Type: MC

5. Which of the following statements about fluid competitive systems is false?
a. In fluid competitive systems, the division of labor is complex, specialized, and varies greatly within groups.
b. Both geographic and social mobility are greater in fluid competitive systems.
c. Fluid competitive systems are more open and the position of the minority group is less fixed.
d. In fluid competitive systems, fear of competition from minority groups becomes more widespread.
*e. In fluid competitive systems, intergroup conflict is very rare.
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: Postindustrial Society and the Shift From Rigid to Fluid Competitive
Relationships; p. 159
Question Type: MC

6. In the spring of 2003, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled on two cases involving the University of ________. These rulings allowed the universitys law school to use race as one criterion in deciding admissions.
a. Minnesota
b. Florida
*c. Michigan
d. California
e. Texas
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: Higher Education and Affirmative Action; p. 171
Question Type: MC

7. As societies industrialize, dominantminority relations move from ________.
*a. paternalistic to competitive
b. peaceful to conflict oriented
c. equal to unequal
d. segregation to slavery
e. agrarian to paternalistic
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: Industrialization and the Shift From Paternalistic to Rigid Competitive Group Relations; p. 140
Question Type: MC

8. Which would you expect to find in a rigid competitive system of group relations?
*a. Minority groups competing with dominant groups for jobs and other valued commodities
b. Decreased residential segregation
c. Handicapping of the majority group by the minority in order to preserve their advantage
d. Decreased hostility as competition increases
e. Dominant groups seeking to improve the minority groups job benefits
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: Industrialization and the Shift From Paternalistic to Rigid Competitive Group Relations; p. 140
Question Type: MC

9. The period of Reconstruction that followed the Civil War was a time of . . .
*a. Opportunity for black southerners
b. Bitter conflict and struggle between blacks and European immigrants in the South
c. Great repression and racism in the South
d. Rapid movement of black southerners to the urban North
e. Opportunity for white southerners
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: Reconstruction; p. 141
Question Type: MC

10. Which of the following is true about the period of Reconstruction?
a. African Americans in the South could not vote or hold political office.
b. Black Southerners did not take advantage of the 15th Amendment to the Constitution.
*c. African Americans in the South opened many small businesses and schools, could vote, and
held political office.
d. African Americans in the South could not purchase land or houses or start businesses.
e. The Freedmans Bureau was used to halt racial freedom in the defeated Confederacy.
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: Reconstruction; p. 141
Question Type: MC

11. Following Reconstruction, the South was characterized by . . .
a. African Americans becoming the dominant class
*b. A rigid caste system due to the Jim Crow laws
c. An end to the plantation system and urbanization
d. An end to the white class system
e. Increasing opportunity for African Americans
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: De Jure Segregation; p. 142
Question Type: MC

12. By 1910, black labor in the U.S. was most characterized by ________.
*a. agricultural work and domestic work
b. factory work
c. sales and business work
d. skilled craftsmen or artisans
e. small business proprietors
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: Control of Black Labor; p. 143
Question Type: MC

13. Who did NOT benefit from de jure segregation?
a. Planters and landowners because African Americans provided a cheap and controllable labor force
b. White workers because they did not have to compete for jobs with African Americans
c. Traditional political leadership because the threat of a populist class coalition was ended
*d. Black southerners who remained rural peasants
e. White racists who felt entitled to better jobs and working conditions than blacks
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: Jim Crow Segregation and South African Apartheid; p. 145
Question Type: MC

14. As de jure segregation formed and solidified in the South, . . .
a. Levels of residential separation between the races decreased
*b. Levels of prejudice and racism increased
c. Lynchings virtually ceased to occur
d. African Americans began moving from the North back to the South
e. Levels of education and economic opportunity increased for African Americans
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: Jim Crow Segregation and South African Apartheid; pp. 145146
Question Type: MC

15. In ________, the Supreme Court established the separate but equal doctrine.
a. Dred Scott
b. Roe v. Wade
*c. Plessy v. Ferguson
d. Marvin v. Mitchell
e. Amistad v. Virginia
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: Political and Civil Rights Under Jim Crow; p. 144
Question Type: MC

