EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY 11TH EDITION BY WOOLFOLK TEST BANK

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EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY 11TH EDITION BY WOOLFOLK TEST BANK

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EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY 11TH EDITION BY WOOLFOLK TEST BANK

Chapter 5:  Culture and Diversity

 

Multiple-Choice Questions

 

1) Educational practices in American schools during the twentieth century have tended to be based on

  1. A) a cultural deficit model.
  2. B) lower-class, non-sectarian, rationalistic values.
  3. C) middle-class, sectarian values.
  4. D) the melting pot philosophy.

 

Answer:  C

Explanation:  C) During the 20th century, educational practices in American schools typically reflected middle class, sectarian values. The melting pot philosophy involved bringing students from different cultures into the mainstream of American society.

Page Ref: 168

Skill:  Understanding

 

2) The cultural-deficit model suggests that immigrant students

  1. A) achieve higher than American students because of their greater motivation.
  2. B) are just as prepared for school as students who are born in this country.
  3. C) come from an inferior culture that leaves them at a disadvantage.
  4. D) deserve special treatment given the obstacles they have overcome.

 

Answer:  C

Explanation:  C) The traditional philosophy was that immigrant students come from an inferior culture that leaves them at a disadvantage. This philosophy engendered the cultural deficit model for educating these students.

Page Ref: 168

Skill:  Knowledge

 

3) The rules and traditions that guide the behavior of a group comprise its

  1. A) culture.
  2. B) ethnic heritage.
  3. C) racial identity.
  4. D) social status.

 

Answer:  A

Explanation:  A) Culture is defined as the rules and traditions that guide the behavior of a group. People are members of groups, not of cultures. The multicultural education movement strongly supports valuing diverse cultures in our society.

Page Ref: 158

Skill:  Knowledge

P:  .75

D:  .20

4) Ivan is a male Caucasian of Russian heritage who is living in an upper-middle-class neighborhood. Knowing this information would give his teacher

  1. A) accurate data about the types of interventions that Ivan needs.
  2. B) motivation for creating a self-fulfilling prophesy.
  3. C) nothing of value for understanding Ivans needs.
  4. D) some useful information about how Ivan is likely to behave.

 

Answer:  D

Explanation:  D) The description of Ivans characteristics is hardly conclusive for knowing him as a person or predicting how he will behave. Knowing Ivans cultural background does, however, provide some useful information about how he is likely to behave. This information needs to be viewed cautiously, but it is still useful for planning for Ivans needs.

Page Ref: 159-161

Skill:  Understanding

P:  .68

D:  .37

 

5) Membership in what cultural group is the best predictor of cultural differences?

  1. A) Ethnicity
  2. B) Gender
  3. C) Race
  4. D) Social class

 

Answer:  D

Explanation:  D) No one variable is the single predictor of cultural differences, but social class is the variable that seems to have the strongest relationship with cultural differences. Ethnicity, gender, and level of intellectual functioning are variables that also contribute to cultural differences, depending on the specific situation, but social class remains the strongest predictor.

Page Ref: 162-163

Skill:  Knowledge

 

6) Which one of the following students BEST illustrates the concept of learned helplessness as an explanation for failure by low socioeconomic status children?

  1. A) Trina seeks help from her older sister in completing practically all of her homework assignments.
  2. B) Michael decides that he has no chance of passing the seventh grade or getting out of school.
  3. C) Brook never volunteers an answer, but hopes that the teacher will call on her.
  4. D) Josh will only compete against smaller children while playing sports after school.

 

Answer:  B

Explanation:  B) Learned helplessness is a condition characterized by accepting failure as inevitable. An example would be a student (Michael, in this instance) deciding that he has no chance of passing.

Page Ref: 163

Skill:  Understanding P:  .79 / D:  .21

 

7) Mark decides that he doesnt want to be like the rich kids who sell themselves out to the system. Accordingly, he prides himself on not learning what the school is trying to teach. Which of the following concepts best characterizes his behavior?

  1. A) Academic anti-socialization
  2. B) Learned helplessness
  3. C) Resistance culture
  4. D) Tracking

 

Answer:  C

Explanation:  C) A resistance culture is represented by lower-class students rejection of middle-class values. This behavior is exemplified by Markos purposeful attempt to not learn what the school is trying to teach (to the rich kids).

Page Ref: 165

Skill:  Understanding

P:  .82

D:  .35

 

8) Which one of the following student situations is predictive of tracking practices?

  1. A) Andy, who continued to be a low achiever throughout grade school, remains in school after reaching the age of 16.
  2. B) Marie, who was placed in the low reading group in the third grade, is counseled in the eighth grade into home economics instead of beginning algebra.
  3. C) Sylvia, who experienced considerable academic success in elementary school, is admitted to a prestigious university on an athletic scholarship.
  4. D) Vincent, who was accelerated from second to fourth grade because of his outstanding ability test score, had difficulty with social interaction in high school.

 

Answer:  B

Explanation:  B) Tracking is predictive of students success and academic choices in later grades. Accordingly, Marie, who was placed in the low reading group as a third grader, becomes identified five years later as being better served by a less academic program (home economics as opposed to algebra).

Page Ref: 165-166

Skill:  Understanding

P:  .75

D:  .32

 

9) Which one of the following variables is MOST likely to correlate positively and highest with childrens school achievement?

  1. A) Ethnicity of the family
  2. B) Level of the parents education
  3. C) Parents attitudes toward education
  4. D) Total family income

 

Answer:  C

Explanation:  C) The strongest correlations between SES and school achievement occur when SES is measured in terms of family atmosphere variables such as parents attitudes toward education. Variables such as family income, parents education, and parents occupations correlate positively, but more weakly, with school achievement.

