Essentials of Anatomy And Physiology 7th Edition by Martini Bartholomew Test Bank

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Essentials of Anatomy And Physiology 7th Edition by Martini Bartholomew Test Bank

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WITH ANSWERS
Essentials of Anatomy And Physiology 7th Edition by Martini Bartholomew Test Bank

Essentials of Anatomy & Physiology, 7e, (Martini/Bartholomew)

Chapter 2   The Chemical Level of Organization

 

2.1   Multiple-Choice Questions

 

1) An element has 6 electrons, 6 protons, and 6 neutrons. What will be the mass number of that element?

  1. A) 6
  2. B) 12
  3. C) 18
  4. D) 36
  5. E) 15

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  2-1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

2) The uncharged subatomic particles are called

  1. A) atoms.
  2. B) molecules.
  3. C) protons.
  4. D) neutrons.
  5. E) electrons.

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  2-1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

3) Which of the following would have a negative charge?

  1. A) an atom
  2. B) a molecule
  3. C) a proton
  4. D) a neutron
  5. E) an electron

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  2-1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

4) Atoms that are of the same element but contain different numbers of neutrons are called

  1. A) isomers.
  2. B) cations.
  3. C) isotopes.
  4. D) anions.
  5. E) None of these is correct.

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  2-1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

5) The atomic number of an atom is determined by the

  1. A) number of protons.
  2. B) number of neutrons.
  3. C) number and arrangement of electrons.
  4. D) size of the atom.
  5. E) mass of the atom.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  2-1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

6) Which statement is true regarding atomic structure and function?

  1. A) Electrons and protons comprise the nucleus of the atom.
  2. B) An atom is electrically neutral, having the same number of positively charged protons and negatively charged electrons.
  3. C) Neutrons are found in orbits around the atomic nucleus.
  4. D) The charge of an atom depends on where the protons and electrons are located.
  5. E) All shells around the nucleus optimally contain 8 electrons.

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  2-1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

7) A(n) ________ contains atoms with the same atomic number.

  1. A) base
  2. B) element
  3. C) cation
  4. D) anion
  5. E) enzyme

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  2-1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

8) The area around the center of an atom, which contains negatively charged subatomic particles, is called the electron

  1. A) cloud.
  2. B) nucleus.
  3. C) active site.
  4. D) buffering zone.
  5. E) double helix.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  2-1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

 

9) Which of the following elements is found in all organic molecules?

  1. A) nitrogen
  2. B) oxygen
  3. C) iron
  4. D) carbon
  5. E) copper

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  2-1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Remembering

10) An oxygen atom can have 8, 9, or 10 neutrons in its nucleus. This variation describes

  1. A) atomic number.
  2. B) electric charge.
  3. C) bonding characteristics.
  4. D) isotopes.
  5. E) proton therapy.

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  2-1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

11) The mass number represents the number of

  1. A) protons in an atom.
  2. B) electrons in an ion.
  3. C) neutrons in an atom.
  4. D) protons and neutrons in an atom.
  5. E) neutrons and electrons in an atom.

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  2-1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

12) Which of the following is sometimes used in diagnostic imaging?

  1. A) a radioisotope
  2. B) a proton
  3. C) an ion
  4. D) an atom
  5. E) an electrolyte

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  2-1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

 

13) How many electrons do most atoms need in their second outer shell in order to be stable?

  1. A) two
  2. B) three
  3. C) four
  4. D) six
  5. E) eight

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  2-1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

14) If an element is composed of atoms with an atomic number of 8 and a mass number of 14, then an electrically neutral atom of this element contains

  1. A) 6 protons.
  2. B) 6 neutrons.
  3. C) 6 electrons.
  4. D) 14 protons.
  5. E) 14 electrons.

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  2-1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Understanding

15) Which is the correct description of a molecule?

  1. A) It is an electrically charged atom.
  2. B) It cannot be broken down physically.
  3. C) It is comprised of two or more elements bonded together.
  4. D) It is the smallest unit of matter.
  5. E) It is comprised of two or more atoms sharing electrons.

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  2-2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

16) Combinations of atoms that contain two or more different elements are called

  1. A) molecules.
  2. B) compounds.
  3. C) mixtures.
  4. D) isotopes.
  5. E) None of these is correct.

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  2-2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

 

17) Ions with a negative charge are called

  1. A) cations.
  2. B) anions.
  3. C) radicals.
  4. D) polyatomic ions.
  5. E) None of these is correct.

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  2-2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

18) Covalent bonds are formed when

  1. A) atoms share electrons.
  2. B) cations and anions are held together by their opposite charges.
  3. C) electrons are exchanged between atoms.
  4. D) hydrogen forms bonds with negatively charged atoms in the same or different molecules.
  5. E) two or more atoms lose electrons at the same time.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  2-2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

19) The bond between sodium and chlorine is a(n) ________ bond.

  1. A) covalent
  2. B) ionic
  3. C) hydrogen
  4. D) hydrophobic
  5. E) metallic

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  2-2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Understanding

20) A molecule containing two atoms of hydrogen and one atom of oxygen in combination is called a(n)

  1. A) oxygen molecule.
  2. B) carbon dioxide molecule.
  3. C) water molecule.
  4. D) hydroxyl molecule.
  5. E) hydroxide molecule.

