Essentials Of Sociology 8th Edition By Weitz White-Test Bank

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Essentials Of Sociology 8th Edition By Weitz White-Test Bank

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WITH ANSWERS
Essentials Of Sociology 8th Edition By Weitz White-Test Bank

CHAPTER 2: CULTURE

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. Which of the following concepts refers to the total way of life shared by members of a society?
a. values c. culture
b. norms d. cultural universals

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   32                  OBJ:   2.1

 

  1. A(n) ____ is a population that shares the same territory and is bound together by economic and political ties.
a. culture c. aggregate
b. society d. network

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   32                  OBJ:   2.1

 

  1. Culture is defined as:
a. all of the physical artifacts produced and used by a society.
b. the total way of life shared by members of a society.
c. the standards of desirability shared by members of a society.
d. the unique values, interests, and lifestyles of the elite members of society.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   32                  OBJ:   2.1                 KEY:  WWW

 

  1. Refrigerators, ovens, coffee pots, and stereos are all examples of what sociologists call:
a. material culture. c. high status culture.
b. nonmaterial culture. d. cultural necessities.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   32                  OBJ:   2.1

 

  1. All of the following are examples of nonmaterial culture EXCEPT:
a. a belief in atheism. c. the commandment thou shalt not kill.
b. a belief in God. d. a religious cross.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   32                  OBJ:   2.1

 

  1. Within sociology there are several different approaches to the study of culture. The _____ approach is more interested in how culture shapes individuals than in how economies shape culture.
a. structural-functional. c. biological.
b. conflict. d. conservative.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   32                  OBJ:   2.2

 

  1. The theoretical approach that wonders why one culture develops differently from another, and who benefits from cultural patterns, is:
a. structural-functionalism.
b. conflict theory.
c. biological determinism.
d. symbolic interactionism.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   33                  OBJ:   2.2                 MSC:  NEW

 

  1. The term for the attitudes and knowledge that bring power and status to members of the upper class is:
a. cultural norms c. cultural capital
b. status symbols d. materialism

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   33                  OBJ:   2.2                 MSC:  NEW

 

  1. Choosing a fine French wine, using multiple utensils for a five-course meal, and having contacts among the elite are all examples of:
a. popular culture. c. local knowledge.
b. popular cultural norms. d. cultural capital.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   33                  OBJ:   2.2                 MSC:  NEW

 

  1. _____ focuses on the meanings that people find in culture, and how those meanings are created.
a. Conflict theory c. Symbolic interactionism
b. Structural-functionalism d. Cultural materialism

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   33                  OBJ:   2.2                 MSC:  NEW

 

  1. Americans are shaped by their shared value of individualism and independence. This is a claim that pertains most strongly to the _____ perspective.
a. structural-functionalism
b. conflict theory
c. symbolic interaction
d. None of these; this is not a question any theory would address.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   33                  OBJ:   2.2                 MSC:  NEW

 

  1. Which theoretical approach would be most likely to examine the competing perspectives of multiculturalism and assimilation?
a. structural-functionalism
b. conflict theory
c. symbolic interaction
d. None of these; this is not a question any theory would address.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   33                  OBJ:   2.2                 MSC:  NEW

 

  1. Which theoretical perspective is most likely to examine the meanings that ethnic foods have for the groups that consume them?
a. structural-functionalism
b. conflict theory
c. symbolic interaction
d. None of these; this is not a question any theory would address.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   33                  OBJ:   2.2                 KEY:  WWW

MSC:  NEW

 

  1. The text argues that _____ help to explain what is common to humankind across societies but _____ explains why people and societies differ from one another.
a. cultural universals; genetics
b. biological factors; culture
c. social structures; biology
d. technological advances; cultural universals

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   33                  OBJ:   2.3

 

  1. When sociologists say that culture is problem solving, they mean that:
a. culture is created through conflict.
b. if a society is cultured, there will be no crime or deviance.
c. culture provides a standard pattern for dealing with common dilemmas.
d. we should worship culture instead of false gods.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   34                  OBJ:   2.3

 