Page Ref: 167

Skill:  Knowledge

P:  .77

D:  .20

 

10) Which one of the following statements is technically TRUE regarding the term minority group?

  1. A) It is a category composed of people who have biologically transmitted traits.
  2. B) It is a term that refers to a numerical minority compared to the total population.
  3. C) It refers to a group of people who receives unequal or discriminatory treatment.
  4. D) The number of these groups is decreasing slightly in nearly every one of the states.

 

Answer:  B

Explanation:  B) The term minority group technically refers to a numerical minority in a population compared to the total population. Sociologists use the term to label a group of people who receive discriminatory treatment.

Page Ref: 168

Skill:  Knowledge

 

11) Researchers generally believe that differences between ethnic groups in cognitive abilities occur primarily as a result of

  1. A) biases inherent in most standardized tests.
  2. B) different experiences in and out of school.
  3. C) different levels of motivation among the groups.
  4. D) natural abilities of the various groups.

 

Answer:  B

Explanation:  B) Researchers generally believe that differences between ethnic groups in cognitive abilities mainly occur as a result of different experiences in and out of school. For example, minority groups must contend with fewer resources and discriminating practices. These factors make it more difficult for them to be successful in school compared with white students.

Page Ref: 168

Skill:  Knowledge

P:  .69

D:  .31

 

12) The outcomes of the Brown vs. Board of Education case relative to the original goals for the ruling are generally viewed today as

  1. A) favorable for minorities who are high in SES.
  2. B) highly negative.
  3. C) highly successful.
  4. D) only slightly successful.

 

Answer:  D

Explanation:  D) The outcomes of the Brown vs. Board of Education case have been only slightly successful. The problem is that, despite segregation being declared illegal, many of todays students attend schools in which the student body is predominantly of one race. This is called de facto segregation.

Page Ref: 169-170

Skill:  Knowledge

 

13) What is the major reason for the development of prejudice?

  1. A) Dislike of certain people or groups
  2. B) Economic competition among different groups
  3. C) Instinctive mistrust of people who are different
  4. D) Learning cultural values

Answer:  D

Explanation:  D) Prejudice develops as a result of learning certain cultural values of a certain cultural group. Typically, prejudice produces negative views. Page Ref: 170-171 / Skill:  Knowledge

14) Mr. Kennedy, a middle-class Caucasian teacher, assigns lower grades when evaluating the work of two Native American students in his high-school physics class than he does for comparable work from other students. The most valid interpretation of Mr. Kennedys behavior is that he appears to

  1. A) be conforming to conventional ethnic values.
  2. B) be demonstrating a laissez-faire personality.
  3. C) have a negative schema regarding Native Americans.
  4. D) mistrust people who are culturally inferior.

 

Answer:  C

Explanation:  C) Mr. Kennedy appears to have a negative schema (stereotype) regarding Native Americans. As a result, he is discriminating against them (perhaps unknowingly) in his grading practices.

Page Ref: 171

Skill:  Understanding

P:  .86

D:  .12

 

15) Which one of the following quotations MOST clearly represents the concept of stereotyping?

  1. A) Boys should line up to the right and girls to the left.
  2. B) If hes one of your friends, tell him not to apply.
  3. C) Matthew just doesnt seem interested in spelling.
  4. D) People from that region just arent ambitious.

 

Answer:  D

Explanation:  D) Stereotyping is a schema for viewing a particular group. It does not necessarily invoke negative perceptions, as would be the case for prejudice. An example is thinking that people from a particular region are not ambitious. The other examples are descriptions of behavior or rules or of a prejudicial attitude (If hes one of those people).

Page Ref: 171

Skill:  Understanding

P:  .98

D:  .03

 

16) Studies of educational discrimination against minority ethnic groups today show that

  1. A) African-American and Hispanic students are now entering science fields at close to the same rate as white students.
  2. B) discrimination on the basis of minority and ethnicity has virtually been eliminated.
  3. C) Hispanic and Asian students lose out on opportunities to enter science careers due to lack of interest.
  4. D) there are still fewer opportunities for minority students to enter top-level professions.

 

Answer:  D

Explanation:  D) Studies of educational discrimination show that there are still fewer opportunities for minority students to enter top-level professions. For example, minority students are selected less often for gifted classes and for programs that lead to careers in science, engineering, and medicine.

Page Ref: 172

Skill:  Understanding

P:  .61

D:  .38

 

 

 

 

17) As opposed to the term prejudice, the term discrimination refers to

  1. A) attitudes.
  2. B) beliefs.
  3. C) behavior.
  4. D) feelings.

 

Answer:  C

Explanation:  C) As Woolfolk has pointed out, prejudice is based on an individuals attitudes, feelings, and beliefs concerning an entire category of people, not certain individuals. Discrimination involves behavior that is, treating particular categories of people unequally.

Page Ref: 170-171

Skill:  Knowledge

 

18) One way of inoculating students against stereotype threats is to

  1. A) be assertive about defining success as uncool.
  2. B) believe that intelligence can be improved.
  3. C) disidentify from success in academics.
  4. D) psychologically disengage from success in academics.

 

Answer:  B

Explanation:  B) Although stereotypes are pervasive and difficult to change, the belief that intelligence can be changed might be able to protect students against stereotype threats. The other three response choices encourage stereotype threats.

Page Ref: 172-173

Skill:  Knowledge

 

19) Barbara has a strong feminine identity, whereas Charles has a strong masculine identity. However, Alexs identity tends to be more androgynous. Based on research on gender-role identities, it would be predicted that Alex is likely to

  1. A) be relatively forceful and competitive compared to the others.
  2. B) have higher self-esteem than Barbara.
  3. C) have lower self-esteem than either Barbara or Charles.
  4. D) have low masculine and feminine traits compared to others.