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  2-2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

 

21) Ions with a positive charge are called

  1. A) anions.
  2. B) bases.
  3. C) metabolites.
  4. D) cations.
  5. E) acids.

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  2-2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

22) Which of the following is a characteristic of hydrogen bonds?

  1. A) Hydrogen bonds are strong attractive forces between hydrogen atoms and negatively charged atoms.
  2. B) Hydrogen bonds occur only in water.
  3. C) Hydrogen bonds can form between adjacent molecules.
  4. D) Hydrogen bonds are part of fatty-acid structure.
  5. E) Hydrogen bonds are part of carbohydrate structure.

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  2-2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

23) Which of the following is an example of an anion?

  1. A) magnesium
  2. B) potassium
  3. C) calcium
  4. D) chloride
  5. E) sodium

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  2-2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

24) Which of these is a molecule but is not considered to be a compound?

  1. A) H2O
  2. B) CO2
  3. C) C6H12O6
  4. D) H2
  5. E) CO

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  2-2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

25) Which of the following is a weak electrical attraction between molecules?

  1. A) ionic bond
  2. B) covalent bond
  3. C) polar bond
  4. D) metallic bond
  5. E) hydrogen bond

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  2-2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

26) In a molecule of hydrogen, a pair of electrons is shared equally. Such a bond is called a(n)

  1. A) ionic bond.
  2. B) polar covalent bond.
  3. C) nonpolar covalent bond.
  4. D) oxygen covalent bond.
  5. E) hydrogen bond.

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  2-2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

27) If two pairs of electrons are shared between two atoms, what type of bond occurs?

  1. A) single covalent bond
  2. B) double covalent bond
  3. C) triple covalent bond
  4. D) polar covalent bond
  5. E) hydrogen bond

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  2-2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

28) Chlorine atoms have seven electrons in the outermost shell. As a result, one would expect chlorine to form ions with a charge of

  1. A) +1.
  2. B) +2.
  3. C) 0.
  4. D) -2.
  5. E) -1.

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  2-2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Applying

 

 

29) The term that applies to all of the decomposition reactions that occur in metabolism is

  1. A) anabolism.
  2. B) dehydration synthesis.
  3. C) catabolism.
  4. D) ionization.
  5. E) homeostasis.

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  2-3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Remembering

30) Reactions that ultimately result in larger molecules formed from smaller ones are called ________ reactions.

  1. A) hydrolysis
  2. B) reversible
  3. C) exergonic
  4. D) dissociation
  5. E) synthesis

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  2-3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

31) Which statement about the reaction H2 + Cl2  2HCl is correct?

  1. A) H2and Cl2are the products.
  2. B) HCl is the product.
  3. C) One molecule of hydrogen contains one atom.
  4. D) One molecule of chlorine contains one atom.
  5. E) The reaction is unbalanced.

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  2-3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

32) When two monosaccharides undergo a dehydration synthesis,

  1. A) a new monosaccharide is formed.
  2. B) a starch is formed.
  3. C) a polysaccharide is formed.
  4. D) a condensation reaction occurs.
  5. E) hydrolysis occurs.

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  2-3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

 

33) Hydrolysis is an example of which type of reaction?

  1. A) exchange
  2. B) reversible
  3. C) anabolism
  4. D) synthesis
  5. E) decomposition

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  2-3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

34) Choose the most accurate definition of chemical reaction.

  1. A) It is a process in which bonds between atoms are formed or broken.
  2. B) It is the energy of motion.
  3. C) It is an increase in random molecular motion.
  4. D) It is movement or a change in the physical structure of matter.
  5. E) It is the capacity to perform work.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  2-3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Understanding

35) The reaction NaOH + HCl NaCl + H2O would be an example of a(n)

  1. A) exchange reaction.
  2. B) decomposition reaction.
  3. C) synthesis reaction.
  4. D) enzyme reaction.
  5. E) metabolic reaction.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  2-3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

36) The symbol , used in visual chemical reactions, means that

  1. A) the chemical reaction can go in either direction.
  2. B) the concentration of the end products is the same as that of the reactants.
  3. C) the substrates can become reactants and vice versa.
  4. D) there is more end product than reactant.
  5. E) input of energy is required.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  2-3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

 

37) Chemical reactions that occur in the human body are catalyzed by special protein molecules called

  1. A) electrolytes.
  2. B) enzymes.
  3. C) metabolites.
  4. D) steroids.
  5. E) buffers.

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  2-4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

38) The addition of energy to start a reaction is called the energy of

  1. A) endergonic control.
  2. B) activation.
  3. C) exergonic control.
  4. D) release.
  5. E) equilibrium.

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  2-4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

39) Chemical reactions that release energy are categorized as

  1. A) endergonic.
  2. B) catabolic.
  3. C) anabolic.
  4. D) hydrolytic.
  5. E) exergonic.

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  2-4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Remembering

40) In an endergonic reaction,

  1. A) large molecules are broken down into smaller ones.
  2. B) small molecules are assembled into larger ones.
  3. C) molecules are rearranged to form new molecules.
  4. D) molecules move from reactants to products and back.
  5. E) energy is consumed during the reaction.

