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According to Tonrys research on drug use, the war on drugs in the 1980s was unnecessary because American attitudes toward the use of illegal drugs were already changing and there was a resulting natural decline in drug use that was not attributable to new anti-drug laws and policies.
From 1975-2006, Americas imprisonment rate increased first and then decreased steadily from 2000-2006.
Under the Rockefeller drug laws, it wasnt unusual for drug offenders possessing small amounts of drugs to receive sentences equal to the sentences imposed on those convicted of rape, assault, or robbery, and to even receive longer sentences than those convicted of some forms of manslaughter and homicide.
The report, Punishment and Prejudice found that the prison admission rates for black men in 10 states were 26-57 times greater than the rates for white men.
Zimring concluded that it was difficult to explain the significant differences in common crime and violence because the New York City of 2010 is in most ways the same as it was in 1990.
Both men of color and women of color carry the burden of imprisonment for drug offenses.
Diffusion occurs when the crime-reduction effects of an intervention occur beyond the intervention site.
The DEA seized 25 metric tons of ephedrine and pseudoephedrine and 500 cases of pseudoephedrine in ________, causing one of the largest disruptions in drug supplies that altered drug pricing, purity and use.
In Fishers 2006 study assessing the effectiveness of the war on drugs and the $145 billion price tag for fighting the war from 1996-2005, he concluded that ____ of the 11 targets and goals set by the 1999 National Drug Control Strategy were completely achieved.
Sevigny and Caulkins study on imprisoned low-level drug offenders concluded that ________ are important when attempting to determine how many low-level drug offenders there are in prison.
c.cooperation with law enforcement
The Human Rights Watch report of 1996, Punishment and Prejudice, found that _____
of all persons admitted to state prisons in Maryland and Illinois were black.
Tom Graziano, senior fellow with the Heritage Foundation ,contends that what appears to be racial targeting in the war on drugs might be explained by the fact that the illegal drug trade flourishes in inner-cities and, consequently, Blacks commit more ________ than Whites.
Tonry and Melewski propose that policymakers _______
that they know will treat black offenders more harshly than white offenders.
*a. enact laws
Drug law enforcement can increase crime rates through market disruption that in turn may lead to ______.
a.drug purity issues
b.fewer drug users
d.increase in street drug pricing
In 1995, Weisburd and Green studied _________ in the Jersey City Drug Market Analysis project.
There was a dramatic increase of _____ in the number of people incarcerated in the U.S. from 1977-2012.
The notion that a crime policy that is based on deterrence is superficially persuasive was proposed by:
d. Dobkin & Nicosia
RAND economists concluded that it is significantly more cost effective to employ drug treatment in the attempt to control this drug:
This Presidents National Drug Control Strategy includes a balanced public health and public safety approach to address the nations drug problem.
The annual National Survey of Drug Use and Health, which provides information on drug use over the past month, year, and lifetime from various population segments, is administered by:
c.Deparment of Health and Human Services
Michael Tonry, a law professor at the University of Minnesota, has concluded that the war on drugs during the 1980s was:
According to a study by Dobkin and Nicosia, the 1995 DEA supply-side intervention of ephedrine and pseudoephedrine had a substantial, although temporary, effect on all of the following except:
a.the price of drugs
b.use of drugs
c.the purity of drugs
*d.the distribution of drugs
From 1996-2005, the war on drugs cost the federal government:
A different perspective on why the 1999 National Drug Control Strategy failed to completely accomplish any of its11 goals and targets is that:
a.There werent enough goals.
b.There were too many goals.
*c.The goals were too unrealistic.
d.The initiatives werent funded properly.