 

Answer:  B

Explanation:  B) Research on gender-role identities suggests that self-esteem is highest for masculine and androgynous identities and lowest for a feminine identity. Accordingly, Alex is likely to have higher self-esteem than Barbara.

Page Ref: 180-181 / Skill:  Understanding

P:  .74

D:  .33

 

20) The term gender is associated with judgments influenced by culture and

  1. A) androgynous characteristics.
  2. B) biological differences.
  3. C) context.
  4. D) schemas.

 

Answer:  C

Explanation:  C) Judgments influenced by culture and context are encompassed in the term gender. Biological differences refer to sex. Androgynous characteristics are related to gender identity, and gender schemas are organized networks of knowledge about what it means to be male or female.

Page Ref: 180 / Skill:  Knowledge

21) What group of people have the most stereotyped notions of gender roles?

  1. A) Elementary school children
  2. B) College students
  3. C) High school students
  4. D) Preschool children

 

Answer:  D

Explanation:  D) The most stereotypical notions of gender-role identity are expressed by young children because of how they are treated by adults; girls are encouraged to be affectionate and tender while boys are encouraged to be more physically active than girls.

Page Ref: 180

Skill:  Knowledge

 

22) According to research evidence, which of the following statements about gender differences is TRUE?

  1. A) Females are more likely than males to initiate comments in college classes.
  2. B) Gender differences in social and cognitive abilities are large.
  3. C) Public school teachers tend to interact more with boys than with girls.
  4. D) Textbooks today tend to be free of gender stereotypes.

 

Answer:  C

Explanation:  C) Research on teacher behaviors shows a tendency for public-school teachers to interact more with boys than with girls. It is also the case that, although gender differences in cognition tend to be small, textbooks still reflect some gender biases, and men are more likely than women to initiate comments in college classes.

Page Ref: 180

Skill:  Knowledge

P:  .88

D:  .24

 

23) Differences between males and females in cognitive abilities are

  1. A) attributed more to genetic than environmental factors.
  2. B) considered to be very small and insignificant.
  3. C) reported to be larger today than was the case in earlier studies.
  4. D) small in the past decade but steadily increasing.

 

Answer:  B

Explanation:  B) Differences between males and females in cognitive abilities are considered to be small or nonexistent. When differences are found, they may be attributed primarily to environmental factors (e.g., boys receive more encouragement than girls do to take mathematics courses).

Page Ref: 180-181

Skill:  Knowledge

P:  .92

D:  .18

 

24) What type(s) of learning approaches would be the most helpful in eliminating gender bias in the classroom?

  1. A) Balance competitive and cooperative approaches.
  2. B) Emphasize cooperative approaches.
  3. C) Emphasize competitive approaches.
  4. D) Use both approaches but emphasize competitive approaches.

 

 

Answer:  A

Explanation:  A) The potentially most helpful learning strategy for eliminating gender bias in classrooms is to balance both cooperative and competitive learning methods, so that students who learn best with one or the other method have equal opportunities to learn.

Page Ref: 181

Skill:  Knowledge

25) In applying our knowledge of the differences in mathematical abilities between boys and girls, we should remember that

  1. A) boys have superior mathematical skills compared to girls.
  2. B) boys skills are limited by their general cognitive abilities.
  3. C) differences are based on averages, not on individual students.
  4. D) girls tend to excel in math story problems compared to boys.

 

Answer:  C

Explanation:  C) In applying our knowledge of gender differences in mathematical abilities, it is important to remember that the differences are based on averages, not on individuals. Thus, teachers need to deal with the individual student, based on his or her needs, not based on a basic stereotype about a small overall group difference.

Page Ref: 180-181

Skill:  Understanding

P:  .91

D:  .22

 

26) Which one of the following differences in test scores between males and females is most clearly documented in the current research literature?

  1. A) Females are significantly superior in spatial abilities.
  2. B) Females have a strong advantage in verbal skills.
  3. C) Males are highly superior in spatial abilities.
  4. D) Males tend to score highest and lowest on various tests.

 

Answer:  D

Explanation:  D) The scores of males on tests tend to be more variable than those of females. More males than females score very high and very low. Still, most studies of gender differences do not take into account such variables as race and socioeconomic status. Research shows that there is much overlap between the sexes in most ability areas, and everyone can improve in any area with practice and appropriate education.

Page Ref: 181

Skill:  Knowledge

 

27) A language variation spoken by a particular ethnic, social, or regional group is called a

  1. A) dialect.
  2. B) language disorder.
  3. C) pronunciation problem.
  4. D) standard speech.

 

Answer:  A

Explanation:  A) A dialect is a variation of language spoken by a particular social, ethnic, or regional group that is an element of the groups collective identity. A dialect may sometimes cause a pronunciation problem in certain situations and could even be regarded as a language disorder in other situations, but a dialect is never regarded as an element of Standard English. Nevertheless, a dialect is always a language variation of a particular group.

Page Ref: 174 / Skill:  Knowledge

28) Darnel, an African-American second grader who uses nonstandard English, complained about his partner in spelling practice. Fred not say nothin today. Which of the following would be the most relevant reply that the teacher could make?

  1. A) If hes not saying anything today, do you think something is bothering him?
  2. B) In school language we should say Fred is not saying anything today.'
  3. C) Darnel, please remember: not goes with anything. We dont use it with nothing.'
  4. D) Why dont you ask Fred what the matter is? Maybe something is wrong.

 

Answer:  A

Explanation:  A) The teachers most relevant reply would be: If hes not saying anything today, do you think that something is bothering him? In this way, the teacher models good speaking without making the student feel inferior and shows respect for the students language while allowing him/her to communicate freely. When interacting with children who speak in a nonstandard dialect, teachers are encouraged to accept the dialect but teach Standard English. Learning Standard English also seems fairly easy for most of these students provided they have good models.