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  2-4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

 

41) Which is the mechanism of enzyme functioning?

  1. A) Enzymes raise the activation energy of a reaction.
  2. B) Enzymes remove hydrogen ions.
  3. C) Enzymes lower the activation energy of a reaction.
  4. D) Enzymes replace hydrogen ions.
  5. E) Enzymes promote complementary base-pairing.

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  2-4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

42) Carbon dioxide is produced as a result of

  1. A) metabolic activity.
  2. B) carbon monoxide instability.
  3. C) oxygen synthesis during aerobic respiration.
  4. D) the breakdown of water into oxygen.
  5. E) glucose synthesis.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  2-5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

43) Which of the following is an organic compound?

  1. A) CO2
  2. B) CH4
  3. C) H2O
  4. D) CCl4
  5. E) HCl

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  2-5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

44) What is the primary composition of organic compounds?

  1. A) carbon and oxygen atoms
  2. B) oxygen and hydrogen atoms
  3. C) oxygen and nitrogen atoms
  4. D) carbon and hydrogen atoms
  5. E) nitrogen and carbon atoms

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  2-5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

45) Which of the following pairs of elements can be classified as inorganic only?

  1. A) sodium and hydrogen
  2. B) carbon and oxygen
  3. C) calcium and carbon
  4. D) hydrogen and carbon
  5. E) sodium and calcium

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  2-5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

46) The best definition of organic material is anything that contains

  1. A) carbon and oxygen covalently bonded.
  2. B) carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen covalently bonded.
  3. C) carbon and hydrogen covalently bonded.
  4. D) hydrogen covalently bonded.
  5. E) carbon, nitrogen, and hydrogen covalently bonded.

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  2-5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

47) Which of the following is inorganic?

  1. A) fatty acid
  2. B) protein
  3. C) DNA
  4. D) sodium
  5. E) glycogen

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  2-5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

48) Which of the following constitutes most of the total body weight in humans?

  1. A) water
  2. B) acids
  3. C) bases
  4. D) salts
  5. E) organic molecules

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  2-6

Blooms Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

 

49) A mixture of water and a salt would result in breaking down the salt into a mixture of cations and anions. This process is called

  1. A) dehydration synthesis.
  2. B) dissociation.
  3. C) hydrolysis.
  4. D) condensation reaction.
  5. E) equilibrium.

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  2-6

Blooms Taxonomy:  Understanding

50) Water is an excellent solvent because

  1. A) it dissolves all solutes.
  2. B) water molecules covalently bond with atoms in other molecules.
  3. C) it has a high heat capacity.
  4. D) it makes up a major part of every cell.
  5. E) water molecules are polar.

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  2-6

Blooms Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

51) A solution containing more hydrogen ions than hydroxide ions is

  1. A) acidic.
  2. B) basic.
  3. C) neutral.
  4. D) alkaline.
  5. E) organic.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  2-7

Blooms Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

52) The most acidic solution would have a pH of

  1. A) 0.
  2. B) 7.
  3. C) 14.
  4. D) 4.
  5. E) 10.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  2-7

Blooms Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

 

53) Which of the following substances would be nearest the pH of human blood?

  1. A) milk, pH 6.5
  2. B) pure water, pH 7
  3. C) tomato juice, pH 4
  4. D) wine, pH 3
  5. E) stomach secretions, pH 1

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  2-7

Blooms Taxonomy:  Applying

 

54) Why is it important to precisely regulate the pH of blood or other body fluids?

  1. A) Blood functions as an excellent solvent.
  2. B) Blood and other body fluids have a very high heat capacity.
  3. C) Dehydration synthesis of large molecules occurs.
  4. D) Hydrogen ions are extremely reactive.
  5. E) Some organic molecules have polar covalent bonds.

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  2-7

Blooms Taxonomy:  Understanding

55) If a substance resists changes in pH, either by removing or replacing hydrogen ions, it is called

  1. A) neutral.
  2. B) acidic.
  3. C) alkaline.
  4. D) a buffer.
  5. E) a salt.

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  2-8

Blooms Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

56) ________ are compounds that maintain the pH of solutions within given limits.

  1. A) Enzymes
  2. B) Electrolytes
  3. C) Metabolites
  4. D) Isotopes
  5. E) Buffers

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  2-8

Blooms Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

 

57) Which of the following are defined as soluble inorganic compounds whose ions will conduct an electric current in solutions?

  1. A) catalysts
  2. B) electrolytes
  3. C) strong acids
  4. D) buffers
  5. E) steroid hormones

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  2-8

Blooms Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

58) During ionization, water molecules disrupt the ionic bonds of a solute, resulting in a mixture of ions that can conduct an electrical current in solution. These ions are called

  1. A) cations.
  2. B) anions.
  3. C) isotopes.
  4. D) electrolytes.
  5. E) reactants.

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  2-8

Blooms Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

59) A buffer

  1. A) removes or replaces hydrogen ions in a solution.
  2. B) is a compound with an extra electron in its outer shell.
  3. C) has an unstable nucleus, making it highly reactive.
  4. D) donates hydrogen ions to a solution.
  5. E) consists of long carbon-carbon chains.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  2-8

Blooms Taxonomy:  Remembering

60) Which of the following is an example of a strong base?

