ESSENCE OF ANTHROPOLOGY 4TH EDITION By HAVILAND -Test Bank

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ESSENCE OF ANTHROPOLOGY 4TH EDITION By HAVILAND -Test Bank

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ESSENCE OF ANTHROPOLOGY 4TH EDITION By HAVILAND -Test Bank

Chapter_02_Biology_Genetics_and_Evolution_

True / False

 

1. Evolution is the central organizing principle of the biological sciences.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   31
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

2. Linnaeuss classificatory system reflected a new understanding of life on earth at that time.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   32
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   New

 

3. Humans are primates.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   32
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

4. The system of nature is an approach to classify all of animate and inanimate nature.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   32
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

5. Taxonomy is an ancient form of classification created by Linnaeus that is no longer used today.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   32
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

6. A bats wing is analogous to a human hand.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   32
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

7. Uniformitarianism is a more recent theory than catastrophism.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   33
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   New

 

8. Even prior to Darwins publication, many European naturalists accepted the idea that life had evolved.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   33
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

9. Mendel published his findings in a respectable scientific journal, but no one understood their significance until after his death.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   35
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

10. Genes are particulate, meaning that they are separate structures rather than portions of DNA.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   36
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

11. Darwin could not initially understand how variation occurred in living organisms.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   35
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   New

 

12. DNA provides the instruction for the thousands of proteins that keep us healthy every day.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   36
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

13. The complete sequence of human DNA is called the genome.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   37
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

14. If two body cells merge in meiosis, the result is a cell with 46 pairs of chromosomes.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   40
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

15. Testing for DNA is the best way to determine those who form part of an individuals family.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   41
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   New

 

16. When two alleles on the same gene are not identical, they are called heterozygous.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   42
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   New

 

17. In the search for disease cures, scientists often predict an individuals genotype.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   42
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

18. The only source of new genetic material is random drift.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   44
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

19. Founder effects are a kind of genetic drift.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   45
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

20. The existence of Homo sapiens as an interbreeding species is due to gene flow.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   46
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

21. Ultimately, all natural selection is measured in terms of reproductive success.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   46
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   New

 

22. In sickle-cell anemia, the individual does not produce any red blood cells.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   47
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   New

 

23. Cultural processes complicate studies of biological adaptation.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   48
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   New

 

24. Speciation always occurs quite rapidly.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   49
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   New

 

25. Cladogenesis is a sustained directional shift in a populations gene pool.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   49
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   New

 

Multiple Choice

 

26. How do anthropologists classify the Nez Perce story about Coyote and Wishpoosh?

  a. apocalyptic myth
  b. salvation myth
  c. childrens myth
  d. creation myth

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   31
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

27. Which of the following describes the primary difference between creation stories and evolution?

  a. Creation stories are particular to cultures, and evolution is bound by hypotheses and scientific language.
  b. Creation stories are cyclical in nature, and evolution is a linear theory.
  c. Evolution explains how things change, and creation stories do not change.
  d. Evolution is a Western theory, and creation stories are not found in the West.

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   31
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   New

 

28. Evolution can be described as:

  a. an anti-creationist account of the origin of life
  b. the foundation of culture in contemporary society
  c. the major organizing principle of the biological sciences
  d. the major organizing principle of the social sciences

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   31
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

29. All of the following are true of evolution except:

  a. It provides an explanation for the diversity of life.
  b. It emphasizes human uniqueness and human origin.
  c. It utilizes hypotheses as a way of testing.
  d. It uses consistent scientific language.

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   31
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   New

 

30. Which of the following statements is false?

  a. Evolution explains diversity through scientific language using hypotheses.
  b. Evolution explains diversity through scientific language using theories.
  c. Evolution can explain diversity, and creation myths cannot.
  d. Creation myths and evolutionary accounts do not differ in any substantial way.

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   31
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   Modify

 

31. Which scientist developed the Systema Naturae?

  a. Aristotle
  b. Carolus Linnaeus
  c. Jean-Baptiste Lamarck
  d. Charles Darwin

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   32
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

32. Which of the following is the smallest working unit in biological classification?

  a. phylum
  b. mammal
  c. genus
  d. species

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   32
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   New

 

33. Linnaeus noted the similarities among humans, monkeys, and apes and classified them as:

  a. hominids
  b. primates
  c. anthropoids
  d. apes

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   32
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   New

 

34. Mammals have all of the following characteristics except:

  a. They have body hair.
  b. They nurse their young.
  c. They do not give birth to live young.
  d. They include the primates.

