Earth Science 14th Edition by Tarbuck and Lutgens Test Bank

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Earth Science 14th Edition by Tarbuck and Lutgens Test Bank

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WITH ANSWERS
Earth Science 14th Edition by Tarbuck and Lutgens Test Bank

Earth Science, 14e (Tarbuck/Lutgens)

Chapter 2   Matter and Minerals

 

1) The first minerals to be mined were ________ and ________.

  1. A) gold, silver
  2. B) copper, bronze
  3. C) flint, chert
  4. D) lead, quartz

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  2.1 Minerals: Building Blocks of Rocks

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

2) Which of the following is not a criterion for defining something as a mineral?

  1. A) Naturally occurring
  2. B) Hard
  3. C) Generally inorganic
  4. D) Orderly crystalline structure

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  2.1 Minerals: Building Blocks of Rocks

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

3) Which of the following is a mineral as defined by a geologist?

  1. A) boulder
  2. B) concrete
  3. C) sugar
  4. D) salt
  5. E) water

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  2.1 Minerals: Building Blocks of Rocks

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

4) Why are boulders not a mineral?

  1. A) They are not naturally occurring.
  2. B) They are organic.
  3. C) They are not solid.
  4. D) They do not have an orderly crystalline structure.
  5. E) They do not have a well-defined chemical composition.

Answer:  E

Diff: 1

Topic:  2.1 Minerals: Building Blocks of Rocks

Blooms Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

 

5) Limestone is composed almost entirely of calcite which has the chemical formula CaCO3. As a result, limestone is classified as ________.

  1. A) a mineral
  2. B) a rock
  3. C) both a mineral and a rock
  4. D) neither a mineral nor a rock because it is organic

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  2.1 Minerals: Building Blocks of Rocks

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

6) Which of the following best defines a mineral and a rock?

  1. A) A rock has an orderly, repetitive, geometrical, internal arrangement of minerals; a mineral is a lithified or consolidated aggregate of rocks.
  2. B) A mineral consists of its constituent atoms arranged in a geometrically repetitive structure; in a rock, the atoms are randomly bonded without any geometric pattern.
  3. C) In a mineral the constituent atoms are bonded in a regular, repetitive, internal structure; a rock is a lithified or consolidated aggregate of different mineral grains.
  4. D) A rock consists of atoms bonded in a regular, geometrically predictable arrangement; a mineral is a consolidated aggregate of different rock particles.

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  2.1 Minerals: Building Blocks of Rocks

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

7) Which one of the following is not true for minerals?

  1. A) They have a specific, internal, crystalline structure.
  2. B) They can be a liquid, solid, or gas.
  3. C) Many have a specific, predictable chemical composition.
  4. D) They can be identified by characteristic physical properties.

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  2.1 Minerals: Building Blocks of Rocks

Blooms Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

 

8) Which of the following is not a fundamental particle found in atoms?

  1. A) neutron
  2. B) selectron
  3. C) electron
  4. D) protons

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  2.2 Atoms: Building Blocks of Minerals

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

9) Atoms of the same element, zinc for example, have the same number of ________.

  1. A) electrons in the nucleus
  2. B) protons in the nucleus
  3. C) neutrons in the outer nuclear shell
  4. D) electrons in the valence bond level

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  2.2 Atoms: Building Blocks of Minerals

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

10) Which the following denotes the positively charged particles in an atoms nucleus?

  1. A) protons
  2. B) electrons
  3. C) isotrons
  4. D) neutrons

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  2.2 Atoms: Building Blocks of Minerals

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

11) An atoms mass number is 13 and its atomic number is 6. How many neutrons are in its nucleus?

  1. A) 19
  2. B) 7
  3. C) 13
  4. D) 6

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  2.2 Atoms: Building Blocks of Minerals

Blooms Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

 

12) Heavy elements like Pb (lead) and U (Uranium) were generated ________.

  1. A) by humans in nuclear reactors
  2. B) during the big band when the universe was formed
  3. C) by the Sun and expelled to the solar system via the solar wind
  4. D) during collapse of a star and subsequent nuclear synthesis in a supernova

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  2.2 Atoms: Building Blocks of Minerals

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

 

13) Which of the following minerals is not a chemical compound?

  1. A) quartz (SiO2)
  2. B) halite (NaCl)
  3. C) graphite (C)
  4. D) pyrite (FeS)

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  2.2 Atoms: Building Blocks of Minerals

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

14) When Calcium (Ca) bonds with oxygen, it gives up two electrons. What is the charge of the Ca ion in this compound?

  1. A) +1
  2. B) -1
  3. C) +2
  4. D) -2

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  2.2 Atoms: Building Blocks of Minerals

Blooms Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

 

15) Which electrons are responsible for most chemical bonding?

  1. A) outer electron shell because these electrons can be readily exchanged with adjacent atoms
  2. B) innermost electron shell because the electrons can be transferred to the nucleus
  3. C) middle electron shell because they are intermediate in distance between the nucleus and the adjacent atom that bonds with the atom
  4. D) Any electron can exchange with adjacent atoms to form a bond; there is no preference.

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  2.2 Atoms: Building Blocks of Minerals

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

Use the Periodic table below to answer the following questions:

 

 

 

16) Element 20, Ca, has what chemical property?

  1. A) It behaves as a metal ion, giving up two electrons to form a +2 ion.
  2. B) It tends to form covalent bonds and an ion with a charge of +1.
  3. C) It behaves as a nonmetal, accepting electrons to form an ion with charge -2.
  4. D) It tends to be inert, and thus is dispersed throughout the crust.

