Educational Research Planning Conducting and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research 5th Revised Edition By John Creswell -Test Bank

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Educational Research Planning Conducting and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research 5th Revised Edition By John Creswell -Test Bank

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Educational Research Planning Conducting and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research 5th Revised Edition By John Creswell -Test Bank

Chapter 2.  Identifying a Research Problem

 

For each question below, circle the correct or best answer.

 

  1. A research problem is

 

  1. a problem that needs to be researched.
  2. an issue or concern in education.
  3. an important passage that begins a study.
  4. the question being addressed in a study.

 

  1. As you examine a published research report, you will find the research problem located

 

  1. in the problem section of a study.
  2. introduced throughout a study.
  3. in the introduction to the study.
  4. in the first sentence to a study.

 

  1. A researcher seeks to study the factors that contribute to binge drinking on college campuses. Which of the following would be the best problem statement for this study?

 

  1. The purpose of the study is to examine the factors that contribute to binge drinking on one Midwestern university campus.
  2. What are the factors that contribute to binge drinking on a Midwestern college campus?
  3. Binge drinking occurs on many college campuses, and it is a popular pastime at many social events.
  4. When students binge drink at fraternity parties, they often humiliate and demean women attending the parties.

 

  1. Which one of the following factors would make a research problem un-researchable?

 

  1. You do not know the literature about the problem.
  2. You cannot obtain access to a population of study.
  3. You cannot conduct statistical tests.
  4. You cannot add to practice through your study.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. A researcher seeks to explore how elementary students experience being assessed in math at the 4th grade level. Prior theories provide little guidance about what the researcher would expect to find.  Students have shown some anxiety during testing.  This research problem is best studied using a

 

  1. qualitative approach.
  2. quantitative approach.
  3. assessment approach.
  4. evaluation approach.

 

  1. A researcher introduces the central idea in the title and the opening paragraph of a published study.  This idea is called

 

  1. the central idea.
  2. the central phenomenon.
  3. the key variable.
  4. the educational topic.

 

  1. Indicate the purpose of using a narrative hook in the introduction to a study.

 

  1. It provides the reader with your research question.
  2.   It introduces your research design to the reader.
  3. It encourages the reader to continue to read on.
  4. It promotes the importance of the first sentence.

 

  1. In order to justify the importance of a research problem in a statement of the problem section of a study, the researcher might use all of the following sources except?

 

  1. Draw on personal experiences
  2. Rely on the advice of experts
  3. Use results to develop an incomplete theory
  4. Talk with colleagues in the workplace

 

  1. Which of the following are the best writing strategies for the statement of problem section?

 

  1. Use a quote to begin the study.
  2. Begin the section with your research questions.
  3. Use frequent literature references throughout the section.
  4. Begin with a specific topic and then move to the general.

 

 

 

  1. Why would a researcher mention the audience in a statement of the problem section of a study?

 

  1. Because members of the audience need to use the study
  2. Because members of the audience will vote to publish the study
  3. Because members of the audience will want to use the study
  4. Because members of the audience need to see the studys relevance

 

  1. What characterizes the best stance on using quotes from the literature in the statement of the problem section of a research study?

 

  1. Long quotes should not be used.
  2. Quotes should be used sparingly.
  3. Find quotes for statistical trends.
  4. Short quotes should be used.

 

___________________________________________________________

 

  1. Below are the five components typically found in a statement of the problem section of a research study. Order the components as they are found by placing a number in the space before the component.

 

_____   justification of the problem

_____   audience

_____   the research problem

_____   the topic

_____   deficiencies of past research or practical knowledge

_______________________________________________________________

 

  1. Below you will find a narrative hook presented by a researcher in a study. Unfortunately, it is not a good narrative hook.  Rewrite it to be a better hook, keeping in mind the purpose of a good hook.

 

Poor model:  AIDS education needs to be included within the schools curriculum at the junior high and high schools levels.

 

Good model: __________________________________________

_____________________________________________________

 

 

_______________________________________________________________

 

 

  1. Assume that you would like to study the research problem of whether students with special needs should be included in the regular classroom.  What factors would you consider in determining whether this problem is researchable?  List three factors.

 

  1. ____________________________________
  2. ____________________________________
  3. ____________________________________

 

_______________________________________________________________

 

  1. Look at paragraph 4 of the mothers trust in school principals study (Shelden et al., 2010). On what basis do the authors justify the need to study the research problem?

 

__________________________

_______________________________________________________________

 

  1. Read through the opening paragraphs (1-12) of the parent involvement study (Deslandes & Bertrand, 2005).  Of the major components that are typically included in a good statement of the problem section, which one is missing?

