Essentials Of Physical Anthropology 3rd Edition By Clark Spencer Larsen -Test Bank

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Essentials Of Physical Anthropology 3rd Edition By Clark Spencer Larsen -Test Bank

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Essentials Of Physical Anthropology 3rd Edition By Clark Spencer Larsen -Test Bank

CHAPTER 04: Genes and Their Evolution: Population Genetics

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. Malaria is caused by:
a. bites from infected mosquitoes. c. drinking bad water.
b. a genetic mutation. d. eating spoiled food.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy

OBJ:   Explain how abnormally formed hemoglobin and endemic malaria illustrate natural selection in humans           TOP:              The geography of sickle-cell anemia and the association with malaria

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Together, all of the alleles contained within a group of interbreeding individuals are known as a:
a. gene pool. c. clinal distribution.
b. population. d. polymorphism.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy

OBJ:   Define the term deme and its importance to genetics and the study of evolution

TOP:   Demes, reproductive isolation, and species                               MSC:   Remembering

 

  1. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium assumes:
a. strong selection pressure on the trait(s) being studied.
b. a significant mutation rate from generation to generation.
c. gene flow that is equal both into and out of the population.
d. no gene flow, mutation, or natural selection.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               OBJ:   Explain the Hardy-Weinberg law of equilibrium

TOP:   Hardy-Weinberg law                                 MSC:              Remembering

 

  1. While conducting research with a small population in South America you note that an overwhelming majority of individuals exhibit signs of a specific genetic abnormality. This is most likely the result of:
a. natural selection. c. extinction.
b. the founder effect. d. gene flow.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate

OBJ:   Define genetic drift and founder effect and provide real-world examples of each

TOP:   Founder effect: a special kind of genetic drift                 MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. The physical location of a gene within the genome is called the:
a. chromosome. c. address.
b. nucleus. d. locus.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy

OBJ:   Describe the mechanisms of evolution and speciation    TOP:   Mutation

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. In certain species of nonhuman primates there are groups where only one dominant female has access to mates. The other females must wait until the opportunity to mate presents itself. This will have direct impacts on fitness, influencing which of the following?
a. reproductive success c. strength
b. aggressiveness d. age at death

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate

OBJ:   Describe the mechanisms of evolution and speciation    TOP:   Natural selection

MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Evolution can best be defined as:
a. the appearance of a new species.
b. a change in allele frequencies in a breeding population over time.
c. changes in the DNA of an individual over his or her lifetime.
d. a process that occurs only over extremely long periods of time.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       OBJ:   Define genome, evolution, and speciation

TOP:   Demes, reproductive isolation, and species                               MSC:   Remembering

 

  1. When individuals of the same species are reproductively isolated, genetic differences may accumulate in sufficient number so that new species could emerge. Such an event would be an example of:
a. microevolution. c. equilibrium.
b. the founder effect. d. macroevolution.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate

OBJ:   Compare microevolution and macroevolution, including at least one difference between them

TOP:   Demes, reproductive isolation, and species                               MSC:   Understanding

 

  1. The type of selection that favored progressively larger brain size in human evolution is _______ selection.
a. natural c. stabilizing
b. directional d. disruptive

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate

OBJ:   Compare the three patterns of natural selection and provide examples for each

TOP:   Natural selection                             MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. The southern migration of which African people may have led to a significant increase in the incidence of malaria?
a. Masai c. Efe
b. Turkana d. Bantu

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate

OBJ:   Explain how abnormally formed hemoglobin and endemic malaria illustrate natural selection in humans           TOP:              Sickle-cell trait and malaria MSC:              Remembering

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT a genetic disorder that decreases susceptibility to malaria?
a. G6PD deficiency (favism) c. Huntingtons chorea
b. sickle-cell anemia d. thalassemia

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate

OBJ:   Explain how abnormally formed hemoglobin and endemic malaria illustrate natural selection in humans           TOP:              Other hemoglobin abnormalities               MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. The ABO and MN blood-type frequencies of the Dunkers differ significantly from those of current American and German populations due to:
a. genetic drift. c. gene flow.
b. natural selection. d. mutation.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate

OBJ:   Define genetic drift and founder effect and provide real-world examples of each

TOP:   Genetic drift: chance                                 MSC:              Understanding

 

