Drugs Society And Human Behavior 16th Edition by Carl L Hart Dr. Test Bank

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Drugs Society And Human Behavior 16th Edition by Carl L Hart Dr. Test Bank

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WITH ANSWERS

Drugs Society And Human Behavior 16th Edition by Carl L Hart Dr. Test Bank

Chapter 02

Drug Use as a Social Problem

 

 

Multiple Choice Questions

  1. (p. 25-26)The U.S. government in the 1800s had few regulations on industry and in general took a hands-off approach to government that has been referred to by the term
    A. crime.
    B. laissez-faire.
    C. toxicity.
    D. trends.

 

Blooms Level: 01. Remember

  1. (p. 26)The text lists three concerns that led to the adoption of the first U.S. laws regulating what we now call controlled substances. Which of these was NOT one of the three?
    A. high profits for drug sellers
    B. toxicity
    C. dependence
    D. association of drug use with crime

 

Blooms Level: 01. Remember

  1. (p. 26)When using a substance makes normal activities such as driving result in harmful accidents, this is called
    A. behavioral tolerance.
    B. drug misuse.
    C. behavioral toxicity.
    D. laissez-faire.

 

Blooms Level: 01. Remember

 

  1. (p. 26-27)Acute drug effects are those that
    A. are dangerous.
    B. are caused by the immediate presence of the drug in the body.
    C. are unrelated to dose.
    D. last more than a day.

 

Blooms Level: 01. Remember

  1. (p. 27)Which is an example of chronic physiological toxicity?
    A. high blood pressure from smoking
    B. amotivational syndrome
    C. paranoia from methamphetamine use
    D. respiratory arrest from an alcohol overdose

 

Blooms Level: 01. Remember

  1. (p. 27-30)The Drug Abuse Warning Network
    A. is a system of free public-service announcements.
    B. is a voluntary organization for teachers and police officers.
    C. monitors drug-related medical emergencies.
    D. monitors arrest rates for various drug-law violations.

 

Blooms Level: 01. Remember

  1. (p. 29)According to recent DAWN data, which of these substances is near the top of the emergency room visits list?
    A. alcohol-in-combination
    B. marijuana
    C. methamphetamine
    D. ecstasy (MDMA)

 

Blooms Level: 01. Remember

 

  1. (p. 27)What is a Drug Recognition Expert?
    A. A physician trained to recognize a variety of medications
    B. A police officer trained to recognize drug-related behavioral impairments
    C. A teacher trained to recognize the scent of burning marijuana
    D. None of the above

 

Blooms Level: 01. Remember

  1. (p. 29)A 2010 analysis of drug-related deaths conducted by the CDC indicates that __________ is responsible for more than half of drug overdose deaths.
    A. heroin
    B. pharmaceutical drugs
    C. marijuana
    D. None of the above

 

Blooms Level: 01. Remember

  1. (p. 29-30)In comparing the relative toxicity of marijuana and cocaine, it is important to take into account
    A. the users gender.
    B. availability and price.
    C. urban vs. rural environment.
    D. that many more people use marijuana than use cocaine.

 

Blooms Level: 02. Understand

  1. (p. 28-30)DAWN data provides all of the following EXCEPT
    A. information about which drugs are associated with the greatest number of ER visits.
    B. clear measures of the toxicity of individual drugs.
    C. data regarding problems associated with alcohol-in-combination.
    D. general information about trends in drug-related ER visits.

 

Blooms Level: 02. Understand

 

  1. (p. 31)Since the 1990s, HIV transmission rates among intravenous drug users have been reduced from about 50% to about 10%. According to the text, which of these factors led to this decrease?
    A. syringe exchange programs
    B. sexual abstinence education
    C. increased Narcotics Anonymous attendance
    D. decreased use of hormonal contraceptives

 

Blooms Level: 01. Remember

  1. (p. 33)When repeated exposure to the same dose of a drug results in a lesser effect, this is called
    A. acute toxicity.
    B. dependence.
    C. vaccination.
    D. tolerance.

 

Blooms Level: 01. Remember

  1. (p. 33)The occurrence of a withdrawal syndrome is evidence of
    A. physical dependence.
    B. chronic behavioral disorder.
    C. an antigen-antibody reaction.
    D. craving.