  1. A) NaCl
  2. B) NaOH
  3. C) HCl
  4. D) KF
  5. E) H2O

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  2-8

Blooms Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

 

61) When placed in solution, an inorganic substance dissociates completely, forming hydrogen ions and anions. This substance would be a

  1. A) strong base.
  2. B) weak base.
  3. C) strong acid.
  4. D) weak acid.
  5. E) salt.

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  2-8

Blooms Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

62) Functionally, carbohydrates are most important as

  1. A) storage of glucose molecules.
  2. B) a part of nucleic acid structure.
  3. C) sources of energy.
  4. D) receptors of the cell surface.
  5. E) insulation under the skin.

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  2-9

Blooms Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

63) The most important metabolic fuel molecule in the body is

  1. A) sucrose.
  2. B) starch.
  3. C) protein.
  4. D) vitamin B12.
  5. E) glucose.

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  2-9

Blooms Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

64) Which of the following is an example of a disaccharide?

  1. A) starch
  2. B) glycogen
  3. C) sucrose
  4. D) cellulose
  5. E) fructose

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  2-9

Blooms Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

65) Which carbohydrate and example pair are not correctly matched?

  1. A) glycogen monosaccharide
  2. B) glucose monosaccharide
  3. C) starch polysaccharide
  4. D) fructose monosaccharide
  5. E) sucrose disaccharide

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  2-9

Blooms Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

 

Figure 2-1 A Chemical Reaction

 

Use Figure 2-1 to answer the following question:

 

66) Determine which reaction is shown in the figure and specify its mechanism of action.

  1. A) The addition of a water molecule breaks down a complex molecule.
  2. B) The removal of a water molecule breaks down a complex molecule.
  3. C) Ionic bonds are broken apart as individual ions interact with the positive or negative ends of polar water molecules.
  4. D) The removal of a water molecule facilitates the union of two molecules.
  5. E) The addition of a water molecule facilitates the union of two molecules.

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  2-9

Blooms Taxonomy:  Applying

 

 

 

Figure 2-2 A Molecule

 

Use Figure 2-2 to answer the following question:

 

67) The molecule shown in the figure is considered to be the most important metabolic fuel in the body. Choose the best category of molecules to which it belongs.

  1. A) steroid
  2. B) saturated fatty acid
  3. C) monoglyceride
  4. D) cholesterol
  5. E) monosaccharide

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  2-9

Blooms Taxonomy:  Understanding

68) Lipids are used for which of the following?

  1. A) to form essential structural components of cells
  2. B) to provide roughly 10 times as much energy as carbohydrates
  3. C) to help reduce body temperature
  4. D) to help protect the skeleton
  5. E) to carry genetic information

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  2-10

Blooms Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

69) A class of lipids used as chemical messengers, to signal cells to undergo changes, is called

  1. A) polysaccharides.
  2. B) phospholipids.
  3. C) triglycerides.
  4. D) steroids.
  5. E) monoglycerides.

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  2-10

Blooms Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

 

70) The group of organic compounds containing mostly carbon and hydrogen with small amounts of oxygen is defined as a

  1. A) carbohydrate.
  2. B) lipid.
  3. C) protein.
  4. D) nucleic acid.
  5. E) fatty acid.

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  2-10

Blooms Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

71) A fatty acid that contains only single covalent bonds in its carbon chain is said to be

  1. A) saturated.
  2. B) polyunsaturated.
  3. C) monounsaturated.
  4. D) hydrogenated.
  5. E) carboxylated.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  2-10

Blooms Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

 

Figure 2-3 A Structure

 

Use Figure 2-3 to answer the following question:

 

72) Indicate the primary function(s) of the structure shown in the figure.

  1. A) structural component of cell membranes
  2. B) storage of glucose molecules
  3. C) energy source
  4. D) structural component of cell membranes, hormones, and digestive secretions in bile
  5. E) energy source, energy storage, and insulation

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  2-10

Blooms Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

73) Enzymes

  1. A) are lipids.
  2. B) function as biological catalysts.
  3. C) raise the activation energy for a reaction.
  4. D) are carbohydrates.
  5. E) are derived from cholesterol.

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  2-11

Blooms Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

74) Substrate molecules bind to enzymes at the

  1. A) allosteric sites.
  2. B) modification sites.
  3. C) reaction sites.
  4. D) active sites.
  5. E) ionic sites.

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  2-11

Blooms Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

75) Proteins are composed of units called

  1. A) amino acids.
  2. B) simple sugars.
  3. C) fatty acids.
  4. D) adenosines.
  5. E) nucleotides.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  2-11

Blooms Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

76) Each amino acid forms bonds by connecting its carboxyl group to the next amino acids

  1. A) central carbon atom.
  2. B) amino group.
  3. C) carboxyl group.
  4. D) hydroxyl group.
  5. E) hydroxide group.

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  2-11

Blooms Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

77) You are working with a particular protein in your research lab to determine how its properties affect the function of the protein. To determine what consequences there might be on protein function, you decide to change just one amino acid of the entire length of the protein, which consists of a total of 100 amino acids. You have just directly changed the ________ structure of the protein.