Page Ref: 174-175

Skill:  Understanding

P:  .54

D:  .21

 

29) In order to reduce the possible negative stereotypes about students who speak a different dialect, teachers should

  1. A) accept students dialects as a valid and correct language system, but teach standard English as well.
  2. B) expect to find more homonyms in the students language than usual.
  3. C) focus on teaching standard or formal English to all students.
  4. D) promote heritage English rather than formal English for all students.

 

Answer:  A

Explanation:  A) Teachers should reduce the possible negative stereotypes about students who speak different dialects by accepting their dialects as a valid and correct language system, show respect for the students language variations, and strive to teach the standard form of English (or whatever the dominant language might be in the country of interest) as an alternative language that is necessary for effective communications in the world of work. It appears that learning the standard speech (Dimientieffs Formal English) is easy for most students whose original language is a dialect (or Heritage English, for example) provided that students have good role models, clear instruction, and opportunities for authentic practice (Woolfolk, p. 39).

Page Ref: 174

Skill:  Knowledge

 

 

30) What is the primary reason why bilingualism has generated such heated debates in recent years?

  1. A) Changing demographics
  2. B) Failure of many students to use standard English
  3. C) Increased numbers of students who must take summer school
  4. D) Rising numbers of college freshmen with poor reading skills

 

Answer:  A

Explanation:  A) Because the number of non-native-speaking students is expected to double (to over five million) by the year 2000, the major reason for the heated debates over bilingualism is changing demographics. [Although the other response choices may also contribute to the debates, changing demographics is the primary reason.]

Page Ref: 176-177

Skill:  Knowledge

31) Research on bilingualism suggests that

  1. A) the division of students into separate English classes according to the primary language is desirable.
  2. B) learning a second language interferes with use of the first language.
  3. C) the more skilled the individual is in the first language, the faster he/she will learn a second language.
  4. D) the more skilled the individual is in the first language, the slower he/she will learn a second language.

 

Answer:  C

Explanation:  C) Research on bilingualism suggests that the more skilled the individual is in the first language, the faster he/she will learn a second language. Although there are periods during which an individual may confuse the two languages, generally the progression is smooth and results in proficiency in both languages.

Page Ref: 177-178

Skill:  Knowledge

P:  .76

D:  .05

 

32) According to Woolfolk, the most desirable approach to the language problem in todays bilingual schools is to

  1. A) divide students into separate language classes according to the primary language that they speak.
  2. B) try to make students fluent in both languages.
  3. C) employ monolingual educational strategies.
  4. D) try to make students at least semi-lingual in their second language.

 

Answer:  B

Explanation:  B) Woolfolk suggests that the language problem should be approached by trying to make students proficient in both languages. This may be accomplished by creating classes that mix students who are learning a second language with students who are native speakers of that language. Having bilingual teachers also seems critical for this approach to be successful.

Page Ref: 177-179

Skill:  Knowledge

 

33) Nikolas is an eleventh grader who came to America from Russia with his parents one year ago. He has gradually developed his fluency in the English language, but he continues to have some difficulty using English during classroom activities. What should Nikolas teacher do to help him with his English language acquisition?

  1. A) Encourage Nikolas to use English in the classroom and save his Russian for use at home.
  2. B) Promote Nikolas bilingualism in both Russian and English.
  3. C) Refer Nikolas to the English-as-a-Second-Language program in the local magnet school.
  4. D) Respond positively to Nikolas only when he makes accurate attempts with English.

 

Answer:  B

Explanation:  B) Research on bilingualism (e.g., Garcia, 1992) supports the idea that children benefit from becoming proficient speakers of both their native language and the dominant language of the country. Therefore, Nikolas teacher should promote his bilingualism in both Russian and English.

Page Ref: 176-178

Skill:  Understanding

P:  .69

D:  .45

 

 

34) Which of the following illustrations is characteristic of a culturally compatible classroom?

  1. A) Mr. Buhr regularly demonstrated the correct procedures for borrowing school materials during his homeroom period.
  2. B) Mr. Denver gave each biology student the same laboratory worksheet in order to determine what misconceptions in handling a microscope could be identified.
  3. C) Ms. Hayes assigned an article on euthanasia for her social studies class to read prior to their exam, although the topic had not been discussed.
  4. D) Ms. Rosen organized her English class into homogeneous groups during small group discussions.

 

Answer:  A

Explanation:  A) Homogeneous groupings or tracks are clearly not recommended for creating culturally compatible classrooms. Such groupings create segregated classrooms in which high-achieving students from the same ethnic or cultural groups are clustered together. Positive strategies are cross-cultural group study buddies, explicit teaching of participation structures, and use of a wide range of teaching methods to accommodate cultural differences and learning styles. An example of teaching participation structures is Ms. Buhrs demonstration of the proper procedures for borrowing school materials.

Page Ref: 181-182

Skill:  Understanding

P:  .55

D:  .24

 

35) Resilience children not only survive in difficult times, they also

  1. A) are less likely to need social or emotional support.
  2. B) lack strong family support systems.
  3. C) maintain a positive outlook even though they lack confidence in their own abilities.
  4. D) thrive in spite of the difficult circumstances.

 

Answer:  D

Explanation:  D) Resilient individuals thrive in difficult times and can adapt even though there may be events that threaten their development.