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  2.2 Atoms: Building Blocks of Minerals

Blooms Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

 

17) Element 17 (Cl) and 9 (F) ________.

  1. A) are chemically very different because they lie directly below each other on the periodic table
  2. B) are chemically similar because they lie directly below each other on the periodic table
  3. C) behave as metals because they lie on the right side of the periodic table
  4. D) are chemically relatively inert because they adjacent to the inert gases on the periodic table

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  2.2 Atoms: Building Blocks of Minerals

Blooms Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

 

18) Be is to Mg as ________.

  1. A) K is to Mg
  2. B) Ti is to V
  3. C) K is to Rb
  4. D) Ti is to F

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  2.2 Atoms: Building Blocks of Minerals

Blooms Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

 

19) The columns of the periodic table divide atoms by their ________.

  1. A) number of valence electrons
  2. B) atomic mass
  3. C) number of protons
  4. D) number of neutrons

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  2.3 Why Atoms Bond

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

20) Atoms that share electrons have a(n) ________ bond.

  1. A) covalent
  2. B) ionic
  3. C) partial
  4. D) metallic

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  2.3 Why Atoms Bond

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

21) When electrons are shared amongst all atoms, the resulting bond is a(n) ________ bond.

  1. A) covalent
  2. B) ionic
  3. C) partial
  4. D) metallic

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  2.3 Why Atoms Bond

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

 

22) The bond between sodium (Na) and Chlorine (Cl) to form halite (salt) is a(n) ________ bond.

  1. A) ionic
  2. B) valent
  3. C) covalent
  4. D) metallic

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  2.3 Why Atoms Bond

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

23) The bond between two hydrogen atoms (a covalent bond) is based on the force of attraction between ________.

  1. A) two atoms
  2. B) two nuclei
  3. C) two ions
  4. D) protons in the nuclei and electrons surrounding the nuclei

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  2.3 Why Atoms Bond

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

24) One significant difference between an ionic bond, where electrons are taken from one atom and added to another atom, and a covalent or metallic bond, where electrons are shared, is ________.

  1. A) ionic bonds are stronger than covalent or metallic bonds
  2. B) ionic bonds produce ions but covalent and metallic bonds do not produce ions
  3. C) ionic bonds make a material more malleable than covalent and metallic bonds
  4. D) ionic bonds do not result in the attraction of oppositely charged atoms, but covalent and metallic bonds do

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  2.3 Why Atoms Bond

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

25) Atoms that have an electrical charge due to a gain or loss of electrons are called ________.

  1. A) isotopes
  2. B) ions
  3. C) isochrons
  4. D) periodic elements

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  2.3 Why Atoms Bond

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

 

26) What mineral is the hardest known substance in nature?

  1. A) silicate
  2. B) native gold
  3. C) diamond
  4. D) muscovite

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  2.4 Properties of a Mineral

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

27) Which mineral reacts readily with cool, dilute hydrochloric acid to produce visible bubbles of carbon dioxide gas?

  1. A) calcite
  2. B) quartz
  3. C) gypsum
  4. D) plagioclase

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  2.4 Properties of a Mineral

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

28) The resistance of a mineral to abrasion is known as ________.

  1. A) luster
  2. B) cleavage
  3. C) streak
  4. D) hardness

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  2.4 Properties of a Mineral

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

29) The strong tendency of certain minerals to break along smooth, parallel planes is known as ________.

  1. A) streak
  2. B) cleavage
  3. C) cracking luster
  4. D) habit

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  2.4 Properties of a Mineral

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

 

30) The most unreliable (variable) diagnostic property of minerals such as quartz is ________.

  1. A) hardness
  2. B) habit
  3. C) specific gravity
  4. D) color

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  2.4 Properties of a Mineral

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

31) Wood floats in water, 1 gram is defined as the mass of 1 cubic centimeter of water, a cubic centimeter of quartz weighs ~2.65 g and a cubic centimeter of galena weighs about 7.5 g. The density of these materials from highest to lowest is ________.

  1. A) wood, quartz, galena, water
  2. B) galena, quartz, water, wood
  3. C) galena, quartz, wood, water
  4. D) water, wood, quartz, galena

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  2.4 Properties of a Mineral

Blooms Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

32) What does the tendency of micas to produce thin cleavage flakes suggest about its crystal structure?

  1. A) The crystal structure is characterized by complex polymerized mats that form a sheetlike structure.
  2. B) The structure is characterized by rings that form an interlocking network, forming planar sheets.
  3. C) The structure is produced by flow in the igneous rock, aligning glass layers within the crystal structure.
  4. D) The atoms are arranged in orderly arrangements that form strongly bonded sheets separated by weak bonds between the sheets.

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  2.4 Properties of a Mineral

Blooms Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

 

33) Angles are important when looking at which physical properties of minerals?

  1. A) cleavages
  2. B) color streaks
  3. C) bands of different luster
  4. D) conchoidal fractures

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  2.4 Properties of a Mineral

Blooms Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

 

34) Which of the following physical properties is not generally used to identify most minerals?

  1. A) luster
  2. B) smell
  3. C) cleavage
  4. D) hardness

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  2.4 Properties of a Mineral

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

35) Geologists may choose to lick a mineral to identify it.  What mineral is the geologist expecting with this test?

  1. A) a sulfide bearing rock which will taste like rotten eggs
  2. B) NaCl (halite) or KCl (sylvite)
  3. C) None, it clears the dust off the sample so he/she can see if more clearly.
  4. D) None, they are clearing the hydrochloric acid from the sample to rerun a test for calcite.