  1. A) primary
  2. B) secondary
  3. C) tertiary
  4. D) quaternary
  5. E) binary

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  2-11

Blooms Taxonomy:  Applying

 

78) Some proteins, like hemoglobin or antibody molecules, require multiple polypeptide chains to come together to act as a single protein. If the association among the different polypeptide chains is blocked, the ________ structure of the protein is destroyed.

  1. A) primary
  2. B) secondary
  3. C) tertiary
  4. D) quaternary
  5. E) binary

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  2-11

Blooms Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

79) Which of the following can be denatured?

  1. A) enzymes
  2. B) ions
  3. C) atoms
  4. D) molecules
  5. E) isotopes

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  2-11

Blooms Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

80) Amino acids contain a central carbon atom adjacent to a(n) ________ group and a(n) ________ group.

  1. A) carboxyl; phosphate
  2. B) nitrogenous; carboxyl
  3. C) nitrogenous; amino
  4. D) amino; carboxyl
  5. E) amino; phosphate

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  2-11

Blooms Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

81) If a polypeptide contains 9 peptide bonds, how many amino acids does it contain?

  1. A) 0
  2. B) 5
  3. C) 12
  4. D) 11
  5. E) 10

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  2-11

Blooms Taxonomy:  Applying

 

 

82) Which of the following is unique to RNA?

  1. A) glucose
  2. B) phosphate group
  3. C) ribose
  4. D) adenosine triphosphate
  5. E) deoxyribose

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  2-12

Blooms Taxonomy:  Remembering

83) The nucleic acid DNA

  1. A) is double stranded.
  2. B) contains uracil in place of thymine.
  3. C) contains the pentose ribose.
  4. D) contains protein bases.
  5. E) synthesizes lipids.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  2-12

Blooms Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

84) The molecule DNA contains the unique five-carbon sugar

  1. A) ribose.
  2. B) pentose.
  3. C) deoxyribose.
  4. D) sucrose.
  5. E) fructose.

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  2-12

Blooms Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

85) Which nitrogenous base is unique to RNA molecules?

  1. A) uracil
  2. B) cytosine
  3. C) adenine
  4. D) guanine
  5. E) thymine

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  2-12

Blooms Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

 

86) A bond between a phosphate group and a sugar can be found linking together

  1. A) two simple sugars.
  2. B) one amino acid to an amino group of another.
  3. C) two nucleotides.
  4. D) a fatty acid and a glycerol molecule.
  5. E) a cholesterol molecule and a fatty-acid molecule.

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  2-12

Blooms Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

87) A DNA nucleotide specifically consists of

  1. A) a five-carbon sugar and a phosphate group.
  2. B) a five-carbon sugar and a nitrogen base.
  3. C) a ribose sugar, a nitrogenous base, and a phosphate group.
  4. D) a deoxyribose sugar, a nitrogenous base, and a phosphate group.
  5. E) a five-carbon sugar and an amino acid.

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  2-12

Blooms Taxonomy:  Understanding

88) According to the rules of complementary base pairing, a nucleotide containing the base cytosine would only pair with a nucleotide containing the base

  1. A) thymine.
  2. B) adenine.
  3. C) uracil.
  4. D) cytosine.
  5. E) guanine.

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  2-12

Blooms Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

89) A(n) ________ bond is a covalent bond that stores an unusually large capacity to perform work.

  1. A) high-energy
  2. B) polar covalent
  3. C) ionic
  4. D) electrically neutral
  5. E) peptide

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  2-13

Blooms Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

 

90) The hydrolysis of ATP yields the molecule

  1. A) adenine.
  2. B) phospholipid.
  3. C) ribose.
  4. D) thymine.
  5. E) adenosine diphosphate.

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  2-13

Blooms Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

91) Choose the correct pairing of macromolecule type to its function.

  1. A) lipid manufactures proteins
  2. B) DNA controls reaction rates
  3. C) carbohydrate major source of energy
  4. D) protein comprises majority of membrane structure
  5. E) RNA determines our inherited characteristics

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  2-13

Blooms Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

 

 

Figure 2-4 An Overview of the Structures of Organic Compounds in the Body

 

Use Figure 2-4 to answer the following questions:

 

92) Glucose-based starches are an example of the structure labeled #1. Identify the structure.

  1. A) triglyceride
  2. B) polysaccharide
  3. C) glycerol
  4. D) steroid
  5. E) phospholipid

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  2-13

Blooms Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

93) Identify the structure labeled #5, a component of triglycerides, which is comprised of long chains of carbon atoms with attached hydrogen atoms that end in a carboxyl group.

  1. A) glycerol
  2. B) monosaccharide
  3. C) amino acid
  4. D) nucleotide
  5. E) fatty acid

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  2-13

Blooms Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

94) Identify the structure labeled #8, which is a building block of proteins.

  1. A) nucleic acid
  2. B) peptide
  3. C) amino acid
  4. D) monosaccharide
  5. E) lauric acid

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  2-13

Blooms Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

95) What is/are the primary function(s) of the structure labeled #9?

  1. A) determines an individuals inherited characteristics
  2. B) structural role when attached to lipids
  3. C) energy source; insulation
  4. D) manufactures specific proteins
  5. E) storage or transfer of energy

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  2-13

Blooms Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

96) Phospholipids consist of ________ linked to a non-lipid group by a phosphate group.