  1. Structural-functionalists and conflict theorists agree that:
a. some people benefit from culture more than others.
b. culture is manipulated by the elite for their own advantage.
c. culture serves everyone equally.
d. culture provides ready-made solutions to the problems of everyday life.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   34                  OBJ:   2.3

 

  1. When Americans traveling abroad say that they really find the people strange they are:
a. being ethnocentric.
b. expressing cultural relativism.
c. identifying with a counterculture.
d. expressing a wish for more cultural variability.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   34                  OBJ:   2.4

 

  1. The requirement that each cultural trait be evaluated in the context of its own culture is known as:
a. ethnocentrism. c. normative adaptation.
b. cultural diffusion. d. cultural relativity.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   34                  OBJ:   2.4

 

  1. Janice is analyzing the American cultural value of all men are created equal and has determined that the United States does not practice what it preaches.  She is not interested in how the U.S. compares with other countries in terms of relative equality. Janices analysis is an example of:
a. ethnocentrism. c. normative adaptation.
b. cultural diffusion. d. cultural relativity.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   34                  OBJ:   2.4

 

  1. The tendency to view the norms and values of ones culture as absolute and to use them as a standard against which to judge the practices of other cultures is known as:
a. cultural relativity. c. ethnocentrism.
b. cultural objectivity. d. practical assessment.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   35                  OBJ:   2.4

 

  1. Which of these statements about ethnocentrism is FALSE?
a. Ethnocentrism can create a barrier to interaction between people from different cultures.
b. Ethnocentrism is the tendency to view the norms and values of ones culture as absolute.
c. Ethnocentrism is always something negative.
d. Ethnocentrism is essential for social integration.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   35                  OBJ:   2.4

 

  1. In Equatorial Guinea, citizens were shocked to find an American neighbor living alone in a large apartment. The Equatoguineans surprise at this horrible, lonely, living arrangement is an example of:
a. personal distaste. c. ethnocentrism.
b. cultural universalism. d. general dislike of foreign neighbors.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   35                  OBJ:   2.4

 

  1. Your text concludes that ethnocentrism:
a. weakens social control.
b. is essential for cultural exchange.
c. is a bridge between different cultures when they come into contact.
d. is a natural, and in some ways, desirable product of growing up in a culture.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   35                  OBJ:   2.4                 KEY:  WWW

 

  1. Sociologists say that culture is a social product. What does this mean?
a. Cultural diversity is not the product of isolated gene pools, rather it is learned and changed through social interaction.
b. Culture is a material commodity shared by all members of a society.
c. Culture is determined by biological instincts.
d. Culture cannot be understood or known by any individual. It can only be experienced collectively.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   36                  OBJ:   2.5

 

  1. The transmission of culture from one person (or generation) to the next is dependent upon:
a. a large brain.
b. natural human instincts.
c. the human capacity for creating and using technology.
d. the human capacity for language.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   36                  OBJ:   2.5

 

  1. Sociobiology is defined in your text as the:
a. systematic study of human social interaction.
b. study of the biological basis of all forms of human behavior.
c. study of biological adaptations to social environments.
d. study of social evolution as influenced by biology.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   37                  OBJ:   2.5

 

  1. Biological explanations are most likely to be accepted for behavioral patterns that are:
a. highly specialized. c. deviant and subversive.
b. different in each culture. d. universal.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   37                  OBJ:   2.5

 

  1. _____ assumes that some human social behavior such as altruism, has evolved as a genetic adaptation.
a. Cultural relativity c. Social science in general
b. Sociobiology d. Sociology

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   37                  OBJ:   2.5

 

  1. According to sociobiologists, which of the following characteristics is related to successful reproduction?
a. altrusim toward all members of the society
b. altruism toward kin
c. larger bone structure
d. men with a higher sperm count

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   37                  OBJ:   2.5

 

  1. According to _____, a change in a species occurs primarily because some individuals are more successful than others at reproducing. Thus, the species comes to be characterized by the traits that mark successful reproducers.
a. conflict theorists c. symbolic interaction
b. structural functionalists d. sociobiologists