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   32
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   New

 

35. A reproductively isolated population or group capable of interbreeding to produce fertile offspring is a:

  a. genus
  b. category
  c. family
  d. species

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   32
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

36. How would you best describe a genus?

  a. a group of like species
  b. a subdivision of species
  c. a subspecies
  d. archaic forms of species

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   32
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

37. Linnaeus based his classificatory system on each of the following except:

  a. sequence of bodily growth
  b. body structure
  c. body function
  d. body size

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   32
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   New

 

38. Homo describes a human:

  a. order
  b. homology
  c. genus
  d. species

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   32
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

39. The comparison of the anatomical structures of wings on a bat to the wings on a butterfly is an example of:

  a. homology
  b. taxonomy
  c. analogy
  d. phylogeny

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   32
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

40. The comparison of the anatomical structures of a human arm to the wing of a bat is an example of:

  a. homology
  b. taxonomy
  c. analogy
  d. phylogeny

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   32
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

41. Invoking natural events, such as the great flood in the Book of Genesis, to account for species disappearance is an example of:

  a. exploitation
  b. system of nature
  c. Great Chain of Being
  d. catastrophism

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   33
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

42. The theory that maintains that although some changes in the earths surface are immediately observable and caused by erosion and other natural processes, other changes are caused by gradual processes over extremely long periods of time is called:

  a. natural selection
  b. catastrophism
  c. linearism
  d. uniformitarianism

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   33
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   New

 

43. Of the following, which is the widest (most broad and inclusive) taxonomic category?

  a. family
  b. order
  c. phylum
  d. species

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   33
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Modify

 

44. Darwins theory was known as the theory of:

  a. natural selection
  b. natural variation
  c. animal evolution
  d. circumnavigation

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   34
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

45. Who proposed that animal populations remained stable over time because of the high proportion of animal offspring not surviving to maturity?

  a. Gregor Mendel
  b. Charles Darwin
  c. Thomas Malthus
  d. Charles Lyell

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   34
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

46. Whose research developed the basic laws of heredity?

  a. Gregor Mendel
  b. Charles Lyell
  c. Thomas Malthus
  d. Charles Darwin

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   35
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Modify

 

47. Today, Darwins evolutionary theory is supported by data from all of the following except:

  a. population genetics
  b. heredity
  c. molecular genetics
  d. protogenetics

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   35
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   Modify

 

48. What was scientific about Gregor Mendels approach to gardening?

  a. He was a scientist and worked to create commercial plants.
  b. He took systematic notes and was able to identify patterns of heredity.
  c. He bred garden plants to obtain higher yields.
  d. He worked to breed garden plants to obtain better varieties.

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   35
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   Modify

 

49. The principle that variants of genes for a particular trait retain their separate identities through the generations is called:

  a. natural selection
  b. law of segregation
  c. law of heredity
  d. law of independent assortment

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   36
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

50. A portion of the DNA molecule containing a sequence of base pairs that encodes a particular protein is known as a:

  a. gene
  b. allele
  c. double helix
  d. chromosome

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   36
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

51. Mendel discovered that inheritance was particulate, not:

  a. blended
  b. separated
  c. molded
  d. selected

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   36
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

52. Alleles are:

  a. the cell nucleus
  b. structures that carry specific proteins
  c. alternate forms of a single gene
  d. pieces of DNA

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   36
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

53. Sex cell division is called:

  a. independent assortment
  b. segregation
  c. meiosis
  d. mitosis

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   40
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

54. Which of the following is not one of the four base pairs?

  a. glucosamine
  b. cytosine
  c. adenine
  d. thymine

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   37
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

55. The process of transcription is related to:

  a. the conversion of DNA into a protein
  b. the division of cells in a sister chromatid
  c. the replication of cells in segregation
  d. mutation events in reproduction

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   37
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   New

 

56. In protein synthesis, all of the following are involved except:

  a. RNA
  b. ribosomes
  c. codon
  d. fovea centralis

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   37
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   New

 

57. Cell division begins when chromosomal DNA replicates and each chromosome becomes a pair of:

  a. nuclei
  b. sister chromatids
  c. mother chromatids
  d. eukaryotes

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   38
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   New

 

58. Cell division that involves exact replication of parent cells is called:

  a. mitosis
  b. mitochondriosis
  c. meiosis
  d. cloning

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   38
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

59. Proteins are significant to the life of the organism in various ways. Those that initiate and direct chemical reactions are called:

  a. enzymes
  b. protons
  c. codons
  d. ribosomes

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   37
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   New

 

60. Which of the following terms best describes the 3 billion chemical bases with 20,000 to 25,000 genes that define humans?

  a. ribosome
  b. genome
  c. enzyme
  d. transcription

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   37
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   New