16. Which of the following laws did NOT restrict African Americans from voting in the South?
a. Poll taxes
*b. The 14th and 15th amendments to the Constitution
c. Literacy tests
d. Grandfather clauses
e. Property requirements
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: Reconstruction; p. 144
Question Type: MC

17. Compared to white women at the turn of the 20th century, African American women were ________.
a. less likely to work outside the home
*b. more likely to work outside the home
c. more likely to be employed in white-collar jobs
d. better educated
e. more likely to vote
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: Gender and Race; pp. 152153
Question Type: MC

18. Ratification of the 15th Amendment in 1870 extended the vote to ________.
a. men and women within the African American community
b. white women
c. immigrants
d. African American women
*e. African American men
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: Gender and Race; p. 153
Question Type: MC

19. Urbanization created the potential . . .
*a. For minority groups to mobilize and organize large numbers of people
b. For minority groups to mobilize and organize small numbers of people
c. For the dissemination of populations
d. To empower the dominant group
e. None of the above
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: Urbanization; p. 154
Question Type: MC

20. Which of the following is NOT an example of modern institutional discrimination?
a. Basing hiring on prior education when a minority group has had fewer opportunities to go to college
b. Banks using strict economic criteria to deny loans to minorities with low incomes
c. The principle of seniority, in which the last hired is the first fired
*d. Basing hiring on an individuals language skills
e. When businesses move out of the city to reduce their overhead costs
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: Modern Institutional Discrimination; pp. 167168
Question Type: MC

21. ________ was born a slave, became a famous educator, and founded the Tuskegee Institute.
a. Jim Crow
*b. Booker T. Washington
c. W. E. B. Du Bois
d. Marcus Garvey
e. Stanley Lieberson
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: The Origins of Black Protest; p. 150
Question Type: MC

22. ________ was a primary opponent of Booker T. Washington and cofounder of the NAACP.
a. Jim Crow
b. George Washington Carver
*c. W. E. B. Du Bois
d. Marcus Garvey
e. A. Philip Randolph
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: The Origins of Black Protest; p. 151
Question Type: MC

23. ________ was born in Jamaica and advocated the return of black Americans to Africa.
a. Jim Crow
b. Booker T. Washington
c. W. E. B. Du Bois
*d. Marcus Garvey
e. A. Philip Randolph
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: The Origins of Black Protest; p. 151
Question Type: MC

24. Which of the following best describes the practice of sharecropping?
a. A system of farming where blacks and whites established elaborate rituals of crop exchange, similar to the etiquette rituals of the antebellum South
b. A system of farming, primarily in the North, where blacks and whites farmed the land equally after Reconstruction in an effort to heal after the war
c. A system of farming where whites and blacks shared labor on common plots of land
*d. A system of farming where a tenant works on land in exchange for a share of profits, a place to live, food, and clothing, all supplied by the owner
e. None of the above
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: Control of Black Labor; p. 143
Question Type: MC

25. During the 19th century, an anti-elitist movement attempted to unite poor whites and blacks in the rural South against the traditional elite classes. This movement was called ________.
a. the Maquiladoras movement
*b. populism (or the populist movement)
c. paternalism (or the paternalistic movement)
d. the poor peoples movement
e. the Reconstruction revolution
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: Populism; p. 144
Question Type: MC

26. What are the parallels between Jim Crow segregation and South African apartheid?
*a. Both were deliberately constructed by the dominant group to control the minority group.
b. Blacks benefited from a cheap labor supply in agriculture.
c. Protests by minority groups were encouraged and allowed under both systems.
d. Both systems encouraged minority groups to fully participate in public and civic activities.
e. Jim Crow segregation and the South African apartheid were legally banished in the 1960s.
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: Jim Crow Segregation and South African Apartheid; p. 145
Question Type: MC

27. According to the text, the Great Migration of blacks to the North had which of the following effects on African Americans?
*a. An increase in black political power
b. A decrease in opportunities for education
c. An inability for African American culture to flourish
d. Less housing-related discrimination against African Americans
e. Less discrimination toward African Americans in the job market
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: Life in the North; p. 147
Question Type: MC