 

_________________________

 

 

  1. For each of the following statements, indicate whether it is a characteristic more applicable to quantitative or qualitative research problem or both. Place an X in the appropriate column.

 

 

QUANTITATIVE                    QUALITATIVE

A study in which the

author seeks to:

 

  1. measure variables             ______                                    ______

 

  1. study a process ______                                    ______

 

  1. generate theories ______                                    ______

 

  1. study a few sites ______                                    ______

 

  1. explain concepts ______                                    ______

 

_______________________________________________________________

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Identify the aspects of a good abstract that are located in this quantitative abstract at the beginning of a research study.

 

This study explores the meaning of womens education in Third World countries.  Ten women in Saudi Arabia were asked to participate in this qualitative study.  Each woman had a life story to tell about her experiences in education, and the themes developed from these stories indicated educational experiences shaped by marginalization, limited admission, hopeful aspirations, and control by a centralized government.

 

List the aspects found in this abstract here:

______________________________

______________________________

______________________________

______________________________

 

_________________________________________________________

 

  1. Write to the left of each heading in the blank the number of the level of the heading in appropriate APA style (6th ed.).

 

Level _____  Review of the Literature

Level _____  Introduction

Level _____  Indicators of kindness.  This form of kindness

 

__________________________________________________________________

 

  1. Take the following within-text reference to the literature and rewrite it to represent a good model of a reference in APA style (6th ed.).

 

Poor Model:

 

Alex Smith (1994, p. 45) showed that consumer consumption at fairs

 

Good Model:

 

_____________________________________________

 

_________________________________________________________________

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Take the following within-text reference to the literature and rewrite it to represent a good model of a cited reference in APA style (6th ed.):

 

Poor Model:

 

Several authors have concluded that consciousness resides within a sphere of the brain where learning best occurs (Smith, 1994;  Happenstance, 1996;  Jones 1990 as cited in Able, 1990).

 

Good Model:

_____________________________________________

_____________________________________________

_____________________________________________

 

__________________________________________________________________

 

  1. Define the difference between a study-by-study review of the literature and a thematic review of the literature.

 

____________________________________________

____________________________________________

____________________________________________

 

__________________________________________________________________

 

  1. Take a topic of your choice and identify five steps that you would use to conduct a computer search of the ERIC database. These steps need not necessary be listed in order for them to be correct.

 

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

 

_____________________________________________________________

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Examine the following poor model of an end-of-text reference.  Rewrite the example so that it reflects appropriate APA (6th ed.) end-of-text reference style.

 

Poor Model:

 

Shertzer, Barney, and Stone, Sylvia. (1999).  Understanding the Division I Student Athletic Trainer: Saint or Lackey? Journal of Irreproducible Results, 24, pages 42-46.

 

Good Model:

 

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

 

 

 

_______________________________________________________________

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 4.  Specifying a Purpose and Research Questions or Hypotheses

 

For each question below, circle the correct or best answer.

 

  1. What characteristic below distinguishes a quantitative research question from a research hypothesis?

 

  1. One is a purpose of the study and the other is a question.
  2. One is a question and the other is a hypothetical inquiry.
  3. One is a question and the other is a prediction.
  4. One is an objective and the other is a statement.

 

  1. Which one of the following is NOT a variable?

 

  1. Self-concept
  2. Age
  3. Gender
  4. U.S. stereotype

 

  1. Types of leadership styles, such as autocratic, consensus-building, and transformational, are examples of what type of scores on variables.

 

  1. Continuous scores
  2. Leadership scores
  3. Ordinal scores
  4. Categorical scores

 

  1. Examine this quantitative research question, What is the relationship of substance use, gender, and academic achievement in high school?

 

The control variable would be:

 

  1. Substance use
  2. Gender
  3. Academic achievement
  4. There is no control variable

 

  1. Identify the type of variables used in quantitative research when determine the interaction effect

 

  1. Measured variables
  2. Joint variables
  3. Control variables
  4. Moderating variables

 

 

 

  1. In the following quantitative purpose statement, indicate the intervening variable:

 

The purpose of this study is to test the theory that college students with good self-esteem engage in positive social interactions and in turn achieve high grades during their freshman year.

 

  1. College students
  2. Self-esteem
  3. Social interactions
  4. High grades

 

  1. A confounding variable is

 

  1. a variable that cannot be easily explained.
  2. a variable that contradicts what one expects to find.
  3. a variable that cannot be directly measured.
  4. a variable that affects or impacts an outcome.

 

  1. An explanation or prediction for the relationship between two or more variables in quantitative research is called a

 

  1. theory.
  2. variable.
  3. hunch.
  4. framework.