Page Ref: 185

Skill:  Understanding

 

36) According to Borman and Overman (2004), teachers can do the following to create resilient classrooms:

  1. A) increase class size so that students can build up a tolerance to challenging circumstances.
  2. B) set the learning goals for the students.
  3. C) provide a safe and orderly classroom and develop positive teacher-student relationships.
  4. D) focus mostly on test scores so that students can experience academic self-

 

Answer:  C

Explanation:  C) The two characteristics of schools associated with academic resilience are safe and orderly classrooms and positive teacher-student relationships.

Page Ref: 185-186

Skill:  Knowledge

 

37) Research on African-American students suggests that the typical learning style of this group is

  1. A) field-
  2. B) reflective.
  3. C) verbal/analytic.
  4. D) visual/global.

 

 

Answer:  D

Explanation:  D) Research on African-American students suggests that a common learning style is visual/global rather than verbal/analytic. Hale-Benson (1986) recommended teaching young black children using methods that emphasize nonverbal cues, equal talking time, and small-group learning strategies.

Page Ref: 188

Skill:  Knowledge

38) The learning style of Native Americans appears to be

  1. A) field-
  2. B) global, analytic.
  3. C) global, visual.
  4. D) reasoning by inference.

 

Answer:  C

Explanation:  C) The learning style favored by many Native Americans appears to be a global and visual style. The style of African Americans tends to be visual and global. Research suggests that Mexican Americans tend to be field-dependent and oriented toward family and group loyalty rather than being individualistic. The learning styles of Asian Americans are unclear due to few research studies.

Page Ref: 188

Skill:  Knowledge

 

39) The prevailing view regarding the use of learning styles research for identifying ethnic group differences is that such information

  1. A) has very little validity and, therefore, should be ignored by teachers.
  2. B) is both highly valid and valuable and should be recognized by teachers.
  3. C) needs to be considered cautiously as it may promote stereotyping.
  4. D) promotes the idea that ethnic groups in the U.S. are more similar than different.

 

Answer:  C

Explanation:  C) A current concern regarding the use of learning styles research is that such information needs to be considered cautiously as it may promote stereotyping. The evidence that associates ethnic group membership with different learning styles is correlational and indicative, at best, of tendencies of an overall group and NOT an individuals needs.

Page Ref: 188-189

Skill:  Knowledge

P:  .64

D:  .22

 

40) Participation structures in a classroom would generally dictate

  1. A) grading policies, including alternative assessments as well as paper-pencil tests.
  2. B) the student-teacher ratio in classrooms as well as extra-curricular activities.
  3. C) when it is appropriate to talk to another student as well as to respond to the teacher.
  4. D) whether the primary teaching method is lecture-recitation or discussion.

 

Answer:  C

Explanation:  C) The activity rules for a classroom are dictated by participation structures. A example of such structure is when it is appropriate to talk to other students. Most classrooms have many different participation structures that vary for subjects and tasks.

Page Ref: 189

Skill:  Knowledge

 

 

Completion Questions

 

1) The assumption that students home culture is inferior because it has not prepared them to fit well into schools is called the ________ model.

Answer:  cultural deficit

Page Ref: 168

 

2) According to James Banks, the notion that all students, regardless of race or background, should have equal opportunities to learn in school is directly supported by the ________ education movement.

Answer:  multicultural

Page Ref: 181

3) The knowledge, rules, traditions, and attitudes that guide behavior in a particular group of people represent the ________ of that group.

Answer:  culture

Page Ref: 158

 

4) The commonly used index of wealth, power, and influence is ________.

Answer:  socioeconomic status (SES)

Page Ref: 163

 

5) Both low socioeconomic status students and others who fail continually may be the victims of learned ________.

Answer:  helplessness

Page Ref: 165

 

6) A group of people who are discriminated against by the dominant culture is called a(n) ________ group by sociologists.

Answer:  minority

Page Ref: 168

 

7) Joyce Epstein described six types of family/school/community ________ designed to reduce the impact of cultural conflicts and discrimination on school achievement.

Answer:  partnerships

Page Ref: 186

 

8) Differences among ethnic groups on tests of cognitive abilities are primarily the product of cultural mismatches, growing up in a low SES environment, or the legacy of ________.

Answer:  discrimination

Page Ref: 169

 

9) Discrimination is the behavior that often accompanies the affective component (feelings, attitudes, etc.) called ________.

Answer:  prejudice

Page Ref: 170

 

10) Organized bodies of knowledge about groups of people that affect how we react to them are called ________.

Answer:  stereotypes

Page Ref: 171

 

 

 

 

11) Aronson and Fried identified a social predicament rooted in the prevailing American image of African-Americans as intellectually inferior as being a ________.

Answer:  stereotype threat

Page Ref: 172

12) Individuals who speak two languages are said to be ________.

Answer:  bilingual

Page Ref: 175-176

 

13) Most bilingual programs in the United States use the ________ approach for learning standard English.

Answer:  transition

Page Ref: 177

 

14) People who are inadequate speakers of both their native language and their second language are called ________.

Answer:  semilingual

Page Ref: 178

15) Dialets can influence pronunciation, which can lead to

Answer:  spelling problems

Page Ref: 174

 

16) The practice of assigning students to different classes based on their achievement is referred to as

Answer:  tracking

Page Ref: 165

 

True/False Questions

 

1) The number of minority group students in the United States has been increasing steadily over the years.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 158-159

 

2) The assumption underlying the cultural deficit model was that many ethnic groups did not want to assimilate completely into mainstream American society.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 168

 

3) Both traditional and ethnocentric approaches should be emphasized in multicultural education.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 181-183

 

4) Membership in a particular group determines behavior as well as increases the probability of certain types of behavior.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 168

 

5) Socioeconomic status (SES) is positively correlated with school achievement.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 163

 

6) The majority of poor children in the schools of the United States are African-American.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 163

 

7) Differences in cultural values as well as the dangers of neighborhoods may make the strategy of less parental control both appropriate and useful for childrens learning.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 164-165