28. Which of the following best exemplifies de jure segregation?
a. Whites and blacks choosing to attend different churches
b. Whites and blacks choosing to live in different neighborhoods
c. Customs suggesting that blacks should act differently than whites
*d. Laws requiring blacks to use different water fountains than whites
e. Whites and blacks choosing to attend different schools
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: Reinforcing the System; p. 145
Question Type: MC

29. During the Jim Crow era, whites and blacks were extremely segregated. While the free black electorate threatened the political and economic dominance of elite white society, whites still wantedand neededblack labor. Which theory best explains segregation under these conditions?
a. The Blauner hypothesis
*b. The Noel hypothesis
c. The culture of poverty theory
d. The Lieberson hypothesis
e. The Marxist theory
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: De Jure Segregation; p. 142
Question Type: MC

30. The Great Migration of blacks to the North had which of the following results on white immigrants?
*a. It improved the status of white immigrants by providing a comparison that made them seem more desirable.
b. It created a sociable environment between immigrant groups and newly arriving blacks.
c. It created a multicultural community of immigrant whites and newly arriving blacks that struggled together against the dominant group.
d. It weakened the status of white immigrants by providing a comparison that made them seem less desirable.
e. White immigrants faced discrimination in the urban North.
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: Competition With White Ethnic Groups; p. 150
Question Type: MC

31. ________ means separate or apart in Afrikaans.
a. Anomie
*b. Apartheid
c. Assimilation
d. Gemeinschaft
e. Praxis
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: Jim Crow Segregation and South African Apartheid; p. 145
Question Type: MC

32. Today, ________ in the United States are equal in terms of levels of education.
a. blacks and whites
b. blacks and Latinos
*c. men and women
d. Asians and blacks
e. immigrants and U.S.-born citizens
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: Gender Inequality in a Globalizing, Postindustrial World; p. 163
Question Type: MC

33. The shift to ________ has weakened racial and gender barriers.
a. fixed competitive group relations
b. primary economic relations
c. secondary economic relations
*d. fluid competitive group relations
e. pluralistic group relations
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: Gender Inequality in a Globalizing, Postindustrial World; p. 161
Question Type: MC

34. In the 1960s, before civil rights laws were passed in the United States, a number of states had ________ laws that prescribed distinguishing treatment for racial groups.
a. apartheid
b. New Deal
*c. Jim Crow
d. Noel
e. Blauner
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: De Jure Segregation; p. 142
Question Type: MC

35. Which term represents a group of people who perceive themselves as objects of discrimination? White Americans believe that this same group is threatening their position in society.
a. Racial group
b. European Union Group
c. Subculture group
d. Ethnic group
*e. Minority group
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: Hate Crimes; p. 176
Question Type: MC

36. According to the text, some studies support the idea that the rate of hate crimes ________ as unemployment rose and ________ as average wages rose.
a. increased; increased
b. fell; fell
c. fell; increased
*d. increased; fell
e. none of the above
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: Hate Crimes; p. 176
Question Type: MC

37. Between 1970 and 2009, the workforce participation of married women with children ________.
a. declined initially, then increased
b. was stable
c. doubled
d. declined
*e. increased
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: Gender Inequality in a Globalizing, Postindustrial World; p. 161
Question Type: MC

38. Which of the following programs attempts to reduce the effects of past discrimination?
*a. Affirmative action
b. Therapy solution
c. Political pressure
d. Jim Crow
e. Global initiative
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: Affirmative Action; p. 170
Question Type: MC

39. The gender wage gap is greatest for those with ________.
a. no high school diploma
b. a high school diploma
c. a bachelors degree
d. a masters degree
*e. a professional degree
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: Gender Inequality in a Globalizing, Postindustrial World; p. 163
Question Type: MC

40. Todays census data shows that ________ of whites own homes compared to ________ of
blacks.
a. 12%, 67%
b. 44%, 70%
c. 50%, 50%
d. 67%, 12%
*e. 70%, 44%
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: The Continuing Power of the Past; pp. 167168
Question Type: MC