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   37                  OBJ:   2.5

 

  1. According to your text, the carriers of culture are:
a. family, government, and religion. c. biological, social and cultural evolution.
b. technology, environment, and population. d. language, values, and norms.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   37                  OBJ:   2.6

 

  1. The phrase language is a framework of culture implies that:
a. language limits the technological and creative potential of a culture.
b. language allows the transmission of culture from one person to the next.
c. language is forever changing and adapting to the evolving culture.
d. language symbolizes culture and shapes the way in which culture develops.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   37                  OBJ:   2.6

 

  1. Why would it be important for members of immigrant groups to teach their children their native language?
a. because language is the source of shared meanings and culture.
b. because without their native language they will have no identity.
c. to make it easier for them to find employment.
d. to teach them the proper discipline and respect.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   37                  OBJ:   2.6                 KEY:  WWW

MSC:  NEW

 

  1. According to _____, the grammar, structure, and categories embodied in each language affect how its speakers see reality.
a. the linguistic relativity hypothesis c. the reality thesis
b. the carrier of culture hypothesis d. the symbolic interaction perspective

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   38                  OBJ:   2.6

 

  1. According to the text, the relationship between language and culture includes each of the following EXCEPT:
a. language is a carrier of culture.
b. our thinking and perceptions are shaped by our linguistic capacities.
c. language is symbolic.
d. language inhibits cultural adaptation.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   38                  OBJ:   2.6

 

  1. Which of the following terms is used for shared ideas about desirable goals in a culture, such as good health, stability and security?
a. norms c. wants
b. values d. folkways

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   39                  OBJ:   2.6

 

  1. Having a happy and satisfying marriage is a value of American culture. Values are defined by the text as:
a. shared ideas of what is a desirable goal.
b. shared rules of conduct that specify how people ought to think and act.
c. the normal, customary, habitual ways of doing things.
d. strong ideas of what is morally right or wrong, enforced by the police powers of the state.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   39                  OBJ:   2.6

 

  1. Which of the following is an example of a value?
a. The sky is blue. c. Cats make good companion animals.
b. Material success. d. Ina likes sweets.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   39                  OBJ:   2.6

 

  1. Norms are defined as the:
a. total way of life shared by members of a society.
b. shared ideas about desirable goals in a society.
c. shared rules about how people ought to think and act.
d. actual behavior of members of a group.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   40                  OBJ:   2.6

 

  1. Which of these values are practically universal?
a. strong family and good health. c. youthfulness and status.
b. material wealth and long life. d. material wealth and competition.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   39                  OBJ:   2.6                 MSC:  NEW

 

  1. Norms that are simply the customary, normal, habitual ways a group does things are known as:
a. mores. c. customs.
b. laws. d. folkways.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   40                  OBJ:   2.6

 

  1. Which of the following would NOT be considered a folkway of American culture?
a. not eating with your mouth full. c. thank you notes.
b. white wedding dresses. d. monogamy, marriage to one spouse.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   40                  OBJ:   2.6

 

  1. Alex did not bathe or use deodorant for one week. His classmates refused to sit by him and sent him a bar of soap anonymously. Alex violated a:
a. cultural universal. c. folkway.
b. law. d. value.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   40                  OBJ:   2.6                 KEY:  WWW

 

  1. Norms for which strong ideas of right or wrong have developed are called:
a. laws. c. moral customs.
b. folkways. d. mores.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   40                  OBJ:   2.6

 

  1. In American society, the commandment thou shalt not commit adultery belongs to which category?
a. folkways c. cultural universals
b. mores d. values

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   41                  OBJ:   2.6

 

  1. Norms or rules that are officially enforced and sanctioned by society are known as:
a. folkways. c. laws.
b. mores. d. requirements.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   41                  OBJ:   2.6

 

  1. Which of the following is true regarding the relationship between norms and law?
a. All norms are supported by law.
b. Not all norms are supported by law and not all laws are supported by norms.
c. All laws are supported by general norms.
d. Formal laws are established and enforced only when they have the backing of informal sanctions.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   41                  OBJ:   2.6