 

8) The purposes of creating culturally compatible classrooms are to lessen ethnic prejudice, racism, and sexism and, at the same time, provide equal opportunities for all students.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 181

 

9) Segregation was declared illegal by the Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka ruling.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 169-170

 

10) Discrimination and prejudice are the same negative behaviors.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 170-171

11) In a study of the effects of a negative stereotype on college students standardized test performances, similar results were found for both African-American and Caucasian students.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 173

 

12) Comparisons between males and females on mental ability tests generally show small or no differences.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 180

 

13) Gender differences in mathematics achievement are generally the same for all racial groups.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 181

 

14) It is difficult for most students whose original language is a dialect to learn the standard speech of their country.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 174

 

15) Recent studies show that speaking two languages is detrimental to cognitive development.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 177-179

 

16) Proponents of the native language maintenance approach for bilingual education believe that valuable learning time is lost when students are taught in their native language.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 177-178

 

17) Resilient children typically have parents who are supportive but have low expectations of their success.

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  Parents of resilient students tend to support learning and place high expectations on their children.

Page Ref: 184-185

 

 

18) According to Woolfolk, results from learning styles research are generally considered highly valid for adapting instruction to culturally diverse groups.

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  Woolfolk cautions people about the lack of rigorous research in support of the existence of learning styles.  She further claims the idea of deficits can be especially problematic for labeling minority students.

Page Ref: 188-189

 

19) The pragmatics of a classroom involve differentiative activity rules that are called participation structures.

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  Pragmatics refer to the rules for how and when to use language to be an effective communicator in a particular culture.

Page Ref: 189

 

20) David knows exactly when he should take part in a certain classroom activity.  David has an understanding of the classrooms participation structures.

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  Participation structures are the informal and formal rules for how one should take part in a given activity.

Page Ref: 189

21) Culturally relevant pedagogy is a method that has been used successfully with students of color and students in poverty.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 182

 

Short Answer Questions

 

1) Define culture and discuss the issues that prompted belief in the cultural deficit model. What are the prevailing beliefs of educational researchers and theorists today about this issue?

 

Answer:  Culture refers to the knowledge, rules, traditions, and attitudes that guide behavior in a particular group of people. The assumption of the cultural deficit model, supported by some educators in the 1960s and 1970s, was that minority students and others from different backgrounds than white students were culturally disadvantaged. Today, this idea is rejected in favor of the belief that no culture is deficient. Rather, there may be some incompatibility between the students culture and the dominant culture of the school.

Page Ref: 158,168

 

2) Discuss the assumptions and goals of multicultural education.

 

Answer:  The idea of multicultural education is that all students should have an equal opportunity to learn in school and be respected. Multicultural education is also a reform movement that attempts to promote acceptance of all cultures in what is taught in schools. Recently, Banks (1994) has proposed that multicultural education is more than a change in the curriculum. It must involve content integration, the knowledge construction process, an equity pedagogy, prejudice reduction, and an empowering school culture and social culture.

Page Ref: 181-182

 

 

 

 

 

3) Identify some of the factors that may lead low-income students to perform less well in school than middle-income students with the same abilities.

 

Answer:  Factors that may lead low-income students to perform less successfully in school than middle-income children of the same abilities are: (a) poor health; (b) limited resources; (c) low self-esteem; (d) learned helplessness; (e) resistance cultures; (f) tracking practices; (g) child rearing practices that do not promote independent thinking; and (h) low expectations.

Page Ref: 163-165

 

4) Define gender bias and describe how it has been expressed in school.

 

Answer:  Gender bias occurs when males and females are treated differently, mainly due to stereotypes ascribed to each sex. For example, male infants are treated more physically by parents whereas female infants are protected more. In general, males are encouraged to become more independent, females to become more dependent. At school, textbooks frequently portray females in roles that depict them as passive or domestic. Teachers are more likely to verbally interact with males and assign them more active classroom responsibilities. Expectancies to do well in math and science are more likely to be conveyed to males than to females.

Page Ref: 180

 

5) Compare alternative approaches to teaching bilingual children. Should a childs use of his/her non-English language in classroom learning be discouraged or directly integrated with learning in Standard English?

 

Answer:  Most bilingual programs today attempt to introduce the use of English as early a possible. However, there are concerns that forcing children to learn a difficult subject in an unfamiliar language may be detrimental. Students may also feel that their language is not valued if they are not permitted to use it. The best approach, it appears, is to integrate the use of both the natural language and Standard English. If possible, classes might be created that mix students who are trying to learn a second language with native speakers of that language. The goal would be to produce fluent speakers of both languages.

Page Ref: 177-179

6) Discuss major findings from learning styles research regarding Hispanic, African-American, and Native American students. Specifically, what types of learning styles appear dominant or more common for each of these groups?

 

Answer:  The major findings of learning styles research are as follows:

 

  1. Hispanic-Americans: field-dependent and people-oriented
  2. African-Americans: visual/global, not verbal/analytic, focus on people, and nonverbal communication
  3. Native Americans: visual/global and preference for learning privately
  4. Asian-Americans: field-dependent, global, and do well with cooperative learning

 

Cautions are suggested regarding the use of learning styles results to adapt instruction. First, the research is not highly conclusive. Second, there is the danger of stereotyping. Third, individual differences may be greater than cultural differences.

Page Ref: 188

 

 

 

 

 

 

Case Studies

 

Two Cambodian students who speak very little English move to your school district three weeks after school begins and are assigned to your sixth-grade class. Because a small Cambodian community has been established in the area, you already have five bilingual students in class who speak both Cambodian and English. You are having difficulty communicating with the new students and suspect that they are following very little of what is being taught in your class.

