Essential Biochemistry 3rd Edition by Charlotte W. Pratt- Kathleen Cornely test bank

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Essential Biochemistry 3rd Edition by Charlotte W. Pratt- Kathleen Cornely test bank

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Package Title: Pratt & Cornely Test Bank
Course Title: Pratt & Cornely
Chapter Number: 12

Question type: Multiple Choice

1) Plants are considered _____.

A) chemoautotrophs
B) photoautotrophs
C) chemoheterotrophs
D) photoheterotrophs
E) none of the above

Answer: B

Difficulty: Easy
Section Reference: 12-1
Learning Objective: Summarize the pathways for digesting and mobilizing metabolic fuels

2) Energy is generated during _____, the breakdown of larger molecules into smaller while energy is consumed during _____, the building of larger molecules from smaller ones.

A) reduction reactions; oxidation reactions
B) autotrophic reactions; heterotrophic reactions
C) catabolic reactions; anabolic reactions
D) hydrolysis reactions; condensation reactions
E) none of the above

Answer: C

Difficulty: Easy
Section Reference: 12-1
Learning Objective: Summarize the pathways for digesting and mobilizing metabolic fuels

3) Digestion of food by mammals converts _____ into _____ which can be absorbed from the intestines.

A) proteins; dipeptides and tripeptides
B) polysaccharides; monosaccharides and disaccharides
C) cholesterol; acetyl CoA
D) nucleic acids; polynucleotides
E) triacylglycerols; fatty acids

Answer: E

Difficulty: Medium
Section Reference: 12-1
Learning Objective: Summarize the pathways for digesting and mobilizing metabolic fuels

4) Digestion of food utilizes enzymes that catalyze _____ reactions.

A) hydrolysis
B) reduction
C) condensation
D) oxidative
E) group transfer

Answer: A

Difficulty: Easy
Section Reference: 12-1
Learning Objective: Summarize the pathways for digesting and mobilizing metabolic fuels

5) Which of the following is used to move lipids around the bloodstream?

A) micelles
B) liposomes
C) liposuctions
D) lipoproteins
E) cholesterol esters

Answer: D

Difficulty: Easy
Section Reference: 12-1
Learning Objective: Summarize the pathways for digesting and mobilizing metabolic fuels

6) The bulk of triacylglycerols in the human body are stored in _____.

A) liver cells
B) adipocytes
C) muscle cells
D) nerve cells
E) lipoproteins

Answer: B

Difficulty: Easy
Section Reference: 12-1
Learning Objective: Summarize the pathways for digesting and mobilizing metabolic fuels

7) The _____ stores glucose as glycogen and converts excess glucose to _____.

A) muscle; amino acids
B) adipose tissue; fatty acids
C) liver; fatty acids
D) brain; energy
E) none of the above

Answer: C

Difficulty: Medium
Section Reference: 12-1
Learning Objective: Summarize the pathways for digesting and mobilizing metabolic fuels

8) Amino acids can be converted to _____.

A) carbohydrates
B) fatty acids
C) nucleotides
D) peptides
E) all of the above

Answer: E

Difficulty: Easy
Section Reference: 12-1
Learning Objective: Summarize the pathways for digesting and mobilizing metabolic fuels

9) Which of the following is mobilized for energy use by a phosphorolysis reaction, not a hydrolysis?

A) glycogen
B) protein
C) triacylglycerols
D) polynucleotides
E) cholesterol esters

Answer: A

Difficulty: Easy
Section Reference: 12-1
Learning Objective: Summarize the pathways for digesting and mobilizing metabolic fuels

10) Degradation of proteins within a cell can occur within the _____ or by use of _____.

A) endoplasmic reticulum; protease enzymes chymotrypsin and trypsin
B) Golgi apparatus; protease enzymes chymotrypsin and trypsin
C) endoplasmic reticulum; a proteasome
D) lysosome; a proteasome
E) mitochondria; ubiquitin

Answer: D

Difficulty: Medium
Section Reference: 12-1
Learning Objective: Summarize the pathways for digesting and mobilizing metabolic fuels

11) The _____-terminus of ubiquitin is linked to a _____ residue of proteins to be degraded.

A) N; Asp
B) N; Glu
C) C; Lys
D) C; Ser
E) C; Tyr

Answer: C

Difficulty: Easy
Section Reference: 12-1
Learning Objective: Summarize the pathways for digesting and mobilizing metabolic fuels

12) Which of the following molecules is involved with the oxidation of glucose, synthesis of fatty acids and oxidation of fatty acids?