  1. Another name for the evolutionary force called gene flow is:
a. the founder effect. c. admixture.
b. disruptive selection. d. transposition.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy

OBJ:   Explain how gene flow contributes to genetic diversity

TOP:   Founder effect: small, isolated populations                               MSC:   Remembering

 

  1. Which of the evolutionary forces is most likely to decrease variation between populations?
a. gene flow c. mutation
b. the founder effect d. natural selection

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate

OBJ:   Explain how gene flow contributes to genetic diversity   TOP:   Gene flow and migration

MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. The clinal decrease in type B blood from East Asia to Western Europe is probably the result of:
a. the founder effect. c. mutation.
b. stabilizing selection. d. gene flow.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate

OBJ:   Explain how gene flow contributes to genetic diversity   TOP:   Gene flow and migration

MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Mutations in DNA found in which cells are most likely to have significant evolutionary consequences?
a. sex cells (gametes) c. skin pigment cells
b. red blood cells d. brain cells

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       OBJ:   Define the different types of mutations

TOP:   Mutation        MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Australian aborigines are an endogamous society. This means that marriage and reproduction take place within the group, leading to:
a. increased genetic diversity through genetic drift.
b. migration without gene flow.
c. more genetic diversity than would be observed in an exogamous society.
d. decreased genetic diversity due to a lack of admixture.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate

OBJ:   Explain how gene flow contributes to genetic diversity   TOP:   Gene flow and migration

MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. A point mutation that does NOT result in a change to the amino acid coded for is said to be a _______ mutation.
a. spontaneous c. selective
b. synonymous d. stabilizing

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       OBJ:   Define the different types of mutations

TOP:   Mutation        MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Transposable elements are DNA sequences that:
a. are not coded to produce proteins.
b. contain numerous point mutations.
c. occur only on the X and Y chromosomes.
d. can copy themselves into entirely new areas of the chromosomes.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       OBJ:   Define the different types of mutations

TOP:   Mutation        MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Over a period of two generations, the frequency of green dung beetles in a population shifts from 75% to 71% while the frequency of brown dung beetles within this population shifts from 25% to 29%. This is an example of:
a. minievolution. c. millievolution.
b. microevolution. d. nanoevolution.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy

OBJ:   Compare microevolution and macroevolution, including at least one difference between them

TOP:   Demes, reproductive isolation, and species                               MSC:   Understanding

 

  1. You are reading a scientific article about cheetahs that have stripes instead of spots. The article refers to this as a genetic mutation. Though you see they have no negative impact on the cheetahs fitness, the stripes are nevertheless considered a genetic mutation because mutations:
a. can result in an evolutionary advantage.
b. can result in an evolutionary disadvantage.
c. may have no effect on the phenotype.
d. all of the above

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate

OBJ:   Describe some common mutations in humans and/or animals

TOP:   Mutation        MSC:  Applying

 

  1. Spontaneous mutation is the result of:
a. unknown causes. c. toxic chemicals.
b. x-rays. d. UV radiation.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               OBJ:   Define the different types of mutations

TOP:   Mutation        MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Studies of Galapagos finches have found that at certain points in time all finches on the island have either wide beaks or sharp narrow beaks. The type of evolution that leads to this phenotype distribution is _______ selection.
a. directional c. disruptive
b. natural d. stabilizing

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Difficult

OBJ:   Compare the three patterns of natural selection and provide examples for each

TOP:   Disruptive selection                        MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. The best-documented case of industrial melanism involves:
a. Galpagos finches. c. monarch butterflies.
b. dung beetles. d. peppered moths.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy

OBJ:   Explain how the case of the peppered moth illustrates natural selection

TOP:   Animal examples: peppered moth  MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. A random change in allele frequencies over time is known as:
a. genetic drift. c. admixture.
b. gene flow. d. gene migration.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy

OBJ:   Define genetic drift and founder effect and provide real-world examples of each

TOP:   Genetic flow and migration            MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. The absence of the A and B alleles in Native American populations is a result of:
a. natural selection. c. the founder effect.
b. gene flow. d. mutation.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate

OBJ:   Define genetic drift and founder effect and provide real-world examples of each

TOP:   Founder effect: small, isolated populations                               MSC:   Remembering

 