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  2.4 Properties of a Mineral

Blooms Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

36) Which of the following describes the light reflecting and transmission characteristics of a mineral?

  1. A) luster
  2. B) color streak
  3. C) virtual absorption
  4. D) fluorescence

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  2.4 Properties of a Mineral

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

37) When a mineral fractures along a cleavage plane, what does this suggest about the crystal structure of the mineral?

  1. A) The atoms are arranged in a simple orderly arrangement with uniform bonding.
  2. B) The crystal structure contains planes along which chemical bonding is much weaker than other directions.
  3. C) The crystal grows only planar faces that become weak zones that form cleavage.
  4. D) The crystal contains warped planes called twin planes that weaken the crystal structure and allow it fracture along a planar surface, causing cleavage.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Topic:  2.4 Properties of a Mineral

Blooms Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

 

 

38) Why do the minerals calcite and dolomite bubble with the mineral or its powder are placed in hydrochloric acid?

  1. A) Both minerals are sulfides, and the acid reacts to release sulfur dioxide gas.
  2. B) Both minerals are metal hydrides, and when placed in hydrochloric acid they give off hydrogen gas.
  3. C) The acid and the mineral together react with oxygen in the air, releasing CO2 gas.
  4. D) The acid reacts with the mineral to release CO2 gas that is bound into the crystal as carbonate ion.

Answer:  D

Diff: 2

Topic:  2.4 Properties of a Mineral

Blooms Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

 

39) The mineral fluorite is commonly sold in mineral shops as octahedral (8-sided) objects. This shape originates from ________.

  1. A) the typical crystal form of fluorite
  2. B) a pseudomorph (false form) of fluorite from replacement of a salt, potassium chlorite, that grows in octahedral crystals
  3. C) the growth of fluorite in caves and is the form the crystals grow in the open cavern
  4. D) cutting a larger crystal along four perfect cleavage planes, forming a cleavage fragment

Answer:  D

Diff: 2

Topic:  2.4 Properties of a Mineral

Blooms Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

40) Quartz has a characteristic conchoidal fracture, yet rock shops often sell quartz as elongate six sided objects with a pointed termination. What causes this shape?

  1. A) The rock shop cuts them that way with abrasives. The facets are cut to give the crystals more power for the crystal people.
  2. B) The planar faces that form the object are crystal faces that grow when the crystals grew into a void.
  3. C) Quartz usually is amorphous, consistent with its conchoidal fracture, but when it grows it grows against minerals with planar faces, causing this shape.
  4. D) You should never buy a crystal like this because it is clearly fake, only artificial crystals grow this way.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Topic:  2.4 Properties of a Mineral

Blooms Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

 

 

41) A cubic centimeter of quartz, olivine, and gold weighs 2.5, 3.0, and 19.8 grams, respectively.  This indicates that ________.

  1. A) gold has a higher density and specific gravity than quartz and olivine
  2. B) gold is 6 to 7 times harder than olivine and quartz
  3. C) gold and olivine are silicates, whereas quartz is elemental silicon
  4. D) olivine and quartz powders are harder than metallic gold

Answer:  A

Diff: 2

Topic:  2.4 Properties of a Mineral

Blooms Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

 

42) Although it is relatively common, limestone is an economically important rock type because its major constituent mineral, ________, is used in the production of ________.

  1. A) halite, salt
  2. B) calcite, calcium
  3. C) calcite, cement
  4. D) halite, halogen

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  2.5 Mineral Groups

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

43) Which of the following is not a common rock forming mineral?

  1. A) potassium
  2. B) iron
  3. C) carbon
  4. D) magnesium

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  2.5 Mineral Groups

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

44) Which two elements combine to make most of the common rock forming minerals in the crust?

  1. A) carbon and oxygen
  2. B) nitrogen and oxygen
  3. C) silicon and oxygen
  4. D) silicon and nitrogen
  5. E) carbon and nitrogen

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  2.5 Mineral Groups

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

 

45) The most common group of rock forming minerals is ________.

  1. A) carbonate
  2. B) the silicates
  3. C) the sulfates
  4. D) the halides

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  2.5 Mineral Groups

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

46) The most common group of silicates is ________.

  1. A) feldspar
  2. B) quartz
  3. C) mica
  4. D) granite

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  2.5 Mineral Groups

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

47) The basic building block of a silicate is composed of ________.

  1. A) 1 oxygen and 1 silicon
  2. B) 2 oxygens and 1 silicon
  3. C) 3 oxygens and 1 silicon
  4. D) 4 oxygens and 1 silicon

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  2.5 Mineral Groups

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

48) Silicates most commonly form ________.

  1. A) at the surface of the earth
  2. B) from other silicates
  3. C) from cooling molten rock
  4. D) under extreme pressure

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  2.5 Mineral Groups

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

49) Clay is an example of ________.

  1. A) a carbonate that forms from weathering of other carbonates
  2. B) a silicate that forms from weathering of other silicates
  3. C) a sulfate that forms from weathering of other sulfates
  4. D) a halide that forms from weathering of other halides

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  2.5 Mineral Groups

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

50) Light colored silicates have a specific gravity of about 2.7 grams/cm3 are composed primarily of the silica tetrahedra and ________.