 

  1. Which of these principles is illustrated by laws requiring the use of seat belts:
a. creation of values. c. elimination of values.
b. emphasize voluntary compliance. d. using laws to create norms.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   41                  OBJ:   2.6

 

  1. John has noticed that his boss smiles and is pleased when John gets to work at the office a bit early, or stays a bit late. John is being influenced by:
a. values. c. formal sanctions.
b. informal sanctions. d. mores.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   41                  OBJ:   2.7

 

  1. Sanctions:
a. are always punishments for violating norms.
b. are always rewards for adhering to norms.
c. may be either rewards or punishments.
d. None of these is true about sanctions.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   41                  OBJ:   2.7

 

  1. Sanctions refer to:
a. life-styles that are opposed to those of the larger culture.
b. rewards for conformity and punishments for nonconformity.
c. the forms of interaction through which people relate to one another.
d. the expectation that people will return favors when they are obligated to do so.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   41                  OBJ:   2.7

 

  1. Professor Mitchell allows her students the opportunity to skip the final exam if they have earned an A on all their coursework and have no absences at the end of the semester.  Allowing the students to skip the final for doing well and coming to class is a type of:
a. sanction c. mos (singular of mores)
b. folkway d. law

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   41                  OBJ:   2.7

 

  1. What is the texts general conclusion about norms?
a. Norms are a good guide to peoples actual behavior.
b. Norms are not related to behavior.
c. There is no relationship between norms and values.
d. Norms are not a good guide to peoples actual behavior.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   41                  OBJ:   2.7                 KEY:  WWW

 

  1. Research indicates that one half of all married men and women in our society have committed adultery. This example shows that:
a. normative behavior always reflects actual behavior.
b. many norms are unimportant.
c. our mores regarding marital fidelity are very powerful.
d. norms are not always a good guide to what people actually do.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   41                  OBJ:   2.6

 

  1. The discrepancy between cultural norms and peoples actual behavior is called:
a. sanctioning c. deviance
b. mores d. folkways

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   42                  OBJ:   2.6

 

  1. Groups that share in the overall culture of society but maintain their own distinctive values, norms and life-styles are called:
a. deviant subgroups. c. countercultures.
b. subcultures. d. supercultures.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   42                  OBJ:   2.8

 

  1. Betty has just taken a position with a different corporation. She is quite frustrated because workers in her new office have a different approach than what she is used to. Her co-workers use terms that she has not heard before and have their own ways of dividing the work and covering for each other. Betty is reacting to:
a. a subculture. c. a counterculture.
b. cultural diffusion. d. changing mores.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   42                  OBJ:   2.8

 

  1. Groups that have values, interests, beliefs, and life-styles that are opposed to those of the larger society are called:
a. deviant subgroups. c. disloyal antagonists.
b. countercultures. d. subcultures.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   43                  OBJ:   2.8

 

  1. A group of people who reside in the United States do not agree with the American values of material success, patriarchy, and marriage.  They have chosen to isolate themselves from mainstream society by forming a commune where women and men are equal and marriage is forbidden.  This group would be considered a:
a. subculture. c. sub-group.
b. type of organized crime mob. d. counterculture.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   43                  OBJ:   2.8

 

  1. A subculture is:
a. a group that has values, interests, beliefs and lifestyles that are opposed to those of the larger society.
b. a group that shares the overall culture of mainstream society but maintains its own distinctive values, norms, and lifestyles.
c. a population that shares the same territory and is bound together by economic and political ties.
d. a group of people with similar physical characteristics.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   46                  OBJ:   2.8

 

  1. A counterculture is:
a. a group that has values, interests, beliefs and lifestyles that are opposed to those of the larger society.
b. a group that shares the overall culture of mainstream society but maintains its own distinctive values, norms, and lifestyles.
c. a population that shares the same territory and is bound together by economic and political ties.
d. a group of people with similar physical characteristics.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   46                  OBJ:   2.8

 