 

Blooms Level: 01. Remember

  1. (p. 34)The drugs with which people are most likely to develop psychological (behavioral) dependence are generally also found to have
    A. stimulant effects.
    B. pain-relieving effects.
    C. sedative effects.
    D. reinforcing effects in laboratory animals.

 

Blooms Level: 01. Remember

 

  1. (p. 36)The DSM-V does not define addiction as such, but has diagnostic criteria for
    A. habituation.
    B. substance use disorders.
    C. chronic intoxication.
    D. drug-associated bipolar disorder.

 

Blooms Level: 01. Remember

  1. (p. 36-37)As views of substance dependence have changed based on scientific research, the real driving force behind repeated excessive drug use is now believed to be
    A. psychological dependence, based on reinforcement.
    B. physical dependence, caused by tolerance.
    C. an allergic reaction to the substance.
    D. unmet psychological needs in early childhood.

 

Blooms Level: 01. Remember

  1. (p. 38)Which of these substances has the highest lifetime estimate of dependence?
    A. LSD
    B. marijuana
    C. alcohol
    D. nicotine

 

Blooms Level: 01. Remember

  1. (p. 39)Brain scan studies with drug users
    A. can show which people have developed dependence and which have not.
    B. can predict which people will later develop dependence.
    C. so far can only show changes in response to drug administration.
    D. are very strong predictors of alcohol use, but not for other substances.

 

Blooms Level: 01. Remember

 

  1. (p. 39)Those who are diagnosed with a personality disorder, such as antisocial personality disorder,
    A. have an increased likelihood of also having a substance use disorder.
    B. are neither more nor less likely to have a substance use disorder.
    C. are actually less likely to be dependent on a substance.
    D. are often given stimulant drugs as a treatment for the personality disorder.

 

Blooms Level: 01. Remember

  1. (p. 41-42)In determining whether using a drug causes people to become criminals, it is important to remember that
    A. there is no relationship between crime and illicit drug use.
    B. most illicit drugs cause damage to the areas of the brain responsible for understanding right from wrong.
    C. longitudinal studies find that indicators of criminal or antisocial behavior usually occur before the first use of any illicit drug.
    D. consistent personality changes are likely with even a few exposures to heroin or cocaine.

 

Blooms Level: 01. Remember

  1. (p. 42)Which of the following drugs has been clearly linked to crimes and violence?
    A. alcohol
    B. heroin
    C. marijuana
    D. cocaine

 

Blooms Level: 01. Remember

 

  1. (p. 42-43)In an annual study done by the U.S. Justice Department, people arrested for various crimes are given urine tests to detect the presence of drugs. In 2012, about ____ percent of the adult male arrestees tested positive for at least one illicit drug.
    A. 100
    B. between 60 and 80
    C. 0
    D. between 10 and 30

 

Blooms Level: 01. Remember

  1. (p. 43)About how many arrests are made in the U.S. each year for drug-law violations?
    A. 1,500,000
    B. 200,000
    C. 50,000
    D. 5,000

 

Blooms Level: 01. Remember

  1. (p. 29)Rank the following drugs (from highest to lowest) according to the number of mentions in the 2009 DAWN emergency department dataset.
    A. Cocaine, heroin, prescription opioids, antidepressants
    B. Cocaine, prescription opioids, heroin, antidepressants
    C. Alcohol-in-combination, cocaine, heroin, prescription opioids
    D. Alcohol-in-combination, prescription opioids, heroin, cocaine

 

Blooms Level: 01. Remember

 

True / False Questions

  1. (p. 25-26)The term laissez-faire refers to the tendency of news media to sensationalize drug problems.
    FALSE

 

Blooms Level: 01. Remember

 

  1. (p. 26)One important factor that led Congress to adopt the first laws regulating what we now call controlled substances was the association of drug use with crime.
    TRUE

 

Blooms Level: 01. Remember

  1. (p. 26-27)Chronic drug effects refer to those that are due to prolonged exposure to the drug.
    TRUE

 