  1. A) iron, magnesium, calcium, and sodium
  2. B) aluminum, magnesium, calcium, and iron
  3. C) magnesium, aluminum, sodium, and calcium
  4. D) potassium, calcium, sodium, and aluminum
  5. E) potassium, aluminum, magnesium, and sodium

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  2.5 Mineral Groups

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

51) Clay minerals are light silicates that form ________.

  1. A) from molten rock
  2. B) from mechanical weathering of any rock
  3. C) from chemical weathering of igneous rocks
  4. D) from pressure and heat.

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  2.5 Mineral Groups

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

52) Dark Silicates have a specific gravity of 3.2 to 3.6 and are composed primarily of silica tetrahedral and ________.

  1. A) iron and magnesium
  2. B) aluminum and magnesium
  3. C) aluminum and sodium
  4. D) potassium and calcium
  5. E) potassium and iron

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  2.5 Mineral Groups

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

53) Carbonates always include ________.

  1. A) SiO4-4
  2. B) SO4-2
  3. C) CO3-2
  4. D) Cl-1, F-1, or Br-1

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  2.5 Mineral Groups

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

54) Halides always include ________.

  1. A) SiO4-4
  2. B) SO4-2
  3. C) CO3-2
  4. D) Cl-1, F-1, or Br-1

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  2.5 Mineral Groups

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

55) Sulfates always include ________.

  1. A) SiO4-4
  2. B) SO4-2
  3. C) CO3-2
  4. D) Cl-1, F-1, or Br-1

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  2.5 Mineral Groups

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

56) Gypsum, which is widely used in plaster and wallboard, is a member of the ________ group.

  1. A) silicate
  2. B) carbonate
  3. C) halide
  4. D) sulfate

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  2.5 Mineral Groups

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

57) Dolomite is a magnesium-rich member of the ________ group.

  1. A) silicate
  2. B) carbonate
  3. C) halide
  4. D) sulfate

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  2.5 Mineral Groups

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

58) Which of the following minerals is a silicate?

  1. A) hematite
  2. B) feldspar
  3. C) calcite
  4. D) halite

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  2.5 Mineral Groups

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

59) Which one of the following mineral groups exhibits a sheet-like silicate structure?

  1. A) carbonates
  2. B) pyroxenes
  3. C) micas
  4. D) feldspars

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  2.5 Mineral Groups

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

60) Which common mineral is composed entirely of silicon and oxygen?

  1. A) calcite
  2. B) diamond
  3. C) olivine
  4. D) quartz

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  2.5 Mineral Groups

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

 

61) A naturally occurring concentration of one or more metallic minerals that can be extracted economically is a(n) ________.

  1. A) reserve
  2. B) ore
  3. C) resource
  4. D) tailing

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  2.6 Natural Resources

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

62) Which of the following is a renewable resource?

  1. A) coal
  2. B) ice
  3. C) helium gas
  4. D) rock salt

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  2.6 Natural Resources

Blooms Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

 

63) Ore deposits of the element ________ do not require extreme concentrations because it is one of the most abundant elements in the Earths crust.

  1. A) aluminum
  2. B) boron
  3. C) carbon
  4. D) uranium

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  2.6 Natural Resources

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

64) What theory dramatically improved geologists ability to predict where certain ore deposits were formed?

  1. A) geosynclines
  2. B) faulting theory
  3. C) plate tectonics
  4. D) quantum mechanics

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  2.6 Natural Resources

Blooms Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

 

 

65) Deposits of which of the following minerals would never be considered an ore?

  1. A) galena
  2. B) hematite
  3. C) chalcophyrite
  4. D) quartz

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  2.6 Natural Resources

Blooms Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

66) In the late 20th century most metal prices were very low but metal prices increased dramatically in the early 21st century. Simultaneously, the early 21st century saw extensive brown fields exploration in which companies went to old mining areas and extracted old mine wastes or reopened old mine workings. What is the primary explanation for this activity?

  1. A) The old miners were wasteful and left large amounts of ore in the ground.
  2. B) The increase of metal prices made mineral resources that were previously uneconomic into ores that could potentially be extracted profitably.
  3. C) Environmental regulations make it impossible to explore anywhere but old mining areas, so this was the only place the companies could look for deposits.
  4. D) The companies were only interested acquiring properties through a sleazy land grab, and had no intention of doing anything with the deposits assuming no one cared about brown fields.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Topic:  2.6 Natural Resources

Blooms Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

 

67) What kind of time span is required to produce most mineral deposits?

  1. A) 1-100 years, or about a human life span
  2. B) tens of thousands to millions of years
  3. C) billions of years
  4. D) We have no way of knowing this, but most were formed at the same time as the Earth.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Topic:  2.6 Natural Resources

Blooms Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

 

Word Analysis.  Examine the words and/or phrases for each question below and determine the relationship among the majority of words/phrases. Choose the option which does not fit the pattern.