  1. A) four connected rings of carbon atoms
  2. B) a glycerol and three fatty acids
  3. C) a glycerol and two fatty acids
  4. D) long chains of carbon atoms with attached hydrogen atoms that end in a carboxyl group
  5. E) interconnected glucose molecules

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  2-13

Blooms Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

 

97) ATP is most closely related to

  1. A) a fatty acid.
  2. B) an amino acid.
  3. C) a monosaccharide.
  4. D) a nucleotide.
  5. E) cholesterol.

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  2-13

Blooms Taxonomy:  Understanding

98) The difference between AMP, ADP, and ATP molecules is the

  1. A) type of monosaccharide sugar.
  2. B) type of bondwhether ionic or covalent.
  3. C) presence or absence of nitrogen.
  4. D) structure of the moleculeprimary, secondary, or tertiary structure.
  5. E) number of phosphates in the molecule.

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  2-13

Blooms Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

99) Which statement is true about cells?

  1. A) Carbohydrates direct the production of all proteins made by the cell.
  2. B) Enzymes, required by the cell for chemical reactions, consist of nucleotides.
  3. C) A cell is composed of all of the 4 major organic compound groups.
  4. D) All carbohydrates in a cell come from the diet that the organism eats.
  5. E) A membrane of nucleic acids separates the cell from its environment and gives the cell its feature of semipermeability.

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  2-14

Blooms Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

100) Both chemically- and structurally-speaking, which of these compounds does not belong?

  1. A) carbohydrates
  2. B) lipids
  3. C) proteins
  4. D) salts
  5. E) nucleic acids

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  2-14

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analyzing

 

 

101) A chemical that you are working with has the elements carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and phosphorus. In addition, ribose sugar is within its structure. What kind of compound is this molecule?

  1. A) carbohydrate
  2. B) lipid
  3. C) protein
  4. D) salt
  5. E) nucleic acid

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  2-14

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analyzing

2.2   Essay Questions

 

1) A certain reaction pathway consists of four steps. How would increasing the amount of enzyme that catalyzes in the third step affect the amount of product produced at the end of the pathway?

Answer:  Increasing the amount of enzyme at the third step might not affect the whole series of reactions because the rate of the first, second, and fourth enzymes would remain the same. While more substrate would be available for the next step, that doesnt necessarily mean that the fourth enzyme will increase its speed. The net result would be no change if the first, second, and fourth enzymes were working optimally before the change is made. On the other hand, there could be an increase in the amount of product if the first, second, and fourth enzymes were working at below optimum before the change.

Learning Outcome:  2-4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analyzing

 

2) Why is it life-threatening to have a low pH?

Answer:  A low pH can be life-threatening because the change in hydrogen ion concentration can cause certain proteins, such as vital enzymes, to become inactive. When this occurs, the proteins become nonfunctional, and if they catalyze reactions that are necessary for life, life will cease.

Learning Outcome:  2-11

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analyzing

 

 

3) Prions are infectious proteins within cells that cause normal proteins to misfold and clump together. Prions can occur as a result of a mutation or ingestion, e.g., Mad Cow disease (eating infectious beef from an animal with the disease). Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and scrapie are prion diseases in both animals and humans. The diseases are progressive, have no cure, and end in death. Using your chemistry knowledge, explain the devastating effects of these diseases.

Answer:  Prions are proteins that cause other cellular proteins to misfold and clump, producing a chain reaction resulting in the structural change of proteins. When the structure of a protein changes, the function of that protein changes. So as a result of infectious prion proteins, normal cellular proteins cease to exist in their normal state and, therefore, do not function in their normal way. Because proteins are so prevalent inside of cells and have so many functions that are essential, including enzymatic actions, the cell cannot function normally and dies.

Learning Outcome:  2-11

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analyzing

 

4) How does the RNA molecule differ from a DNA molecule?

Answer:  RNA is usually single stranded and DNA is double stranded. RNA contains ribose sugars and DNA contains deoxyribose sugars. DNA contains the nitrogenous bases A, G, C, and T, while RNA contains A, G, C, and U.

Learning Outcome:  2-12

Blooms Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

Essentials of Anatomy & Physiology, 7e, (Martini/Bartholomew)

Chapter 20   Development and Inheritance

 

20.1   Multiple-Choice Questions

 

1) The study of the development of the human organism during the first two months after fertilization is called

  1. A) genetics.
  2. B) embryology.
  3. C) pediatrics.
  4. D) anthropology.
  5. E) gerontology.

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  20-1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

2) Differentiation is

  1. A) the transfer of genetic information from one generation to the next.
  2. B) the gradual change in anatomical and physiological characteristics from conception to maturity.
  3. C) the formation of more specialized cell types through selective changes in genetic activity.
  4. D) the fusion of two haploid gametes that results in one diploid zygote.
  5. E) a developmental stage of the embryo where body shape becomes discernable.

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  20-1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

3) Fertilization of the ovum usually occurs

  1. A) within one hour of ovulation.
  2. B) as much as three to four days following ovulation.
  3. C) in the ovary.
  4. D) in the upper third of the uterine tube.
  5. E) in the uterus.

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  20-2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

4) Choose the correct statement about amphimixis.