True/False

41. Hate groups include the KKK, various skinhead and white power groups, and black groups such as the Nation of Islam.
*a. True
b. False
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: Hate Crimes; p. 174
Question Type: T/F

42. The primary labor market is sometimes called the competitive market.
a. True
*b. False
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: A Dual Labor Market; p. 158
Question Type: T/F

43. According to the text, Booker T. Washington was the most prominent African American leader prior to World War I.
*a. True
b. False
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: The Origins of Black Protest; p. 150
Question Type: T/F

44. Under de jure segregation, separation of African Americans and European Americans in virtually all aspects of social life was required by law.
*a. True
b. False
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: De Jure Segregation; p. 142
Question Type: T/F

45. Because the South lost the Civil War, which was followed by Reconstruction, the basic class structure and agrarian economy was destroyed.
a. True
*b. False
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: Control of Black Labor; p. 142
Question Type: T/F

46. After Reconstruction, sharecropping replaced slavery as the main way for the South to support an agrarian economy.
*a. True
b. False
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: Control of Black Labor; p. 143
Question Type: T/F

47. Excluded from the mainstream but freed from the limitations of slavery, African Americans constructed a separate subsociety and subculture.
*a. True
b. False
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: Acculturation and Integration; p. 151
Question Type: T/F

48. Due to the changes wrought by industrialization and the population movement to the North, African American men were forced to take primary responsibility for their homes and children.
a. True
*b. False
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: Gender and Race; p. 152
Question Type: T/F

49. Under Jim Crow, lynchings were imposed to enforce segregation. From 1884 to 1900, there was an average of one lynching every other day.
*a. True
b. False
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: Reinforcing the System; p. 145
Question Type: T/F

50. The statement that African Americans voted against Southern segregation with their feet refers to dancing and the blues music that developed during this time period.
a. True
*b. False
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: The Great Migration; p. 147
Question Type: T/F

51. In fluid competitive relations, formal or legal barriers to competition continue to exist.
a. True
*b. False
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: Postindustrial Society and the Shift From Rigid to Fluid Competitive Relationships; p. 159
Question Type: T/F

52. As urbanization increases, paternalistic control of minority groups tends to decrease or grow irrelevant.
*a. True
b. False
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: Postindustrial Society and the Shift From Rigid to Fluid Competitive Relationships; p. 140
Question Type: T/F

53. The primary labor market includes low-paid, unskilled, insecure jobs, while the secondary labor market includes high-paid, high-benefit positions in large, bureaucratic organizations.
a. True
*b. False
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: A Dual Labor Market; p. 158
Question Type: T/F

54. Institutional discrimination is tied to unequal opportunity due to discrimination, personal prejudice, and group competition.
a. True
*b. False
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: Modern Institutional Discrimination: p. 167
Question Type: T/F

55. Racial discrimination in real estate has been illegal since the passage of the Fair Housing Act of 1968.
*a. True
b. False
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: The Continuing Power of the Past; p. 168
Question Type: T/F

56. Wars, conflicts, and other disputes in which the United States has been involved in have had consequences on American minority groups.
*a. True
b. False
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: Globalization; p. 158
Question Type: T/F

57. Following emancipation, there was a flurry of marriages among African Americans.
*a. True
b. False
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: Gender and Race; p. 152
Question Type: T/F

58. Sharecropping is a form of de jure segregation.
a. True
*b. False
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: Control of Black Labor; p. 143
Question Type: T/F

59. Today, job growth in the U.S. is largely in manufacturing.
a. True
*b. False
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: Growth of White-Collar Jobs and the Service Sector; p. 156
Question Type: T/F

60. Industrial jobs are moved from the U.S. to other nations because wages in other nations are considerably lower.
*a. True
b. False
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: Growth of White-Collar Jobs and the Service Sector; p. 156
Question Type: T/F

61. As a part of affirmative action, employers are expected to hire the most qualified candidate who applies for a position after making sure to pursue a diverse applicant pool.
*a. True
b. False
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: Affirmative Action; p. 170
Question Type: T/F