 

68) electron        atom     proton  neutron

Answer:  atom

Diff: 1

Topic:  2.2 Atoms: Building Blocks of Minerals

Blooms Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

 

 

69) ionic               metallic                valence                covalent

Answer:  valence

Diff: 1

Topic:  2.3 Why Atoms Bond

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

70) amorphous bladed  tabular  cubic

Answer:  Amorphous

Diff: 1

Topic:  2.4 Properties of a Mineral

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

71) quartz            olivine   feldspar               calcite

Answer:  calcite

Diff: 1

Topic:  2.4 Properties of a Mineral

Blooms Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

 

72) calcite            feldspar               quartz   olivine

Answer:  Calcite

Diff: 1

Topic:  2.5 Mineral Groups

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

73) oxygen          sulfur    aluminum            iron

Answer:  sulfur

Diff: 1

Topic:  2.5 Mineral Groups

Blooms Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

 

74) Rocks are aggregates of minerals.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Topic:  2.1 Minerals: Building Blocks of Rocks

Blooms Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

 

75) A mineral can be composed entirely of one element.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Topic:  2.1 Minerals: Building Blocks of Rocks

Blooms Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

 

 

76) Electrons orbit the nucleus of an atom much like planets around the Sun, with inner orbitals fixed and outer orbitals subject to exchange with other atoms to make compounds.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1

Topic:  2.2 Atoms: Building Blocks of Minerals

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

77) An atom with 30 protons always has 30 neutrons and 30 electrons.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1

Topic:  2.2 Atoms: Building Blocks of Minerals

Blooms Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

 

78) The mass of an atom comes from its electrons.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1

Topic:  2.2 Atoms: Building Blocks of Minerals

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

79) An element is defined by the number of electrons the orbit the nucleus.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1

Topic:  2.2 Atoms: Building Blocks of Minerals

Blooms Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

 

80) Most substances are electrically neutral.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Topic:  2.2 Atoms: Building Blocks of Minerals

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

81) Electrically neutral atoms have equal numbers of electrons and protons.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Topic:  2.2 Atoms: Building Blocks of Minerals

Blooms Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

 

82) All atoms of the same element have the same atomic number.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Topic:  2.2 Atoms: Building Blocks of Minerals

Blooms Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

 

 

83) Atoms are too small to be seen with an optical microscope.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Topic:  2.2 Atoms: Building Blocks of Minerals

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

84) The Octet rule states that atoms tend to gain, lose, or share electrons until they are surrounded by six valence electrons.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1

Topic:  2.3 Why Atoms Bond

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

85) Chemical compounds retain most of the characteristics of their constituent elements.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1

Topic:  2.3 Why Atoms Bond

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

86) Electrical attractions between atoms lower the total energy of the bonded atoms and make them more stable.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Topic:  2.3 Why Atoms Bond

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

87) Metals are good conductors of electricity because their protons can roam freely throughout the material.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1

Topic:  2.3 Why Atoms Bond

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

88) All minerals exhibit cleavage.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1

Topic:  2.4 Properties of a Mineral

Blooms Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

 

89) Mineral luster is broadly classified as either being metallic or opaque.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1

Topic:  2.4 Properties of a Mineral

Blooms Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

 

 

90) Most minerals have a higher specific gravity than water.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Topic:  2.4 Properties of a Mineral

Blooms Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

 

91) The micas, biotite and muscovite, both exhibit one direction of cleavage.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Topic:  2.4 Properties of a Mineral

Blooms Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

 

92) A brown mineral specimen and a green mineral specimen have identical hardness; therefore, they are the same mineral, but just happen to be different color

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2

Topic:  2.4 Properties of a Mineral

Blooms Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

 

93) A minerals luster is produced by its ability to transmit light. Opaque minerals always have a metallic luster because they do not transmit any light.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2

Topic:  2.4 Properties of a Mineral

Blooms Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

 

94) Cleavage is related to the internal structure of a mineral.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Topic:  2.5 Mineral Groups

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

95) Silicon-oxygen bonds are weak and cause cleavage to be common in silicate minerals.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1

Topic:  2.5 Mineral Groups

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

96) In the silicon-oxygen tetrahedron, there are more silicon atoms than oxygen atoms.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1

Topic:  2.5 Mineral Groups

Blooms Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

 

 

97) Quartz forms at a lower temperature than olivine.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Topic:  2.5 Mineral Groups

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

98) Diamond and quartz are both minerals composed of a single element.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1

Topic:  2.5 Mineral Groups

Blooms Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

 

99) Although fluorite and native sulfur are not metallic minerals, deposits of these materials are still called ore deposits.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Topic:  2.6 Natural Resources

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

100) Nonmetallic minerals like halite and gypsum have no industrial uses.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1

Topic:  2.6 Natural Resources

Blooms Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

 

101) Building stone, sand and gravel, and fertilizers are industrial materials that are a special class ore deposits but are usually subject to the same regulations as other ores.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1

Topic:  2.6 Natural Resources

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

102) Many metals are extracted from ores that contain sulfide minerals.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2

Topic:  2.6 Natural Resources

Blooms Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

103) Quartz sand is a useless commodity unless you want to rebuild a beach.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2

Topic:  2.6 Natural Resources

Blooms Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

 

 

104) A compound is a stable chemical substance composed of two or more ________.

Answer:  elements

Diff: 1

Topic:  2.2 Atoms: Building Blocks of Minerals

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

105) What is the smallest particle of matter that exhibits and defines the distinctive chemical characteristics of the individual elements?

Answer:  atom

Diff: 1

Topic:  2.2 Atoms: Building Blocks of Minerals

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

106) The atomic particle that carries a positive charge is called a(n) ________.

Answer:  proton

Diff: 1

Topic:  2.2 Atoms: Building Blocks of Minerals

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

107) What physical property denotes the color of a powdered mineral?

Answer:  streak

Diff: 1

Topic:  2.4 Properties of a Mineral

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

108) The physical property denoting a minerals tendency to crack along parallel, planar surfaces is known as ________.

Answer:  cleavage

Diff: 1

Topic:  2.4 Properties of a Mineral

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

109) Wood floats in water and rocks sink; thus, the density of ________ is the lower of the two.