Blooms Level: 01. Remember

  1. (p. 27-30)The DAWN system tells us exactly how many ER visits are caused by a specific drug each year.
    FALSE

 

Blooms Level: 01. Remember

  1. (p. 29)In 2009, methamphetamine was the most frequently cited drug associated with emergency-room visits.
    FALSE

 

Blooms Level: 01. Remember

  1. (p. 30)Our best estimate is that tobacco cigarettes are associated with over 400,000 deaths per year.
    TRUE

 

Blooms Level: 01. Remember

 

  1. (p. 33)Physical dependence is often defined by the appearance of withdrawal symptoms when the drug is stopped.
    TRUE

 

Blooms Level: 01. Remember

  1. (p. 33)The drugs that are most likely to lead to dependence are the ones that have reduced effects after repeated use.
    FALSE

 

Blooms Level: 01. Remember
Blooms Level: 02. Understand

  1. (p. 37)To receive diagnosis of substance use disorder an individual must satisfy at least 2 diagnostic criteria, one which has to be a symptom of physical dependence (tolerance or withdrawal).
    FALSE

 

Blooms Level: 01. Remember
Blooms Level: 02. Understand

  1. (p. 38)Recent brain imaging data indicates that drug dependence is caused by an underlying biological abnormality.
    FALSE

 

Blooms Level: 01. Remember

  1. (p. 42)The data suggest that marijuana use increases the likelihood of a person committing a violent crime.
    FALSE

 

Blooms Level: 01. Remember

 

 

 

Essay Questions

 

  1. (p. 26-30)Using survey data, discuss the relative toxicity of alcohol and cocaine.

Alcohol-in-combination and cocaine have been associated with similar numbers of emergency room visits over the years. Since many more people use alcohol than use cocaine, one could conclude that cocaine is relatively more dangerous (per user) than alcohol. However, it is also important to note that DAWN does not report on alcohol when it is used alone, only in combination with other substances. Bonus: cocaines toxicity is also influenced by how it is used.

 

Blooms Level: 01. Remember
Blooms Level: 02. Understand

  1. (p. 35-38)Discuss the relative dependence liability of different drugs.

Some drugs are more likely than others to lead to compulsive use. These tend to be the drugs that work as positive reinforcers in animal models. Bonus: However, blaming dependence entirely on the drug itself ignores many other important social and individual variables.

 

Blooms Level: 01. Remember
Blooms Level: 02. Understand

  1. (p. 41-43)Describe several ways in which people have thought that drug use might be a cause of criminal behavior.

Drug use might change the individuals personality in a lasting way, making him or her into a criminal type (evidence does not support this). Drug use might cause criminal behavior while the person is under the influence of the drug (evidence strongest for alcohol). Crimes may be carried out for the purpose of obtaining money to purchase illicit drugs (evidence supports this). Illicit drug use is a crime (over 1.5 million arrests per year in the U.S.).

 

Blooms Level: 01. Remember

 

  1. (p. 33-37)Explain the difference between physical dependence on a drug and psychological dependence on a drug.

In physical dependence, when a person stops taking the drug a set of physiological symptoms will appear as the drug level in the system drops (withdrawal). Symptoms disappear when the drug is taken again. In psychological dependence, when a person takes a drug (behavioral act), they receive a consequence such as a feeling of euphoria, perhaps. This consequence increases the likelihood that the drug will be taken again. Thus, the behavior is being reinforced by the consequence.

 

Blooms Level: 01. Remember
Blooms Level: 02. Understand

 

Chapter 04

The Nervous System

 

 

Multiple Choice Questions

  1. (p. 78)The process of maintaining our internal environment (temperature, water balance, etc.) within certain limits is called
    A. the blood-brain barrier.
    B. sympathetic.
    C. homeostasis.
    D. inhibition.

 

Blooms Level: 01. Remember

  1. (p. 80)In addition to neurons, the brain contains an even larger number of another cell type known as
    A. mitochondria.
    B. glia.
    C. serotonin.
    D. pseudopodia.