A) pyruvate
B) acetyl-CoA
C) alanine
D) oxaloacetate
E) glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate

Answer: B

Difficulty: Medium
Section Reference: 12-2
Learning Objective: Recognize the common chemical features of metabolic pathways

13) A reaction that results in the loss of electrons from a molecule is a(n) _____.

A) reduction
B) ligation
C) hydrolysis
D) oxidation
E) phosphorolysis

Answer: D

Difficulty: Easy
Section Reference: 12-2
Learning Objective: Recognize the common chemical features of metabolic pathways

14) Which of the following is more highly oxidized than acetaldehyde?

A) ethane
B) ethanol
C) ethylene
D) ethylene glycol
E) acetic acid

Answer: E

Difficulty: Medium
Section Reference: 12-2
Learning Objective: Recognize the common chemical features of metabolic pathways

15) The oxidized form of NADH is _____.

A) NADH+
B) NAD+
C) NADH
D) NADH2
E) none of the above

Answer: B

Difficulty: Easy
Section Reference: 12-2
Learning Objective: Recognize the common chemical features of metabolic pathways

16) Which of the following molecules is in the most reduced state?

A) methane
B) formaldehyde
C) formic acid
D) methanol
E) carbon dioxide

Answer: A

Difficulty: Medium
Section Reference: 12-2
Learning Objective: Recognize the common chemical features of metabolic pathways

17) The conversion of a carbohydrate into CO2 is a(n) _____ process; the conversion of CO2 into a carbohydrate is a(n) _____ process.

A) reductive; oxidative
B) endergonic; exergonic
C) exergonic; endergonic
D) oxidative; exergonic
E) endergonic; reductive

Answer: C

Difficulty: Medium
Section Reference: 12-2
Learning Objective: Recognize the common chemical features of metabolic pathways

18) Which of the following is a lipid-soluble electron carrier in its reduced state?

A) NADPH
B) NADH
C) NAD+
D) ubiquinol
E) ubiquinone

Answer: D

Difficulty: Easy
Section Reference: 12-2
Learning Objective: Recognize the common chemical features of metabolic pathways

19) Which of the following is correct regarding metabolic pathways?

A) most pathways are isolated from other pathways
B) the activity of most pathways is not regulated
C) all cells within a multi-cellular organism contain the same pathways
D) anabolic pathways never occur at the same time as catabolic pathways
E) none of the above are correct

Answer: E

Difficulty: Hard
Section Reference: 12-2
Learning Objective: Recognize the common chemical features of metabolic pathways

20) Which of the following is correctly described?

A) proteome: the complete set of proteins present in a cell at a given time
B) metabolome: the complete set of metabolic enzymes active in a cell at a given time
C) transcriptome: the complete set of proteins being synthesized at a given time
D) genome: the complete set of genes that are expressed at a given time
E) none of the above

Answer: A

Difficulty: Hard
Section Reference: 12-2
Learning Objective: Recognize the common chemical features of metabolic pathways

21) Which of the following is an essential amino acid?

A) Ala
B) Val
C) Cys
D) Tyr
E) Gly

Answer: B

Difficulty: Easy
Section Reference: 12-2
Learning Objective: Recognize the common chemical features of metabolic pathways

22) Which of the following vitamins is correctly paired with its biochemical function?

A) folic acid: carboxylation reactions
B) biotin: decarboxylation reactions
C) riboflavin: acyl transfer reactions
D) pyridoxine: amino-group transfer reactions
E) pantothenic acid: redox reactions

Answer: D

Difficulty: Medium
Section Reference: 12-2
Learning Objective: Recognize the common chemical features of metabolic pathways

23) Which of the following vitamins is correctly paired with the disease that is caused by its deficiency?

A) biotin: scurvy
B) pantothenic acid: beriberi
C) nicotinamide: pellagra
D) thiamine: anemia
E) folic acid: rickets

Answer: C

Difficulty: Medium
Section Reference: 12-2
Learning Objective: Recognize the common chemical features of metabolic pathways

24) When a reaction is at equilibrium, the G is equal to _____.

A) 1
B) 0
C) -1
D) G
E) none of the above

Answer: B

Difficulty: Easy
Section Reference: 12-3
Learning Objective: Analyze the free energy changes that occur during metabolic reactions

25) If the G is known, how can Keq be calculated?