62. In paternalistic systems, the dominant group seeks to preserve its advantage by handicapping the minority groups ability to compete effectively.
a. True
*b. False
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: Industrialization and the Shift From Paternalistic to Rigid Competitive Group Relations; p. 140
Question Type: T/F

63. An industrial economy does NOT require the workforce to be skilled and literate.
a. True
*b. False
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: Industrialization and the Shift From Paternalistic to Rigid Competitive Group
Relations; p. 140
Question Type: T/F

64. During the height of the Jim Crow era, it was against the law for blacks and whites to play each other in checkers and dominoes in Birmingham, Alabama.
*a. True
b. False
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: De Jure Segregation; p. 142
Question Type: T/F

65. The term de jure means that the system is sanctioned and reinforced by the legal code.
*a. True
b. False
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: De Jure Segregation; p. 142
Question Type: T/F

66. Although gender gaps in educational attainment are narrowing, women still tend to get lower returns on their investment in human capital.
*a. True
b. False
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: Jobs and Income; p. 163
Question Type: T/F

67. Racial discrimination in education does not have a significant impact later in life.
a. True
*b. False
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: The Continuing Power of the Past; p. 158
Question Type: T/F

68. In South Africa, the structure of minority group control became stronger and more oppressive because the whites in South Africa were a numerical minority.
*a. True
b. False
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: Jim Crow Segregation and South African Apartheid; p. 146
Question Type: T/F

69. The Great Migration was not only a movement from the South but a movement from the countryside to the city.
*a. True
b. False
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: Life in the North; p. 147
Question Type: T/F

70. Booker T. Washington founded the National Association for the Advancement of Colored
People (NAACP) in 1909.
a. True
*b. False
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: The Origins of Black Protest; p. 151
Question Type: T/F

71. New Deal programs provided assistance to distressed Americans and were NOT racially discriminatory towards African Americans.
a. True
*b. False
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: The Continuing Power of the Past; p. 168
Question Type: T/F

72. Literacy tests were used to keep African Americans from voting.
*a. True
b. False
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: Political and Civil Rights Under Jim Crow; p. 144
Question Type: T/F

73. In 2009, the Supreme Court ruled in favor of the white and Hispanic plaintiffs that claimed reverse racial discrimination in Ricci v. DeStefano.
*a. True
b. False
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: A Case of Discrimination?; p. 170
Question Type: T/F

Essay

74. Dominantminority relations change as the subsistence technology changes. Explain and illustrate the impact of the industrial revolution on minority groups in the United States.
a. Varies
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location; Varies
Question Type: ESS

75. Distinguish between paternalistic and rigid competitive group relations. Which is associated with agrarian subsistence technology? Which is associated with industrialization? Why?
a. Varies
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: Varies
Question Type: ESS

76. What social, economic, and political forces caused de jure segregation in the South? How were African Americans controlled under this system? What factors encouraged their migration to the North?
a. Varies
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: Varies
Question Type: ESS

77. Describe the experiences of African Americans as they migrated to the urban North. Include the role of labor unions, white immigrant groups, and employers.
a. Varies
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: Varies
Question Type: ESS

78. Compare and contrast the experiences of European American immigrant women and African American women during the early phases of industrialization. What sectors of the job market did they enter? Why?
a. Varies
Cognitive Domain: Analysis
Answer Location: Varies
Question Type: ESS

79. As the United States industrialized and modernized, group relations evolved from paternalism during slavery to a looser, more rigid competitive form of relations during segregation. In South Africa, the structure of minority group control became stronger and more oppressive as the nation industrialized and modernized. What explains the difference in group relations in these two countries?
a. Varies
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: Varies
Question Type: ESS

80. Compare and contrast the functions and dysfunctions of having dominant and minority groups in society. Include the key assumptions of the Noel hypothesis in regard to race relations and its discussion of the labor market.
*a. Varies
Cognitive Domain: Analysis
Answer Location: Varies
Question Type: ESS

Write a review

Your Name:


Your Review: Note: HTML is not translated!

Rating: Bad           Good

Enter the code in the box below:



Welcome to Test bank Fan

 

Once the order is placed, the order will be delivered to your email less than 24 hours, mostly within 4 hours. 

If you have questions, you can contact us here