 

Blooms Level: 01. Remember

  1. (p. 80)Which of these is NOT one of the four important regions found in every neuron?
    A. cell body
    B. dendrites
    C. axon
    D. glia

 

Blooms Level: 01. Remember

 

  1. (p. 82)Gated ion channels for sodium and potassium open and close in rapid succession, causing the neuron to depolarize and then return to its normal resting level, during each
    A. action potential.
    B. homeostasis.
    C. metabolism.
    D. transporter.

 

Blooms Level: 01. Remember

  1. (p. 83)Cocaine selectively blocks Na+ (sodium) channels, which is the mechanism that leads to
    A. CNS stimulation.
    B. increased heart rate.
    C. local anesthetic effects.
    D. cocaine dependence.

 

Blooms Level: 01. Remember

  1. (p. 80)______________ results from a loss of myelin wrappings.
    A. Parkinsons disease
    B. Multiple sclerosis
    C. Schizophrenia
    D. Alzheimers disease

 

Blooms Level: 01. Remember

  1. (p. 84)Parasympathetic and sympathetic refer to the two branches of the
    A. glia.
    B. axon.
    C. autonomic nervous system.
    D. limbic system.

 

Blooms Level: 01. Remember

 

  1. (p. 86)Parkinsons disease produces tremors and muscular rigidity because of damage to
    A. acetylcholine neurons in the parasympathetic branch.
    B. dopamine neurons in the nigrostriatal pathway.
    C. norepinephrine neurons in the locus ceruleus.
    D. the blood-brain barrier.

 

Blooms Level: 01. Remember

  1. (p. 84)The neurotransmitter at the end organ of the sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system is
    A. serotonin.
    B. dopamine.
    C. norepinephrine.
    D. GABA.

 

Blooms Level: 01. Remember

  1. (p. 88)The ______________ is an important link between the brain and the pituitary gland, and is involved in feeding, drinking, temperature regulation, and sexual behavior.
    A. cerebral cortex
    B. cerebellum
    C. limbic system
    D. hypothalamus

 

Blooms Level: 01. Remember

  1. (p. 89)Neural centers controlling vomiting and respiration are found in the
    A. brainstem.
    B. frontal lobe.
    C. cerebellum.
    D. pituitary gland.

 

Blooms Level: 01. Remember

 

  1. (p. 85)Which chemical pathway appears to be important both in some types of psychotic behavior and in the reinforcing properties of various drugs?
    A. acetylcholine pathway from the nucleus basalis
    B. serotonin pathway from the raphe nuclei
    C. mesolimbic dopamine pathway
    D. glutamate pathway

 

Blooms Level: 01. Remember

  1. (p. 87)Weight control, aggression, impulsivity, and psychological depression have all been associated with
    A. serotonin pathways.
    B. endorphins.
    C. GABA receptors.
    D. the parasympathetic branch.

 

Blooms Level: 01. Remember

  1. (p. 86)Natural chemicals in the brain that produce effects similar to those of morphine and other opium-derived drugs are called
    A. amphetamines.
    B. depressants.
    C. endorphins.
    D. ecstasy.

 

Blooms Level: 01. Remember

  1. (p. 90)The process in which enzymes within neurons convert precursors into neurotransmitter molecules is called
    A. homeostasis.
    B. uptake.
    C. depolarization.
    D. synthesis.

 

Blooms Level: 01. Remember

 

  1. (p. 90)Neurotransmitter molecules are released into the small space between two neurons called the
    A. transporter.
    B. synapse.
    C. partition.
    D. vesicle.

 

Blooms Level: 01. Remember

  1. (p. 80)Specialized structures that recognize neurotransmitter molecules and, when activated, may cause a change in the electrical activity of the neuron, are called
    A. pons.
    B. receptors.
    C. medulla.
    D. autonomic.

 

Blooms Level: 01. Remember

  1. (p. 87)Which of the following neurotransmitters is found in most parts of the brain and is considered inhibitory?
    A. serotonin
    B. dopamine
    C. GABA
    D. norepinephrine

 

Blooms Level: 01. Remember

  1. (p. 91)Whether the effect of a neurotransmitter is excitatory or inhibitory depends on
    A. blood sugar level.
    B. the type of receptor.
    C. the rate of synthesis.
    D. enzyme actions.