  1. A) a process that results in a zygote
  2. B) a genetic disorder based on autosomal dominance
  3. C) the transition from morula to blastocyst
  4. D) the time during which sperm travel toward the ovum
  5. E) the formation of the male and female pronuclei

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  20-2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

5) Polyspermy is

  1. A) when fertilization involves more than one sperm.
  2. B) when multiple sperm release hyaluronidase concurrently.
  3. C) the movement of millions of sperm through the female reproductive tract.
  4. D) the clinical term for an adequate sperm count (more than 20 million per ejaculate).
  5. E) the process that follows capacitation and enables sperm to bind to sperm receptors.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  20-2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

6) The period of gestation that is characterized by rapid fetal growth and adipose tissue deposition is the ________ trimester(s).

  1. A) first
  2. B) second
  3. C) third
  4. D) first and second
  5. E) second and third

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  20-3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

7) The period of gestation when the basic components of each of the major organ systems appear is the ________ trimester(s).

  1. A) first
  2. B) second
  3. C) third
  4. D) first and second
  5. E) second and third

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  20-3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

8) The outer layer of cells separating the outside world from the blastocoele is called the

  1. A) trophoblast.
  2. B) chorion.
  3. C) inner cell mass.
  4. D) zona pellucida.
  5. E) blastomere.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  20-4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

 

9) The division of the zygote into two blastomeres occurs during

  1. A) cleavage.
  2. B) implantation.
  3. C) placentation.
  4. D) embryogenesis.
  5. E) fertilization.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  20-4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Remembering

10) Gastrulation produces an oval, three-layered sheet known as the

  1. A) chorion.
  2. B) blastula.
  3. C) embryonic disc.
  4. D) morula.
  5. E) blastocyst.

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  20-4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

11) A blastocyst is

  1. A) an extraembryonic membrane that forms blood vessels.
  2. B) a solid ball of cells.
  3. C) a hollow ball of cells.
  4. D) a portion of the placenta.
  5. E) the membrane that forms the urinary bladder.

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  20-4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

12) The mesoderm forms (the)

  1. A) muscle.
  2. B) epidermis.
  3. C) neural tissues.
  4. D) mucous epithelium of nasal passageways.
  5. E) pituitary gland and adrenal medullae.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  20-4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

 

13) The first extraembryonic membrane to appear is the

  1. A) chorion.
  2. B) allantois.
  3. C) placenta.
  4. D) yolk sac.
  5. E) amnion.

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  20-4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

14) The ectoderm forms which of the following?

  1. A) muscle
  2. B) all lymphatic structures
  3. C) the cardiovascular system
  4. D) the thymus, thyroid gland, and pancreas
  5. E) all neural tissues

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  20-4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Remembering

15) The extraembryonic membrane that contains fluid that surrounds and cushions the developing embryo and fetus is known as the

  1. A) yolk sac.
  2. B) amnion.
  3. C) allantois.
  4. D) chorion.
  5. E) uterus.

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  20-4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

16) The extraembryonic membrane that forms the urinary bladder is the

  1. A) placenta.
  2. B) allantois.
  3. C) amnion.
  4. D) chorion.
  5. E) yolk sac.

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  20-4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

 

17) Which of the following forms when blood vessels form in the chorion, around the periphery of the blastocyst?

  1. A) allantois
  2. B) placenta
  3. C) blastocoele
  4. D) amnion
  5. E) trophoblast

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  20-4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

18) The morula stage occurs during which process?

  1. A) embryogenesis
  2. B) placentation
  3. C) gastrulation
  4. D) implantation
  5. E) cleavage

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  20-4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

19) The hollow cavity within the blastocyst is the

  1. A) gastrula.
  2. B) morula.
  3. C) blastocoele.
  4. D) yolk sac.
  5. E) amnion.

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  20-4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Remembering

20) The yolk stalk and body stalk fuse during week five, forming the

  1. A) amnion.
  2. B) allantois.
  3. C) chorion.
  4. D) umbilical stalk.
  5. E) primitive streak.

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  20-4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

 

21) Which extraembryonic membrane is an important site of blood cell production?

  1. A) placenta
  2. B) yolk sac
  3. C) amnion
  4. D) allantois
  5. E) chorion

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  20-4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

22) If the gonads fail to develop very early during human development, the contributions of which germ layer may be deficient?

  1. A) epiderm
  2. B) ectoderm
  3. C) periderm
  4. D) endoderm
  5. E) mesoderm

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  20-4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Applying

 

23) Which of the following results from endodermal contributions?

  1. A) all cardiovascular components
  2. B) brain and spinal cord
  3. C) dermis and hypodermis
  4. D) stem cells that produce gametes
  5. E) nephrons

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  20-4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

24) Which process begins as the surface of the blastocyst next to the inner cell mass adheres to the uterine lining?