A) Keq = log e(G/RT)
B) Keq = e(G/TS)
C) Keq = RT ln G
D) Keq = e-(G/RT)
E) Keq = ln (G/TS)

Answer: D

Difficulty: Hard
Section Reference: 12-3
Learning Objective: Analyze the free energy changes that occur during metabolic reactions

26) For the following reaction, calculate the Keq at 25C.

succinyl-CoA + acetoacetate acetoacetyl-CoA + succinate G = -1.25 kJ/mol

A) 0.602
B) 1.00
C) 1.66
D) 3.21
E) 4.22 102

Answer: C

Difficulty: Hard
Section Reference: 12-3
Learning Objective: Analyze the free energy changes that occur during metabolic reactions

27) For the following reaction, calculate the G at 37C.

glucose-6-phosphate fructose-6-phosphate Keq = 0.517

A) -2.87 kJ/mol
B) -1.70 kJ/mol
C) 0.203 kJ/mol
D) -0.738 kJ/mol
E) 1.70 kJ/mol

Answer: E

Difficulty: Medium
Section Reference: 12-3
Learning Objective: Analyze the free energy changes that occur during metabolic reactions

28) For the following reaction, calculate the G at 37C, given concentrations for glucose-1-phosphate of 25 mM and glucose-6-phosphate of 1 mM.

glucose-1-phosphate glucose-6-phosphate G = -7.1 kJ/mol

A) -15.4 kJ/mol
B) -8.1 kJ/mol
C) -6.1 kJ/mol
D) 1.2 kJ/mol
E) none of the above

Answer: A

Difficulty: Hard
Section Reference: 12-3
Learning Objective: Analyze the free energy changes that occur during metabolic reactions

29) What is the intracellular glucose concentration if the G for the following reaction is -20.1 kJ/mol at 37C and concentrations for glucose-6-phosphate and phosphate are both 1 mM?

glucose-6-phosphate glucose + Pi G = -13.8 kJ/mol

A) 1.9 M
B) 87 M
C) 1.9 mM
D) 27 mM
E) 87 mM

Answer: E

Difficulty: Hard
Section Reference: 12-3
Learning Objective: Analyze the free energy changes that occur during metabolic reactions

30) Which of the following describes the bonding of the three phosphates to adenosine in ATP? How many phosphoanhydride bonds are found in ATP?

A) one phosphoanhydride bond, two low energy phosphate esters
B) two phosphoanhydride bonds, one low energy phosphate ester
C) three phosphoanhydride bonds, one low energy phosphate ester
D) three phosphoanhydride bonds
E) none of the above

Answer: B

Difficulty: Medium
Section Reference: 12-3
Learning Objective: Analyze the free energy changes that occur during metabolic reactions

31) If the following reactions were coupled, what would be the overall G?

glucose + Pi glucose-6-phosphate G = 13.8 kJ/mol
ATP + H2O ADP + Pi G = -30.5 kJ/mol

A) 44.3 kJ/mol
B) 16.7 kJ/mol
C) 0 kJ/mol
D) -16.7 kJ/mol
E) -44.3 kJ/mol

Answer: D

Difficulty: Medium
Section Reference: 12-3
Learning Objective: Analyze the free energy changes that occur during metabolic reactions

32) Generally speaking, ATP is produced by _____ reactions and used by _____ reactions.

A) catabolic; anabolic
B) anabolic; catabolic
C) endergonic; exergonic
D) oxidation; reduction
E) reduction; oxidation

Answer: A

Difficulty: Easy
Section Reference: 12-3
Learning Objective: Analyze the free energy changes that occur during metabolic reactions

33) Which of the following factors contributes to the highly exergonic nature of ATP hydrolysis?

A) removal of phosphate from the cytoplasm
B) addition of water to the hydrophilic ATP molecule
C) decrease in negative-ion repulsion in ATP
D) low energy of activation for the hydrolysis
E) none of the above

Answer: C

Difficulty: Medium
Section Reference: 12-3
Learning Objective: Analyze the free energy changes that occur during metabolic reactions

34) Which of the following has the most spontaneous hydrolysis?

A) 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate
B) phosphocreatine
C) glucose-1-phosphate
D) pyrophosphate
E) phosphoenolpyruvate

Answer: E

Difficulty: Easy
Section Reference: 12-3
Learning Objective: Analyze the free energy changes that occur during metabolic reactions

35) In highly active muscle, _____ is used to regenerate ATP.

A) phosphocreatine
B) 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate
C) pyrophosphate
D) phosphoenolpyruvate
E) acetyl-CoA

Answer: A

Difficulty: Easy
Section Reference: 12-3
Learning Objective: Analyze the free energy changes that occur during metabolic reactions

36) The G for the hydrolysis of acetyl CoA is most similar to the G for the hydrolysis of _____.

A) 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate
B) ATP
C) glucose-1-phosphate
D) glucose-6-phosphate
E) phosphoenolpyruvate

Answer: B

Difficulty: Easy
Section Reference: 12-3
Learning Objective: Analyze the free energy changes that occur during metabolic reactions

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