 

1) What are the likely outcomes (academic, social, personal) for the new students if no additional interventions or strategies are employed?

 

Answer:  If the Cambodian students in this class receive no additional interventions or support

they are likely to have short and long-term academic problems.  Students who receive good quality intervention(s) will need about two to three years to be able to effectively communicate face-to-face in a second language (i.e., contextualized language skills).  Becoming proficient in academic language skills in a second language (i.e., decontextualized language skills) can take five to seven years.  It would certainly take a much longer amount of time for students to master decontextualized language skills if they were not participating in a high quality language program.  Some educators caution students who do not receive adequate bilingual education may be at risk to become semilingual, which means they cannot speak proficiently in any language.  There are also social affects for students who cannot adequately speak English due in part because they may be placed in special classes away from their peers.  Woolfolk suggests all students benefit when classes mix students who are learning a second language with students who are native speakers.  For example, English speakers who want to learn Spanish could be placed with Spanish speaking students.  In regards to personal implications, researchers claim some students may come to believe that their home language is second class, which can lead to a sense of shame. There is some research to support the finding that students who were taught in their native language had increased levels of self-esteem.

Page Ref: 177-179

2) What strategy or strategies might you use to help the new students succeed in your class?

 

Answer:  In order to help the next students be successful it is important to take a broad multicultural education approach rather than simply addressing language issues. In particular, James Banks argues a comprehensive multicultural education includes the following: integrating content for a variety of cultures and groups; helping students understand how the discipline-specific implicit cultural assumptions influence knowledge constructed within the discipline; reducing prejudice by identifying and modifying students racial attitudes; examining school culture and social structure and creating a school culture that empowers students from all groups; and providing an equity pedagogy that matches teaching styles to students learning styles and individual differences.  In regards to specific classrooms, Banks suggests teachers use examples and content from many cultures and groups to illustrate key concepts, principles, and general theories in their subject area.  Researchers also recommend teachers become familiar with stereotype threat, which is the extra emotional and cognitive burden that that a student of a minority group may experience when feeling apprehensive about confirming a stereotype. This burden can induce a students test anxiety and undermine their academic performance.  Woolfolk suggests the strategies teachers use for decreasing test anxiety (e.g., no time limit for exams) can also be useful for helping students resist stereotype threat.  A final strategy for a teacher in this situation is to ensure the Cambodian students in this case study have access to good models, are given clear instructions for all learning tasks, and have opportunities for practicing their English skills.

Page Ref: 171,181-183

3) In your opinion, whose responsibility is it to teach the children to communicate fluently in English (the schools, the families, or both)? Explain.

 

Answer:  It is very important for teachers to involve family members in language instructional strategies.  In this example, as the Cambodian children learn English they are likely to adopt standard speech and may rely less upon their dialect.  Standard speech is the most generally accepted and used form of language.  A dialect is the language variation, which may be spoken in the childs home and is an important part of the groups collective identity.  While it is the teachers and schools responsibility to deal with linguistic diversity in their classroom, it is also their responsibility to work collaboratively with students family members.  During parent-teacher conferences, the teacher can validate that he or she accepts others who speak a different dialect.  It is also crucial for teachers to communicate with family members in order to encourage parents to provide a sufficient amount of practice for the child learning English.  Also, the teacher can discuss with the family members the importance of supporting the student, who is often required to engage in code-switching.  Code-switching is when the child successfully switches from one language, dialect, or non-verbal behavior to another depending on the situation. Language is also influenced by culture.  Therefore, in addition to focusing on increasing the English skills of all students, teachers and school personnel are responsible for creating culturally compatible classrooms.  Culturally compatible classrooms are based on rules, procedures, and grouping strategies that do not cause conflicts with students cultural differences.

Page Ref: 174-177

 

Cannon Elementary School has always held a school-wide Christmas show. The school is in a suburb of a large city and draws from a diverse, multicultural student population. While the Christmas show has always been presented without incident, this year four sets of parents of different religious orientations complain that they feel it is inappropriate for their children to be singing songs that celebrate a particular faith (Christianity). All indicate that they enjoy the holiday season; their objection is with the religious aspect.

 

4) What would you say to these parents? Explain why you would give these answers.

 

Answer:  The first thing to do would be to thank the parents for coming to see you and sharing their concerns. You will want to explicitly state to the parents that it is your goal to engage in culturally relevant teaching.  In regards to the celebration of holidays and special events, it may be necessary to evaluate the extent to which you have relied on the celebration of a particular faith (Christianity in this example) at the potential neglect of other faiths. If you believe you have not included other faiths, you may want to ask the parents who came to see you if they would be willing to assist you in using holidays as a chance to discuss the origins and meanings of traditions.  Let the parents know you are genuinely interested in learning about the customs, traditions, and values of all of your students.  One strategy might be to design a curriculum unit that analyzes different traditions for common themes.

Page Ref: 181-183

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5) What are some things schools and teachers can do in this instance to accommodate cultural diversity?

 

Answer:  In addition to evaluating your holiday celebrations, you will also want to reflect upon your curriculum and grouping arrangements to ensure you are engaging in culturally relevant teaching.  You will want to analyze your curriculum for any potential cultural biases.  Woolfolk suggests teachers can also encourage their students to become bias detectors, especially for critiquing information from the media.  In regards to grouping arrangements, you could try study buddies or pairs, which will encourage students to interact with others who may be culturally different from them selves.  Another strategy recommended by Woolfolk for dealing with cultural diversity is for teachers to attend community fairs and cultural festivals.  Cultural diversity requires teachers to know their own biases, stereotypes, traditions, and values.  It is also important for teachers to know the cultural beliefs, values, and norms of their students.  According to Ladson-Billings research, the best teachers are those who provide culturally relevant pedagogy for students of color.  Culturally relevant pedagogy includes the following components: student experience authentic academic success; student develop and maintain their cultural competence; students develop a critical consciousness to challenge the status quo and social inequities.