  1. Patrilocal societies are expected to display:
a. greater mtDNA diversity than Y chromosome diversity.
b. roughly equivalent mtDNA and Y chromosome diversity.
c. greater Y chromosome diversity than mtDNA diversity.
d. no strong correlation between societal structure and genetic diversity.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate

OBJ:   Explain how gene flow contributes to genetic diversity   TOP:   Gene flow and migration

MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. What effect does natural selection have on population variation?
a. It increases variation.
b. It decreases variation.
c. It both increases and decreases variation.
d. It does not affect variation.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate

OBJ:   Compare the three patterns of natural selection and provide examples for each

TOP:   Natural selection                             MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. The evolution of the modern horse with a single hoof on each limb from a dog-sized ancestral species with multiple digits is an example of:
a. macroevolution. c. disruptive selection.
b. stabilizing selection. d. microevolution.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy

OBJ:   Compare microevolution and macroevolution, including at least one difference between them

TOP:   Demes, reproductive isolation, and species                               MSC:   Understanding

 

  1. Fitness trade-off refers to selection favoring which genotype?
a. homozygous dominant c. heterozygous
b. homozygous recessive d. No genotype is favored.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate

OBJ:   Compare the three patterns of natural selection and provide examples for each

TOP:   Natural selection                             MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. A genetic study conducted over two generations found that the frequencies of genotypes in the first generation were AA: 0.36, Aa: 0.48, aa: 0.16. In the second generation, genotype frequencies remained the same. According to the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, we can assume:
a. negative assortative mating has maintained gene frequencies.
b. mutations have likely occurred, resulting in the same frequency.
c. mating in this population is random.
d. the population is small and we cannot detect change.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Difficult

OBJ:   Apply a simple Hardy-Weinberg equation to calculate genotype frequencies

TOP:   Hardy-Weinberg law                                 MSC:              Understanding

 

  1. An individual who displays the disease sickle-cell anemia must have inherited the deleterious allele from both phenotypically normal parents. This individual is therefore:
a. homozygous, with two dominant alleles.
b. homozygous, with two recessive alleles.
c. heterozygous, with one dominant and one recessive allele.
d. haplozygous.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate

OBJ:   Explain how abnormally formed hemoglobin and endemic malaria illustrate natural selection in humans           TOP:              Natural selection                 MSC:              Understanding

 

  1. The mutation known as trisomy 21, in which an extra copy of chromosome 21 is present, is more commonly known as _______ syndrome.
a. Turner c. Klinefelters
b. Down d. Williams

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               OBJ:   Define the different types of mutations

TOP:   Mutation        MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Familial hypercholesterolemia, an autosomal dominant disease, is five times more frequent in the Afrikaner population of South Africa than in the original population of Europe from which the ancestors to the Afrikaners immigrated. This represents an example of:
a. natural selection. c. the founder effect.
b. bottleneck. d. kin selection.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate

OBJ:   Define genetic drift and founder effect and provide real-world examples of each

TOP:   Founder effect: small, isolated populations                               MSC:   Remembering

 

  1. A genetic study conducted over multiple generations found that the frequency of genotypes in the first generation were AA: 0.36, Aa: 0.48, aa: 0.16. In the second generation, genotype frequencies shifted to AA: 0.16, Aa: 0.48, aa: 0.36. According to the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, we can assume:
a. random mating has altered gene frequencies.
b. gene flow has possibly shifted the gene frequencies.
c. mating in this population must be nonrandom mating.
d. both b. and c.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Difficult         OBJ:   Explain the Hardy-Weinberg law of equilibrium

TOP:   Hardy-Weinberg law                                 MSC:              Understanding

 

  1. A study of Galapagos finches after a long period of drought found that all species of finch on one of the islands had wide beaks well adapted to breaking open seeds. The type of evolution that leads to this phenotype distribution is _______ selection.
a. directional c. disruptive
b. natural d. stabilizing

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Difficult

OBJ:   Compare the three patterns of natural selection and provide examples for each

TOP:   Disruptive selection                        MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Frameshift mutations are more likely to have an impact at the phenotypic level because they:
a. are the result of a change in a single nucleotide.
b. are the result of exposure to radiation.
c. produce a protein having no function.
d. are mobile pieces of DNA.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               OBJ:   Define the different types of mutations