As a result of r his analysis of the effectiveness of the war on drugs, Fisher concluded that the National Drug Control Strategy should emphasize all of the following except:
*d.stiffer sentences for drug suppliers
David Rothman, considered to be an authority on the history and development of the prison system, predicted in 1971 that incarceration would:
a.become more widespread than ever before
*b.one day be used rarely
c.regularly replace any sentences for drug treatment
d.a means of delivering drug treatment
A majority of criminologists believe that the steady increase in the prison population over the past several decades is due to:
*a.stricter sentencing for borderline felons and policy changes
b.economic hardships resulting in crime
c.a steady increase in the crime rate
d.increased sociological pressures
Zimring uses all of the following except ___________to explain the growth in the U.S. prison populations.
a.marginal felons sent to prison
b.greater odds of incarceration and longer sentences for drug offenders
*c.high rates of recidivism
d.a shift from brief prison sentences to extremely lengthy sentences
According to Bruce Westerns 2006 study of the punishments imposed on drug offenders over time,from 1980-2001 the percentage of those arrested for drug offenses increased by:
Caulkins and Chandler found in their 2006 study that the proportions of state and federal prison and jail inmates who were convicted of drug possession and traffickingincreased most noticeably duringthe:
The 1997 Survey of Inmates in State and Federal Correctional Facilities provided Sevigny and Caulkins with methodologically sound information on these types of offenders:
*c.low-level drug offenders
d.violent drug offenders
Provines 2007 study on race and the war on drugs concludes that this factor fueled the development of harsh criminal controls and punitive attitudes:
c.lack of education
While Kemba Niambi Smith was 7 months pregnant, she pled guilty to all of the following charges except:
b.conspiracy to engage in crack and powder cocaine trafficking
*c.obstruction of justice
d.making false statements to a federal agent
What Karmen labeled the New York Murder Mystery refers to:
a.the unsolved homicide of a New York City drug kingpin
b.the unsolved homicide of a New York undercover agent
c.the unsolved homicide of a New York City prosecutor
*d.the unexplained 72% drop in homicide rates in New York City
Police Chief William Bratton implemented all of these policing changes within the NYPD except for:
a.quality of life policing
*b.drug misuse policing
c.order maintenance policing
d.zero tolerance policing
Those who disagree that changes in policing explain in large part the New York Murder Mystery attribute it instead to changes in the market for this drug:
Zimrings 2011 evaluation of the New York City crime drop considered the all of the following except:
a.changes in organization and accountability within a department
*b.number of cases prosecuted
c.use and helpfulness of Compstat
d.number of police on the streets
According to Shepard and Blackleys study, an increase in arrests for the manufacture and sales of marijuana only affected the crime rate for:
McCabes findings from his 2008 study of the connection between Queens County arrest rates and crime found all of the following except:
a.increases in nuisance abatement closures and decreases in crime
*b.increases in nuisance abatement closures and increases in crime
c.there was a positive relationship between arrest rates for controlled substances and property crime rates
d.there was a negative relationship between marijuana arrest rates and violent crime rates
A study that implemented a pulled levers strategy to shutdown drug markets and reduce violent crimes was first implemented in this city:
b.New York, NY
*c.High Point, NC
Launched in May of 2002,Operation Safe Streets involved stationing two police officers at 214 of the highest drug activity locations in this city:
b.New York, NY
c.High Point, NC
During the early 1990s this city set up the Nuisance Bar Task Force which subjected bars that were considered a nuisance to drug raids by the narcotics squad:
b.New York, NY
When crime reduction efforts result in crime moving to areas surrounding the intervention site, this is known as:
Collateral consequences of the war on drugs refers to those consequences that are:
The estimated percentage of all black males who can no longer vote as a result of acriminal conviction is:
All of the following are examples of collateral consequences of the war on drugs except:
*c.lengthier prison sentences
d.weakened social bonds
Noted law professor Michael Tonry severely criticizes the war on drugs and argues that it began unnecessarily in the 1980s and has since been a failure. Discuss the reasons for his position. Do You agree or disagree? Explain why you agree or disagree.(219-222)
Answers will vary, but students should include general statistical evidence to support their positions.
Describe Sevigny and Caulkins 2004 study on obtaining accurate data on low-level drug offenders in prison. How did they measure dangerousness and what were some of their findings?(226-227)
Answers should mention their use of the 1997 Survey of Inmates in State and Federal Correctional Facilities. Students should also include a summary 2-3 of the six main findings.
What was the New York Murder Mystery and how have various scholars explained it?
Answers should describe the struggle to explain a 72% drop in homicides in New York City. One side maintains that it can be explained by increased policing and the changes that accompanied it, while the other side argues that it is explained by a change in the crack cocaine markets; each is not mutually exclusive.
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