Ebersole & Hess Toward Healthy Aging Human Needs and Nursing Response 9th Edition by Theris A. Touhy , Kathleen F Jett Test Bank

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Ebersole & Hess Toward Healthy Aging Human Needs and Nursing Response 9th Edition by Theris A. Touhy , Kathleen F Jett Test Bank

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Touhy: Ebersole & Hess Toward Healthy Aging, 8th Edition

Chapter 03: Theories of Aging

Test Bank

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. The nurse is aware the theory of aging most likely to explain why the older population is at risk for autoimmune disorder is known as:
a. cross-link theory
b. free radical theory
c. stochastic theory
d. immunity theory

ANS: D
The immunity theory proposes that cellular errors in the immune system have been found to lead to an auto-aggressive phenomenon in which normal cells are misidentified as alien and are destroyed by the bodys own immune system. This phenomenon is used to explain the increase of autoimmune disorders as we age. The cross-link theory describes aging in terms of the accumulation of errors of cross-linking or stiffening of proteins in the body. The free radical theory describes free radical errors as the result of random damage from free radicals. The stochastic theory is a group of theories that propose that aging is an accumulation of errors in the synthesis of cellular DNA and RNA, which are the building blocks of the cell. Immunity is a nonstochastic theory.

DIF: Cognitive level: Comprehension TOP: Integrated Process: Teaching and Learning
MSC: Health Promotion and Maintenance

2. The family member of a patient asks if vitamin C will prevent aging. In formulating an appropriate response, the nurse considers the:
a. Free radical theory
b. Immunity theory
c. Clinker theory
d. Continuity theory

ANS: A
The free radical theory posits that aging is a result of random damage from free radicals. Research is ongoing on the ability of substances with antioxidant effects to counter the actions of free radicals. Vitamins such a Vitamin C are thought to have antioxidant features and act as a free radical scavenger. The immunity theory posits that the cells of the immune system become progressively more diversified with age and lose self-regulatory ability. The use of vitamin C is not associated with this theory. There is no such theory as the clinker theory. The continuity theory is a sociological theory that deals with the tendency of individuals to develop and maintain consistent patterns of behavior throughout their lives.

DIF: Cognitive level: Knowledge TOP: Integrated Process: Teaching and Learning
MSC: Health Promotion and Maintenance

3. The nurse implements the concepts of the activity theory of aging when instructing the older autoimmune suppressed client to:
a. continue her daily walking routine
b. curtail further increases in physical activity
c. document preferred end-of-life interventions
d. avoid exposing herself to crowds

ANS: A
The activity theory states that successful aging equals active aging, which is related to the persons need to maintain a productive life for it to be a happy life. Curtailing increases in physical activity is diametrically opposite to continuing a daily walking routine and contrary to the tenets of the activity theory. End of life decisions and avoiding exposure to crowds are not related to the activity theory since they do not directly affect the productiveness of a clients life.

DIF: Cognitive level: Application TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation
MSC: Health Promotion and Maintenance

4. When considering Eriksons developmental stages, the task for later life is referred to as:
a. ego maturation vs. stagnation
b. ego transcendence vs. ego preoccupation
c. generativity
d. ego integrity

ANS: D
Eriksons last developmental stage is ego integrity. Ego maturation vs. stagnation is not one of Eriksons stages. Ego transcendence vs. ego preoccupation is not one of Eriksons stages; it is one of Pecks developmental stages. Peck expanded on the work of Erikson. Generativity is Eriksons developmental stage for middle age.

DIF: Cognitive level: Knowledge TOP: Integrated Process: Teaching and Learning
MSC: Health Promotion and Maintenance

5. When asked if taking herbal supplements will help slow down the aging process, the nurse bases the response given on the:
a. Cross-link theory
b. Error theory
c. Free radical theory
d. Nutrition theory

ANS: C
The free radical theory states that aging occurs as a result of random damage from free radicals. Research is ongoing on the ability of substances with antioxidant effects to counter the actions of free radicals. The cross-link theory describes aging in terms of the accumulation of errors of cross-linking or stiffening of proteins in the body. The error theory is actually a category of theories and not a theory itself. The nutrition theory is not one of the theories of aging.

DIF: Cognitive level: Knowledge TOP: Integrated Process: Teaching and Learning
MSC: Health Promotion and Maintenance

6. A community health nurse provides an annual flu prevention workshop at a local senior center. The activities include a lecture on preventing infections, which includes hand washing and limiting exposure to individuals who are ill, as well as an influenza immunization clinic. The nurse is basing her activities on what theory of aging?
a. Wear and tear
b. Cross-link
c. Immunity
d. Free radical

ANS: C
The immunity theory of aging describes changes in cells of the immune system, which make an older person more susceptible to infection. Prevention of infection is very important in older adults and can be accomplished by education and immunization. Wear and tear, cross-link, and free radical are incorrect because none of these theories of aging deal with prevention of infection.