Answer:  wood

Diff: 1

Topic:  2.4 Properties of a Mineral

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

110) A naturally occurring concentration of metallic minerals that can be extracted economically is called ________ whereas any occurrence of useful minerals that are formed in such quantities that eventual extraction is reasonably certain, but not necessarily profitable, are called ________ resources.

Answer:  ore; mineral

Diff: 1

Topic:  2.6 Natural Resources

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Critical Thinking and Discussion.  Use complete sentences, correct spelling, and the information presented in Chapter 2 to answer the questions below.

 

111) Talc and graphite are two of the lowest minerals on the hardness scale.  They are also described by terms like greasy or soapy.  Both have a crystal structure characterized by sheet-structures at the atomic level, yet they dont behave like micas.  What accounts for their unusual physical properties?

Answer:  The chemical bonds between the sheets is so weak that very low stresses can allow slip between the sheets; hence, the greasy feel and low hardness.

Diff: 2

Topic:  2.4 Properties of a Mineral

Blooms Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

 

112) There are people who specialize in cutting diamonds, yet diamond is the hardest known substance.  From your knowledge of minerals, which of the following describes what the diamond cutter does?

Answer:  Diamond has more than one cleavage, and the cutter looks for small cracks along the cleavage and uses a chisel to break the mineral along the cleavage.

Diff: 2

Topic:  2.4 Properties of a Mineral

Blooms Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

 

113) Gold is one of the rarest elements in the universe, yet it is extracted from ores on Earth.  How is this possible?

Answer:  Gold does not bond with other elements and the native metal is extremely concentrated in the Earths crust, which allows it to be extracted from rocks but low concentrations still contribute to its low price.

Diff: 2

Topic:  2.6 Natural Resources

Blooms Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

 

114) Joe Geologist discovers a vein made up primarily of quartz but also containing significant amounts of pyrite as well as chalcopyrite.  He knows better than to fall for fools gold, and decides to ignore the vein.  Did he make the right decision? Explain.

Answer:  No, although the pyrite has no value the chalcopyrite has copper and sulfide minerals in quartz veins are a common association with gold bearing veins.  He should have examined this in much more detail.

Diff: 2

Topic:  2.6 Natural Resources

Blooms Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

 

Earth Science, 14e (Tarbuck/Lutgens)

Chapter  24  Beyond Our Solar System

 

1) In the early 1700s Kant suggested there were many galaxies visible from Earth but the idea was not popular because ________.

  1. A) at that time, people generally believed the earth was the center of the universe.
  2. B) only modern satellite data supports that point of view
  3. C) that hypothesis would require a significantly larger universe than was widely accepted at that time
  4. D) that hypothesis would require that objects travel faster than the speed of light
  5. E) the Big Bang theory did not support that concept

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  24.1 The Universe

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

2) Cepheid Variables are stars whose brightness varies in a predictable manner so that the absolute magnitude of the star can be determined, and this allows the ________ of the star to be determined.

  1. A) size
  2. B) distance from Earth
  3. C) velocity
  4. D) direction of motion
  5. E) composition

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  24.1 The Universe

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

3) Why did Hubble think the Cepheid variables he saw in Fuzzy Patches were outside the milky way?

  1. A) They were dim.
  2. B) They were small.
  3. C) Their brightness varied.
  4. D) They had a red shift character.

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  24.1 The Universe

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

 

4) What was Hubbles major contribution to Cosmology?

  1. A) He identified Cepheid Variable stars.
  2. B) He measured the size of the universe.
  3. C) He identified numerous new galaxies outside the Milky Way.
  4. D) He developed a new method for measuring the absolute magnitude of stars.
  5. E) He proved the Big Bang Theory.

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  24.1 The Universe

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

5) Which of the following events is not part of the history associated with the Big Bang Theory?

  1. A) Just before Big Bang occurred, there was only energy and disassociated electrons and protons.
  2. B) About 13.7 billion years ago, our universe started with a huge explosion.
  3. C) The first matter formed 380,000 years after the formation of the universe.
  4. D) Our Sun formed approximately 9 billion years after the universe formed.

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  24.1 The Universe

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

6) What two elements formed first?

  1. A) electrons and protons
  2. B) hydrogen and oxygen
  3. C) helium and oxygen
  4. D) helium and hydrogen
  5. E) protons and neutrons

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  24.1 The Universe

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

7) Interstellar matter is composed primarily of ________.

  1. A) ions
  2. B) dust
  3. C) oxygen
  4. D) hydrogen
  5. E) helium

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  24.2 Interstellar Matter: Nursery of the Stars

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

 

8) The main difference between Bright and Dark Nebulae is ________.

  1. A) the composition of their gases
  2. B) the composition of their dust
  3. C) their proximity to a black hole
  4. D) their proximity to a blue star
  5. E) none of the above

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  24.2 Interstellar Matter: Nursery of the Stars

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

9) Fluorescence occurs when ________.

  1. A) visible light is converted to ultraviolet light
  2. B) visible light is converted to infrared light
  3. C) infrared light is converted to visible light
  4. D) ultraviolet light is converted to visible light
  5. E) Infrared light is converted to ultraviolet light

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  24.2 Interstellar Matter: Nursery of the Stars

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

10) Fluorescence is a characteristic of ________.

  1. A) emission nebulae
  2. B) dark nebulae
  3. C) planetary nebulae
  4. D) reflection nebulae
  5. E) blue nebulae

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  24.2 Interstellar Matter: Nursery of the Stars

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

11) The red color of emission nebulae comes from the ________.