 

  1. Select the best reason below for why a purpose statement is important.

 

  1. It justifies the problem for the reader.
  2. It informs the reader of the central ideas addressed in your study.
  3. It provides the reader with the question you are attempting to answer.
  4. It informs the reader of your predictions about relationships among attributes.

 

  1. The following is an example of what type of quantitative research question:

 

How do feelings of alienation influence the ethnic identity of Hispanics in the United States?

 

  1. Descriptive question
  2. Relationship question
  3. Comparison question
  4. Association question

 

 

 

  1. The difference between a hypothesis and a research question is that the hypothesis

 

  1. predicts what the researcher will expect to find.
  2. hypothesizes the relationship among variables.
  3. is a statement of fact rather than a question.
  4. requires statistical testing in a research study.

 

  1. Which of the following best represents a central phenomenon in qualitative research?

 

  1. the age of the participant
  2. stages in adolescent development
  3. a concept drawn from the social sciences
  4. measures of self-esteem

 

  1. When qualitative researchers refer to the intent of the study as emerging, they are referring to:

 

  1. the new participants that will suddenly appear to be interviewed.
  2. the clarification of the nature of the central phenomenon.
  3. the gradual focusing of the research questions.
  4. the uncertain characteristic of what they are studying.

 

_________________________________________________________

 

Examine the following quantitative purpose statement:

 

The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of student self-esteem on social interaction for junior high students in one metropolitan school district.

 

  1. What is the independent variable?

 

_____________________________

 

 

  1. What is the dependent variable?

 

_____________________________

 

 

  1. Who are the participants in the study?

 

_____________________________

 

_______________________________________________________________

 

 

Examine the following quantitative research question:

 

Do fourth-grade students who collaborate in groups of three or four in an initial testing situation retain information better than those who were given an individual spelling test?

 

  1. List the independent variable:

 

___________________

 

  1. List the dependent variable:

 

___________________

 

_______________________________________________________________

 

 

Examine the following quantitative alternative (or directional) hypothesis.

 

High degrees of mutuality, comprehensiveness, congruence, and gender lead to positive position and functional mentoring relationships among students and teachers.

 

  1. Identify the independent variables:

 

________________________

 

 

  1. Identify the control variable:

 

________________________

 

 

  1. Identify the dependent variables:

 

________________________

_______________________________________________________________

 

  1. Rewrite the following poor example of a quantitative research hypothesis:

 

Poor Question:

 

Student achievement in high school is influenced by entering ability levels, gender, and social interactions with other students.

 

Improved Question:

 

______________________________________________________

______________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

 

  1. Identify the central phenomenon in this qualitative purpose statement.

 

What meaning do boys in junior high ascribe to being overweight?

 

The central phenomenon _________________

 

_______________________________________________________________

 

  1. Rewrite this poor example of a qualitative central research question:

 

Poor example:

 

What factors influence the meaning educational research students ascribe to

the term, statistical significance?

 

Improved example:

 

_______________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________

 

_______________________________________________________________

 

Examine the following purpose statement and research questions in a qualitative study:

 

This article examines the teaching of science and the particular difficulties elementary science teachers may have in science classrooms.  To do this, we have analyzed the practices of a second-year science teacher, Jane Smith, to answer the following questions:  (a) how does she teach science?  (b) what concepts of science does she bring to the classroom? (c) what is the process of activities in her room?

 

Answer the following questions:

 

  1. What is the central phenomenon being studied?

 

____________________

 

 

  1. In your own words, construct the central question that this study addresses:

 

The central question:

 

_____________________________________________________

 

 

  1. What is the purpose of the questions in this passage?

 

________________________________________________

________________________________________________

 

 

  1. What is the location or research site for the study?

 

________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

 

 

  1. In the mothers trust in school principals study (Shelden et al., 2010), the authors advance in paragraph 14 the question:  What are the perspectives of mothers of children with disabilities on trust in school principals?  What is the central phenomenon being explored in this study that can be gleaned from this question?

________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________

 

 

In the parent involvement study (Deslandes & Bertrand, 2005), the authors mention the purpose and research question guiding the study as follows: To examine how the four psychological constructs influence parent-involvement decisions across the three secondary grade levels, we posed the following research question: What are the relative contributions of parents role constructions, self-efficacy, perceptions of teacher invitations, and perceptions of adolescent invitations to predict parent involvement at home and at school in Grades 7, 8, and 9?

 

Critique this purpose statement by identifying at least four elements that go into a good quantitative purpose statement.

 

  1. What are four elements are present?

1 _________________________

2 _________________________

3 _________________________

4 _________________________

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