Page Ref: 181-183

Chapter 13:  Teaching Every Student

 

Multiple-Choice Questions

 

1) Woolfolk suggests that advanced planning is important primarily because such planning

  1. A) allows the teacher more time to correct daily work.
  2. B) dictates course readings and requirements.
  3. C) eliminates uncertainty in teaching.
  4. D) influences what students will learn.

 

Answer:  D

Explanation:  D) The key factor of advance planning is to influence what students will learn. This influence occurs as a result of determining how available time and resources will be transformed into activities and assignments for students. Planning also eliminates some uncertainty in teaching, but that is a secondary benefit relative to influencing student learning.

Page Ref: 458

Skill:  Knowledge

 

2) Which one of the following statements is TRUE with regard to instructional planning?

  1. A) For experienced teachers, daily planning is more important than unit or weekly planning.
  2. B) It is more critical at the beginning of the year for teachers than at any other time.
  3. C) It is more critical in elementary grades than in the higher grade levels.
  4. D) Once plans are devised they should generally be followed without variation.

 

Answer:  B

Explanation:  B) Planning appears to be more critical at the beginning of the year than at any other time, because many procedures, rules, and routines are established early. Plans should be flexible and initially concentrate on the unit level, followed by weekly and then daily planning.

Page Ref: 458

Skill:  Knowledge

 

3) Which one of the following is likely to be an objective written by a teacher from the cognitive viewpoint?

  1. A) Students will list four characteristics of classic drama.
  2. B) Students will define and conjugate ten French verbs.
  3. C) Students will calculate the answers to distance problems.
  4. D) Students will understand aesthetic distance in drama.

 

Answer:  D

Explanation:  D) Cognitive objectives refer to internal changes, unlike behavioral objectives that stress observable or external changes. An example of a cognitive objective would be the students will understand aesthetic distance in drama. Note that this type of outcome is difficult to measure (what does understand mean?).

Page Ref: 460

Skill:  Understanding

4) Which one of the following objectives illustrates an appropriate behavioral example of the cognitive objective, Students will be able to understand the concept of correlation?

  1. A) Achieve mastery on a quiz dealing with correlation issues.
  2. B) Appreciate how and when correlation is used.
  3. C) Comprehend the meaning of the concept of correlation.
  4. D) Identify instances of positive and negative correlation.

 

Answer:  D

Explanation:  D) An appropriate behavioral example of the objective, The student must understand correlation, is can identify instances of positive and negative correlation. The verb identify describes a more observable and measurable outcome than do verbs such as appreciate or comprehend. Further, in alternative a, simply saying achieve mastery is ambiguous (what is meant by mastery?).

Page Ref: 459

Skill:  Understanding

P:  .29

D:  .21

 

5) In order to measure the outcomes of cognitive objectives more easily, the objectives should be

  1. A) based on test questions.
  2. B) clarified with specific examples.
  3. C) conceptualized as a general case.
  4. D) presented to the class prior to a lesson.

 

Answer:  B

Explanation:  B) Cognitive objectives are easier to measure when they are clarified with specific examples. This process involves trying to specify the particular behaviors that would be demonstrated if the objective were achieved.

Page Ref: 460

Skill:  Knowledge

P:  .40

D:  .10

 

6) An advantage of Gronlunds approach to writing objectives over Magers is

  1. A) clearer specification of the criterion for evaluation.
  2. B) easier procedures for writing the statements.
  3. C) greater flexibility for expressing cognitive learning outcomes.
  4. D) inclusion of the three major components of valid objectives.

 

Answer:  C

Explanation:  C) Gronlunds system is advantageous relative to Magers for allowing greater flexibility in expressing cognitive objectives. Cognitive objectives are difficult to operationalize because they emphasize internal outcomes such as comprehend, assimilate, and understand. Gronlunds system allows the teacher to use these types of verbs supported by a listing of exemplary behaviors. Magers system is more specific and uses knowledge-level verbs primarily, such as define, list, and identify.

Page Ref: 459-460

Skill:  Knowledge

P:  .62

D:  .32

7) Which one of the following objectives is complete according to Magers guidelines?

  1. A) Given colored pictures of fruits and vegetables, students will correctly classify them with a high degree of accuracy.
  2. B) Students will correctly identify the function of the four major organs in the digestive system without using notes.
  3. C) Students will correctly recall the major bones of the human body.
  4. D) Using a calculator, students will solve division problems containing fractions.

 

 

 

Answer:  B

Explanation:  B) A complete Mager-type objective is the student will correctly identify the functions of four major organs in the digestive system without using notes. This objective includes a condition (no notes), behavior (identify), and performance criteria (must correctly identify four organs).

Page Ref: 459-460

Skill:  Understanding

P:  .55

D:  .23

 

8) Given the objective students will be able to write complete sentences using words from a new vocabulary list, identify whether Magers three criteria for a correctly stated behavioral objective are present or absent in this objective.

 

Behavior                               Condition                            Criterion

  1. A) Absent Absent Absent
  2. B) Absent Present Absent
  3. C) Present Present Absent
  4. D) Present Present Present

 

Answer:  C

Explanation:  C) In the objective presented, only the behavior and condition elements of Magers system are present. The criterion is missing: students will be able to write complete sentences (behavior) using words from a new vocabulary list (condition).

Page Ref: 460

Skill:  Understanding

P:  .54

D:  .45

 

9) The primary value of Blooms taxonomy of cognitive objectives is that it can

  1. A) lead educators to th

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