  1. A) conversion of infrared light to visible light
  2. B) conversion of ultraviolet light to visible light
  3. C) energy emission of hydrogen
  4. D) energy emission of helium
  5. E) energy emission of oxygen

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  24.2 Interstellar Matter: Nursery of the Stars

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

 

12) The reason scientists believe the reflective bright nebulae contain more heavy materials than the emission bright nebulae is that ________.

  1. A) they reflect more colors than the emission nebulae
  2. B) they glow brighter than an energy emission source could produce
  3. C) they are brighter than a low density source could produce
  4. D) they are dimmer than a low density source could produce
  5. E) they are blue, and that color is associated with carbon

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  24.2 Interstellar Matter: Nursery of the Stars

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

13) When viewed through an optical telescope, planetary nebula ________.

  1. A) look like giant planets such as Jupiter
  2. B) have visible planets within their cloud of debris
  3. C) show the explosive form of the dead sun
  4. D) still have planets orbiting the cloud
  5. E) are spherical in form and often have rings like Saturn

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  24.2 Interstellar Matter: Nursery of the Stars

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

14) Which color stars have the highest surface temperature?

  1. A) red
  2. B) orange
  3. C) yellow
  4. D) blue

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  24.2 Interstellar Matter: Nursery of the Stars

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

15) Which color stars have the coolest surface temperature?

  1. A) red
  2. B) orange
  3. C) yellow
  4. D) blue

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  24.2 Interstellar Matter: Nursery of the Stars

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

 

16) Which main-sequence stars are the most massive?

  1. A) red
  2. B) orange
  3. C) yellow
  4. D) blue

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  24.2 Interstellar Matter: Nursery of the Stars

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

17) Which main-sequence stars are the least massive?

  1. A) red
  2. B) orange
  3. C) yellow
  4. D) blue

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  24.2 Interstellar Matter: Nursery of the Stars

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

18) The densest stars known to exist are ________.

  1. A) black holes
  2. B) neutron stars
  3. C) white dwarfs
  4. D) red dwarfs

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  24.2 Interstellar Matter: Nursery of the Stars

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

19) A Hertzsprung-Russell diagram (H-R Diagram) is a plot of ________.

  1. A) size versus brightness
  2. B) size versus color
  3. C) color versus brightness
  4. D) brightness versus temperature
  5. E) temperature versus color

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  24.3 Classifying Stars: Hertzsprung-Russell Diagrams (H-R Diagrams)

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

 

20) A red star is ________ our Sun.

  1. A) hotter and smaller than
  2. B) hotter and larger than
  3. C) colder and larger than
  4. D) colder and smaller than
  5. E) approximately the same temperature and size as

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  24.3 Classifying Stars: Hertzsprung-Russell Diagrams (H-R Diagrams)

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

21) A blue star is ________ our Sun.

  1. A) hotter and smaller than
  2. B) hotter and larger than
  3. C) colder and larger than
  4. D) colder and smaller than
  5. E) approximately the same temperature and size as

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  24.3 Classifying Stars: Hertzsprung-Russell Diagrams (H-R Diagrams)

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

22) What is a main sequence star?

  1. A) a star that is aligned with many other, similar colored stars
  2. B) a star that is in a group of stars with similar ages and sizes
  3. C) a star that falls in a band in a band on the H-R Diagram with most other stars
  4. D) a star that is statistically indistinguishable from 90% of all stars
  5. E) a star that shows the same trend in distance from earth and temperature as many other stars

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  24.3 Classifying Stars: Hertzsprung-Russell Diagrams (H-R Diagrams)

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

23) The Sun belongs to this class of stars.

  1. A) black hole
  2. B) main-sequence star
  3. C) red giant
  4. D) white dwarf

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  24.3 Classifying Stars: Hertzsprung-Russell Diagrams (H-R Diagrams)

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

 

24) Most stars are in this stage of evolution.

  1. A) black hole
  2. B) main-sequence star
  3. C) red giant
  4. D) white dwarf

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  24.3 Classifying Stars: Hertzsprung-Russell Diagrams (H-R Diagrams)

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

25) On a Hertzprung-Russell Diagram, our Sun is classified as ________.

  1. A) a yellow giant
  2. B) a yellow dwarf
  3. C) a mediocre star
  4. D) a super star
  5. E) an average star

Answer:  E

Diff: 1

Topic:  24.3 Classifying Stars: Hertzsprung-Russell Diagrams (H-R Diagrams)

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

26) A star with the same color as another but 100 times brighter must be ________.

  1. A) 100 times hotter
  2. B) 100 times larger
  3. C) 100 times closer
  4. D) 100 times colder
  5. E) none of the above

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  24.3 Classifying Stars: Hertzsprung-Russell Diagrams (H-R Diagrams)

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

27) The first stars formed about 300 million years after Big Bang in the most massive nebulae because ________.

  1. A) only the massive nebulae had the material needed to make stars
  2. B) it took that long for enough matter to form to make a star
  3. C) the massive nebulae had enough gravity to attract star material early in the history of the universe
  4. D) the massive nebulae had enough gravity to collapse and condense
  5. E) all of the nebulae at that time were massive and it was not until much later that smaller nebulae formed

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  24.4 Stellar Evolution

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

 

28) Which of the following is not true of first generation stars?

  1. A) They are very dense.
  2. B) They are massive.
  3. C) They are composed primarily of hydrogen.
  4. D) They are short-lived.
  5. E) They have violent, explosive deaths.

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  24.4 Stellar Evolution

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

29) Prior to the formation of the protostar, ________.