  1. Until fairly recently many people believed that ethnic and religious subcultures should learn and adopt the ways of the dominant group. Such people were advocating:
a. multiculturalism. c. countercultures.
b. assimilation. d. cultural diffusion.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   43                  OBJ:   2.9                 MSC:  NEW

 

  1. Maria has recently moved to the United States from Columbia.  Her children no longer speak Spanish and are learning to live like American children. Marias children are experiencing:
a. multiculturalism. c. cultural relativism.
b. ethnocentrism. d. assimilation.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   43                  OBJ:   2.9                 KEY:  WWW

 

  1. The image of the United States as a salad bowl rather than a melting pot has been used to illustrate the concept of:
a. ethnocentrism. c. acculturation.
b. multiculturalism. d. cultural relativism.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   43                  OBJ:   2.9

 

  1. The term for the belief that cultural differences should be preserved and appreciated is:
a. multiculturalism. c. countercultures.
b. assimilation. d. cultural diffusion.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   43                  OBJ:   2.9                 MSC:  NEW

 

  1. For many deaf people, using American Sign Language creates a shared identity and unique forms of expression. For these people, being deaf would be considered:
a. a disability. c. a society.
b. a culture. d. a linguistic novelty.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   44                  OBJ:   2.9                 MSC:  NEW

 

  1. In many cases cochlear implants have not enabled deaf children to hear and understand, but have only confused them with new, unintelligible sounds. Given that implants are not very successful, deaf activists have criticized the medical practice of surgically inserting cochlear implants as:
a. a neutral medical technology.
b. multiculturalism on the part of the hearing culture.
c. ethnocentrism on the part of the hearing culture.
d. a form of cultural relativity.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   44                  OBJ:   2.9

 

  1. Studies of the deaf show that:
a. nearly all deaf people would join the hearing culture if they had a choice.
b. many deaf people would not join the hearing culture if they had a choice.
c. deaf people view themselves as having a serious disability.
d. most deaf people are excited about the new cochlear implant options available to deaf babies.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   44                  OBJ:   2.9

 

  1. People who advocate for the use of cochlear implants for deaf children are taking the perspective of:
a. cultural relativity. c. multiculturalism.
b. assimilation. d. cultural diversity.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   45                  OBJ:   2.9                 MSC:  NEW

 

  1. Which of the following was NOT included in your text as a major factor accounting for cultural diversity?
a. isolation. c. technological difference.
b. environmental differences. d. political structures.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   45                  OBJ:   2.10

 

  1. The process by which aspects of one culture or subculture enter and are incorporated into another is referred to as:
a. acculturation. c. cultural diffusion.
b. cultural isolation. d. technological advance.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   45                  OBJ:   2.10

 

  1. Salsa sales in the United States have surpassed ketchup sales.  This is the result of:
a. assimilation. c. technology.
b. cultural diffusion. d. ethnocentrism.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   45                  OBJ:   2.10

 

  1. At the broadest level, cultural elements spread around the world. This is called:
a. Globalization of culture. c. Xenophobia.
b. Assimilation d. Cultural lag.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   45                  OBJ:   2.10               KEY:  WWW

 

  1. Cultural diffusion occurs most rapidly when:
a. the new ideas and inventions come from the United States.
b. new values and tools meet basic needs and are consistent with existing culture.
c. the culture uses English as its language of choice.
d. pre-existing relative deprivation is high.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   46                  OBJ:   2.10

 

  1. Many scholars believe unrealistic media images:
a. contribute to higher levels of self-esteem among girls.
b. contribute to higher levels of eating disorders among women and girls.
c. have not had an effect on young women.
d. have no affect on boys and men.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   47                  OBJ:   2.10

 

  1. According to the study by Melissa Milkie on how young women interpret images of women in beauty magazines:
a. white teens were more likely than African American teens to believe the images of female beauty in magazines were unrealistic.
b. African American teens were more likely than white teens to believe the images of female beauty in magazines were unrealistic.
c. the self-concept of the African American teens was less negatively affected by the magazine images than the self-concept of the white teens.
d. the self-concept of the white teens was less negatively affected by the mag

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