TOP:   Mutation        MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. In a classroom taste test for PTC the genotype frequency was determined to be P = 0.35 and Q = 0.65. After applying the Hardy-Weinberg equation, the percentage of genotypes was found to be as follows:
a. p2 = 0.12; 2pq = 0.46; q2 = 0.42.
b. p2 = 0.35; 2pq = 0.00; q2 = 0.65.
c. p2 = 0.12; 2pq = 0.65; q2 = 0.23.
d. p2 = 0.20; 2pq = 0.20; q2 = 0.60.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Difficult

OBJ:   Apply a simple Hardy-Weinberg equation to calculate genotype frequencies

TOP:   Hardy-Weinberg law                                 MSC:              Applying

 

ESSAY

 

  1. Why is the incidence of sickle-cell anemia an excellent example of a balanced polymorphism, in which two or more alleles are maintained by natural selection in a population?

 

ANS:

Homozygous normal individuals have healthy red blood cells (and hence normal oxygen distribution to tissues) but are susceptible to malaria. Homozygous abnormal individuals display sickle-cell anemia, a very serious disease that usually results in death before reproductive age. Those who are heterozygous are more fit in malarial environments, because they display only very mild symptoms of sickle-cell anemia (if any) and are much less susceptible to malaria. Hence, the sickle-cell allele is maintained in fairly high frequencies in regions where malaria is common.

 

DIF:    Difficult

OBJ:   Explain how abnormally formed hemoglobin and endemic malaria illustrate natural selection in humans           TOP:              Sickle-cell trait and malaria MSC:              Analyzing

 

  1. What is a polymorphic trait? Provide two examples of polymorphic traits in modern humans, and give one example of a monomorphic trait.

 

ANS:

A polymorphic trait is one in which at least two alleles exist at a frequency greater than 0.01%. Polymorphic traits in humans include eye, hair, and skin color, ABO blood type, and PTC tasting.

In contrast, a monomorphic trait is one in which a single allele has become fixed, so all individuals express the same phenotype for that trait. Monomorphic traits in humans include the number of limbs and digits and walking on two feet (bipedalism).

 

DIF:    Difficult         OBJ:   Define polymorphic traits and know at least two examples in humans

TOP:   Natural selection in humans           MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Why is a frameshift mutation far more likely to lead to a defective protein than a point mutation?

 

ANS:

The potential effects of a point mutation (substitution) are ameliorated by the redundancy in the system of triplets and amino acids. Different triplets produce the same amino acid, so at least some substitution mutations (synonymous) will have no effect at all.

A frameshift mutation (deletion or insertion) will alter the entire stream of genetic information, so rather than affecting only one amino acid it will affect the entire sequence, and hence create a highly modified protein.

 

DIF:    Difficult         OBJ:   Define the different types of mutations

TOP:   Mutation        MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Why is the peppered moth an excellent example of directional selection?

 

ANS:

The peppered moth exists in two forms, one that is white sprinkled with black and one that is completely black. Before the Industrial Revolution the sprinkled form prevailed, because on lichen-covered trees its coloration camouflaged it from predators. With the introduction of aerial pollutants, the lichens began to die off, exposing the darker bark of the trees. Under these new conditions the darker moths were concealed from predators more successfully, so they became more common while the sprinkled form became less common. As stricter air pollution standards led to a reemergence of the lichens, the moth frequencies again changed accordingly. Since color is determined by a single gene with two alleles, the shift in frequencies follows a typical Mendelian pattern.

 

DIF:    Difficult         OBJ:   Explain how the case of the peppered moth illustrates natural selection

TOP:   Directional selection | Animal examples: peppered moth           MSC:   Analyzing

 

  1. Explain how the founder effect can lead to a descendent population that differs greatly from its parent population over a relatively short period of time.

 

ANS:

The founder effect is a special kind of genetic drift in which a very small subset of a much larger population migrates to a new place and founds a new population. Because the founding population is so small, there is a very good chance that its genetic composition will not be representative of the parent population. Furthermore, in each subsequent generation it is probable that at least some alleles that were rare in the parent population will be common in the new one, and vice versa. The high incidence of Huntingtons chorea in Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela, is one good example of the founder effect, and it is quite likely that the first small populations of modern humans who migrated from Africa also experienced a founder effect.

 

DIF:    Difficult

OBJ:   Define genetic drift and founder effect and provide real-world examples of each

TOP:   Founder effect: small, isolated populations                               MSC:   Understanding

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