 

Blooms Level: 01. Remember

 

  1. (p. 93)Drugs can affect neurotransmitter systems in two main ways: either by altering the availability of the neurotransmitter in the synapse, or by
    A. acting on the blood-brain barrier.
    B. altering hormone levels.
    C. acting directly on the receptors.
    D. increasing blood pressure.

 

Blooms Level: 01. Remember

  1. (p. 93-94)Suppose you wanted to prescribe a hypothetical drug that would have an overall excitatory effect on the nervous system. Which would you choose?
    A. a glutamate metabolizer
    B. a dopamine metabolizer
    C. a GABA antagonist
    D. a norepinephrine antagonist

 

Blooms Level: 01. Remember
Blooms Level: 02. Understand

  1. (p. 95)The brain imaging technique that involves injection of radioactive chemicals in order to measure brain function is called
    A. positron emission tomography (PET).
    B. mass spectroscopy.
    C. electron microscopy.
    D. electrochemical detection.

 

Blooms Level: 01. Remember

 

True / False Questions

  1. (p. 82)Unlike neurons, glial cells in the brain are purely for support and are incapable of communicating with each other.
    FALSE

 

Blooms Level: 01. Remember

 

  1. (p. 80)The complex branching parts of a neuron that receive information from other neurons are called dendrites.
    TRUE

 

Blooms Level: 01. Remember

  1. (p. 80)In the neuron, neurotransmitters are stored in the myelin sheaths.
    FALSE

 

Blooms Level: 01. Remember

  1. (p. 81)It is possible to have an action potential that is relatively small in magnitude (if few channels are open).
    FALSE

 

Blooms Level: 01. Remember
Blooms Level: 02. Understand

  1. (p. 85)Parkinsons disease patients are often treated with dopamine because L-dopa cannot cross the blood-brain barrier.
    FALSE

 

Blooms Level: 01. Remember

  1. (p. 88)One of the main ways that drugs can affect neurotransmitter systems is by cutting off blood flow to a specific brain structure.
    FALSE

 

Blooms Level: 01. Remember

 

  1. (p. 89-90)MRI and PET are two types of neurotransmitter chemicals.
    FALSE

 

Blooms Level: 01. Remember

  1. (p. 84)GABA and glutamate are similar in that they are found throughout the brain and are primarily inhibitory neurotransmitters.
    FALSE

 

Blooms Level: 01. Remember

  1. (p. 84)Newer local anesthetics are simple modifications of the cocaine molecule that do not pass the blood-brain barrier and thus do not produce cocaine-like feelings of euphoria.
    TRUE

 

Blooms Level: 01. Remember

 

Essay Questions

  1. (p. 79-80)Describe the structure of a neuron.

Neurons have four regions: cell body containing nucleus and other substances that sustain the neuron; dendrites treelike features that extend from the cell body and contain receptors; axon long, slender extension of the cell body responsible for conducting the action potential to the axon terminals; axon terminals bulbous structures at the end of the axon where neurotransmitters are stored in vesicles.

 

Blooms Level: 01. Remember

 

  1. (p. 83-84)Describe the differing effects of the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches of the autonomic nervous system.

Sympathetic fight-or-flight reactions: opens bronchi, decreases blood supply to skin, increases heart rate, reduces stomach motility, dilates pupils.
Parasympathetic inhibits heart rate, constricts pupils, increases stomach motility, dilates skin blood vessels, constricts bronchi.

 

Blooms Level: 01. Remember

  1. (p. 89-92)What are the steps involved in the life cycle of a neurotransmitter?

Steps involved are uptake of precursors; synthesis of the transmitter; storage in vesicles; release into the synapse; interaction with the receptor; reuptake into the releasing neuron; and metabolism by enzymes.

 

Blooms Level: 01. Remember
Blooms Level: 02. Understand

  1. (p. 92)The actions of drugs on neurotransmitter systems can be divided into two main types. What are they?

Drugs can alter the availability of the neurotransmitter in the synapse or affect the receptors by 1) mimicking the action of the neurotransmitter (agonist) or 2) occupying the receptor preventing the neurotransmitter from activating (antagonist).

 

Blooms Level: 01. Remember
Blooms Level: 02. Understand

 

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