DIF: Cognitive level: Comprehension TOP: Integrated Process: Teaching and Learning
MSC: Health Promotion and Maintenance
7. A older adult resident of an assisted living facility appears depressed and often talks about how his declining health has made it difficult to fulfill his retirement dreams. The nurse is being directed by what type of aging therapy when sharing with him that while his plans may need to be adapted to incorporate his limitations, he can still enjoy his retirement years?
a. Biological
b. Psychological
c. Social
d. Spiritual

ANS: B
The psychological theories posit that, as a person ages, various adaptive strategies must occur in order to age successfully. The biological theories focus on physiological changes. The sociological theories focus on roles and relationships. Spiritual aging is not related to this patients concerns.

DIF: Cognitive level: Comprehension TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation
MSC: Health Promotion and Maintenance

8. A 66-year-old retired professional basketball player is admitted to the hospital for a total knee replacement due to osteoarthritis. In preparing preoperative teaching for this patient, to the nurse includes which theory of aging to help him understand how the disease has progressed?
a. Free radical theory
b. Wear and tear theory
c. Gene theory
d. Cross-link theory

ANS: B
Osteoarthritis is characteristic of degeneration that results from joint usage. This disease is a good example of the wear and tear theory; repeatedly injuring one organ or body system, such as occurs during playing sports, may result in premature aging and diseases such as osteoarthritis. The free radical theory states that cell damage is a result of the accumulation of oxygen radicals. The gene theory states that genes govern cellular mortality. The cross-link theory is related to the accumulation of cross-linked proteins, which may cause disease.

DIF: Cognitive level: Knowledge TOP: Integrated Process: Teaching and Learning
MSC: Health Promotion and Maintenance
9. A married couple retired to a life care community after the husband had heart surgery. The wife has always been physically and socially active and joined an aerobic class, knitting groups, and a book club shortly after moving to the community. She walks on a daily basis and swims twice a week. Her husband spends his days reading and watching television. He was never a social person and enjoys being by himself. Which of the sociological theories of aging best describes the couple?
a. Role theory
b. Disengagement theory
c. Continuity theory
d. Personality theory

ANS: C
The continuity theory asserts that individuals tend to develop and maintain a consistent pattern of behavior as they age. The wife was active and social and continues to be so. Her husband was not very social and preferred less active activities and continues to do so. The role theory describes that people engage in roles consistent with their chronological age. The scenario above describes activity levels, not roles. The disengagement theory describes withdrawal of older adults from role and activities of earlier life. Personality theories are distinct and different from sociological theories of aging.

DIF: Cognitive level: Comprehension TOP: Integrated Process: Teaching and Learning
MSC: Health Promotion and Maintenance

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

1. The nurse shows an understanding of the non-stochastic (planned) group of aging theories when stating: Select all that apply.
a. Aging occurs differently for the various ethnic groups
b. Our genetic makeup is responsible for how we are affected by age
c. Aging is a result of mistakes in our RNA and DNA metabolism
d. The free radical theory is an example of a non-stochastic theory
e. Aging affects are really random and unpredictable

ANS: A, B
The non-stochastic theories are those in which the changes of aging are attributed to a process that is programmed and thought to be predetermined such as in the various ethnic groups. Research is currently looking at genes being responsible for aging. The non-stochastic theories view aging as predetermined and not random. The stochastic theories or error theories propose that aging is the result of an accumulation of errors in the synthesis of cellular DNA and RNA synthesis. The free radical theory is a stochastic theory.

DIF: Cognitive level: Comprehension TOP: Integrated Process: Teaching and Learning
MSC: Health Promotion and Maintenance

2. The nurse preparing wellness information for older adult clients is promoting interventions consistent with the concepts of the biological theories of aging when suggesting that they: Select all that apply.
a. Use moisturizers daily to minimize dry skin
b. Discuss the use of antacids to control heartburn with their healthcare provider
c. Stay active by interacting with family and friends regularly
d. Practice stress reduction techniques on a regular basis
e. Consider getting a yearly influenza vaccination

ANS: A, B, D, E
Interventions that promote biological theories of aging include those that help avoid skin dryness and the overuse of antacids (Cross-link) as well as the minimization of stress and risk for viral infections (Oxidative stress, Immunity). Remaining physically active and emotionally connected is consistent with the psychosocial theories of aging.

DIF: Cognitive level: Application TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation
MSC: Health Promotion and Maintenance

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