  1. A) the interstellar clouds are composed of equal amounts of hydrogen and helium
  2. B) the temperature of the cloud is greater than 10,000 K
  3. C) nuclear fusion converts hydrogen to helium
  4. D) nuclear fusion does not occur

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  24.4 Stellar Evolution

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

30) What is the dominant factor in the life of a star?

  1. A) temperature
  2. B) size
  3. C) gravity
  4. D) energy
  5. E) composition

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  24.4 Stellar Evolution

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

31) Balance for a main sequence star is achieved when ________.

  1. A) nuclear fusion and fission occur at the same rate
  2. B) gas pressure matches temperature
  3. C) temperature matches the rate of nuclear fusion
  4. D) gravitational collapse matches gas pressure
  5. E) all of the above

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  24.4 Stellar Evolution

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

 

32) A main-sequence star like our sun is expected to be stable for approximately ________.

  1. A) 100 billion years
  2. B) 10 billion years
  3. C) 1 billion years
  4. D) 100 million years
  5. E) 10 million years

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  24.4 Stellar Evolution

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

33) A red giant has ________.

  1. A) a hydrogen-rich core
  2. B) a helium-rich core
  3. C) an iron-rich core
  4. D) no outer shell
  5. E) high gas pressure

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  24.4 Stellar Evolution

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

34) The temperature of a red giant increases rapidly because ________.

  1. A) exothermic chemical reactions occur
  2. B) endothermic chemical reactions occur
  3. C) fusion increases and gives off heat
  4. D) gravitational energy is converted to heat
  5. E) friction from the collapse creates heat

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  24.4 Stellar Evolution

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

35) The final stage for a star which is as massive as the Sun is a ________.

  1. A) black hole
  2. B) main-sequence star
  3. C) red giant
  4. D) white dwarf

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  24.5 Stellar Remnants

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

 

36) The point in stellar evolution when a star has used up all its fuel and is radiating away its remaining thermal energy as light is the ________ stage.

  1. A) black hole
  2. B) main-sequence star
  3. C) red giant
  4. D) white dwarf

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  24.5 Stellar Remnants

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

37) A neutron star theoretically will form from a supernovae collapse that ________.

  1. A) fuses all of the atoms into super atoms with very high atomic numbers
  2. B) compresses all atoms so that electrons are so close to the nucleus that all of the protons are converted to neutrons
  3. C) forms ions that bond electrostatically into very small volumes
  4. D) converts the atomic nucleus to a small volume with high mass by expelling all neutrons

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  24.5 Stellar Remnants

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

38) Degenerate matter can have densities 1 million times greater than the density of water, and they achieve this density by ________.

  1. A) fusing all of their atoms into super atoms with very high atomic numbers
  2. B) compressing all of the electrons so that they are close to the nucleus
  3. C) forming ions that bond electrostatically so that there volume is very small
  4. D) converting the atomic nucleus to a small volume with high mass by expelling all neutrons

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  24.5 Stellar Remnants

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

39) What is the main factor that determines what will happen to a star after it consumes all of its nuclear fuel?

  1. A) temperature
  2. B) size
  3. C) mass
  4. D) velocity
  5. E) composition

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  24.5 Stellar Remnants

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

 

40) Spiral galaxies tend to resemble a pinwheel because ________.

  1. A) stars in the center of the galaxy are moving faster than the ones on the outer edges
  2. B) stars are moving from the center to the edges of the galaxy
  3. C) the barred structures form twisted pathways that distort the flow patterns
  4. D) the stars in the center are very old and large while the outer edges of the galaxy contain the youngest and smallest stars
  5. E) stars in the center of galaxy are moving more slowly than the ones on the outer edges.

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  24.6 Galaxies and Galactic Clusters

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

41) The largest known galaxies are ________.

  1. A) spiral
  2. B) barred spiral
  3. C) elliptical
  4. D) irregular
  5. E) round

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  24.6 Galaxies and Galactic Clusters

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

42) How do astronomers believe an irregular galaxy forms?

  1. A) Several regular galaxies of different sizes merge.
  2. B) They form when an elliptical and a spiral galaxy merge.
  3. C) They are regular galaxies that are distorted by the gravity field of a large nearby galaxy.
  4. D) They are two or more galaxies that have not completed their merger.
  5. E) They are young galaxies that have not yet developed a more regular form.

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  24.6 Galaxies and Galactic Clusters

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

43) Which one of the objects listed below has the largest size?

  1. A) galactic clusters
  2. B) globular clusters
  3. C) galaxies
  4. D) stars
  5. E) nebula

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  24.6 Galaxies and Galactic Clusters

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

 

44) Slipher made the observation that galaxies rotated and moved relative to each other.  Hubble expanded on this work to show that ________.

  1. A) the rates of rotation varied within galaxies
  2. B) the relative motion between adjacent galaxies varies
  3. C) galaxies within the Local Group rotate more than other galaxies
  4. D) galaxies within the Local Group rotate less than other galaxies
  5. E) all galaxies except those in the Local Group are moving away from the Milky Way

Answer:  E

Diff: 1

Topic:  24.7 The Big Bang Theory

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

45) The discovery that the universe appears to be expanding led to a widely accepted theory called ________.

  1. A) the Big Bang
  2. B) Hubbles Law
  3. C) Einsteins Law
  4. D) the Doppler effect

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  24.7 The Big Bang Theory

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

46) Hubbles law states that galaxies are receding from us at a speed that is proportional to their ________.

  1. A) distance
  2. B) orientation

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