 

61. During meiosis, genes are divided into:

  a. two new cells
  b. four new cells
  c. six new cells
  d. eight new cells

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   40
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

62. In the Biocultural Connection, why did the U.S. government support using DNA tests at the Dadaab refugee camp in Nairobi, Kenya?

  a. to test individuals for basic health and determine carriers of disease
  b. to test asylum seekers to determine whether they were related to a U.S. citizen
  c. to test families to see if they were legitimate refugees in the U.S. facility there
  d. to test whether any of those seeking asylum has originated in the United States

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   41
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   New

 

63. What deficiencies were revealed in the DNA testing protocol among refugees in the Dadaab refugee camp in Nairobi, Kenya?

  a. Family relationship is not solely constituted by biology.
  b. Families did not always carry the same types of genetic markers.
  c. Families did not understand why DNA was needed and often refused.
  d. Families did not want to live with relatives in the United States.

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   41
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   New

 

64. If a young man has type A blood, this is his:

  a. DNA
  b. genome
  c. phenotype
  d. genotype

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   42
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

65. Chimpanzees and humans share what percentage of DNA similarity?

  a. 90
  b. 95
  c. 97
  d. 98

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   43
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

66. The chimps genome is estimated to be what percentage larger than the humans?

  a. 50
  b. 75
  c. 10
  d. 25

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   43
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

67. Because type O blood is codominant, a woman with type O blood knows that OO is her:

  a. DNA
  b. genome
  c. phenotype
  d. genotype

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   42
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

68. Which of the following best describes polygenetic inheritance?

  a. An individual receives multiple alleles from more than two parents.
  b. Characteristics resulting from polygenetic inheritance exhibit a wide variation in genotypic expression.
  c. Characteristics resulting from polygenetic inheritance exhibit a wide variation in phenotypic expression.
  d. Characteristics most commonly result in mutation.

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   44
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   New

 

69. All of the following are evolutionary forces except:

  a. genetic drift
  b. gene flow
  c. genetic cloning
  d. mutation

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   44
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

70. In evolutionary terms, what kind of force is mutation?

  a. It is negative because mutation decreases chances for survival.
  b. It is positive because it provides variation for selection.
  c. It is neutral because variation does not matter in the long run.
  d. Mutation cannot be evaluated in these terms.

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   44
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

71. What variable force is most important to adaptation over time?

  a. founder effects
  b. genetic drift
  c. random mutation
  d. gene flow

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   44
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

72. Chance fluctuations of allele frequencies in the gene pool of a population are evidences of:

  a. genetic drift
  b. gene flow
  c. mutation
  d. directional selection

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   44
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

73. Founder effects is a type of:

  a. gene flow
  b. genetic drift
  c. natural selection
  d. environmental selection

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   45
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

74. A small group of people with several color-blind individuals moves from the mainland to a previously uninhabited, secluded island. Two hundred years later, 5 percent of the people of the island have color-blindness. This is an example of:

  a. founder effects
  b. population bottleneck
  c. mutation
  d. gene flow

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   45
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

75. Interbreeding allows for:

  a. gene flow
  b. genetic drift
  c. genetic cloning
  d. genetic testing

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   46
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   Modify

 

76. Which evolutionary force keeps populations from developing into separate species?

  a. founder effects
  b. mutation
  c. random genetic drift
  d. gene flow

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   46
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   Modify

 

77. A painful disease in which oxygen-carrying red blood cells change into abnormal shapes is called:

  a. anemia
  b. natural blood selection
  c. trisomy 21
  d. sickle-cell anemia

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   47
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

78. Adaptation can best be described as:

  a. an inherited form of anemia caused by a mutation
  b. dominant characteristics in the gene pool
  c. a series of beneficial adjustments to the environment
  d. the introduction of alleles from the gene pool of a nonnative population

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   46
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

79. Ultimately all natural selection is biologically measured in terms of:

  a. reproductive success
  b. environmental adaptation
  c. macroevolution
  d. random genetic frequency

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   46
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   New

 

80. The biological term fitness refers to:

  a. physical and mental prowess
  b. physical stamina and longevity
  c. reproductive potential
  d. stabilizing influences

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   46
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   New

 

81. Each of the following commonly affects mutation rates except:

  a. stress
  b. radiation
  c. antibiotics
  d. fitness

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   44
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   New

 

82. Which of the following statements about adaptation is incorrect?

  a. Many traits have no adaptive function.
  b. Adaptations are adjustments to a specific environment.
  c. Adaptation at a genetic level reveals natural selection.
  d. Natural selection and adaptation always promote genetic change.

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   46
OTHER:  

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