  1. A) oocyte activation
  2. B) placentation
  3. C) embryogenesis
  4. D) implantation
  5. E) blastocyst formation

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  20-4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

25) During implantation,

  1. A) the syncytial trophoblast erodes a path through the uterine epithelium.
  2. B) the inner cell mass begins to form the placenta.
  3. C) maternal blood vessels in the endometrium are walled off from the blastocyst.
  4. D) the entire trophoblast becomes syncytial.
  5. E) the inner cell mass is temporarily deprived of nutrients.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  20-4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

26) Separation of the inner cell mass from the trophoblast forms the

  1. A) blastocoele.
  2. B) lacunae.
  3. C) amniotic cavity.
  4. D) chorion.
  5. E) allantois.

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  20-4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

27) Which extraembryonic structure is created as migrating mesodermal cells form a layer beneath the trophoblast, separating it from the blastocoele?

  1. A) amnion
  2. B) placenta
  3. C) allantois
  4. D) yolk sac
  5. E) chorion

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  20-4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

28) Which of the following is a hormone secreted by both the placenta and the corpus luteum during pregnancy and functions in suppressing the release of oxytocin?

  1. A) progesterone
  2. B) human chorionic gonadotropin
  3. C) relaxin
  4. D) placental prolactin
  5. E) estrogen

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  20-4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

 

29) The chorionic villi

  1. A) help prepare the mammary glands for milk production.
  2. B) are free endodermal tips that grow toward the wall of the blastocyst.
  3. C) bulge into the amniotic cavity at the head fold and extend toward the trophoblast.
  4. D) provide the surface area for gaseous exchange between fetal and maternal bloodstreams.
  5. E) form constrictions that narrow the yolk stalk and the body stalk between the embryo and the surrounding trophoblast.

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  20-4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Understanding

30) The presence of ________ in blood or urine is a reliable indication of pregnancy.

  1. A) estrogen and progesterone
  2. B) luteinizing hormone
  3. C) human placental lactogen
  4. D) human chorionic gonadotropin
  5. E) relaxin

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  20-4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

31) Near the end of the first trimester, deoxygenated blood flows from the developing embryo or fetus to the placenta through

  1. A) paired umbilical veins.
  2. B) the superior vena cava.
  3. C) one umbilical vein.
  4. D) three umbilical arteries.
  5. E) paired umbilical arteries.

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  20-4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

32) The conversion of mammary glands from resting to active states requires the presence of both placental hormones and

  1. A) oxytocin and insulin.
  2. B) progesterones and estrogens.
  3. C) human chorionic gonadotropin and parathyroid hormones.
  4. D) glucagon and somatostatin.
  5. E) growth hormones, prolactin, and thyroid hormones.

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  20-4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

 

33) Which statement regarding placental circulation is true?

  1. A) Oxygenated maternal blood re-enters the mothers venous system through chorionic villi.
  2. B) Maternal and fetal blood mix near the placenta.
  3. C) Deoxygenated maternal blood re-enters the mothers venous system through small uterine veins.
  4. D) Deoxygenated blood leaves the chorionic villi through umbilical arteries.
  5. E) Oxygenated fetal blood enters the chorionic villi through umbilical arteries.

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  20-4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Applying

 

 

Figure 20-1 Events in Implantation

 

Use Figure 20-1 to identify the labeled part.

 

34) Label A represents which of the following structures?

  1. A) syncytial trophoblast
  2. B) developing villi
  3. C) lacuna
  4. D) uterine glands
  5. E) amniotic cavity

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  20-4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

35) Label B represents which of the following structures?

  1. A) blastocoele
  2. B) blastocyst
  3. C) trophoblast
  4. D) developing villi
  5. E) chorion

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  20-4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

36) Label C represents which of the following structures?

  1. A) blastocoele
  2. B) blastocyst
  3. C) trophoblast
  4. D) developing villi
  5. E) chorion

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  20-4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

37) Label D represents which of the following structures?

  1. A) blastocoele
  2. B) blastocyst
  3. C) trophoblast
  4. D) developing villi
  5. E) chorion

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  20-4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

38) Label E represents which of the following structures?

  1. A) blastocyst
  2. B) inner cell mass
  3. C) trophoblast
  4. D) syncytial trophoblast
  5. E) cellular trophoblast

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  20-4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

 

39) Label F represents which of the following structures?

  1. A) blastocyst
  2. B) inner cell mass
  3. C) trophoblast
  4. D) syncytial trophoblast
  5. E) cellular trophoblast

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  20-4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Remembering

40) Label G represents which of the following structures?

  1. A) syncytial trophoblast
  2. B) developing villi
  3. C) lacuna
  4. D) uterine gland
  5. E) amniotic cavity

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  20-4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

41) Label H represents which of the following structures?

  1. A) blastocyst
  2. B) inner cell mass
  3. C) trophoblast
  4. D) blastocoel
  5. E) lacuna

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  20-4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

42) Label I represents which of the following structures?

  1. A) syncytial trophoblast
  2. B) developing villi
  3. C) lacuna
  4. D) uterine gland
  5. E) amniotic cavity

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  20-4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

 

43) Label J represents which of the following structures?

  1. A) syncytial trophoblast
  2. B) developing villi
  3. C) lacuna
  4. D) uterine gland
  5. E) amniotic cavity

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  20-4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

44) Label K represents which of the following structures?

  1. A) blastocoele
  2. B) blastocyst
  3. C) trophoblast
  4. D) developing villi
  5. E) chorion

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  20-4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Remembering

45) At which gestational age do basic heart structures, major blood vessels, lymph nodes, and ducts form?

  1. A) month 6
  2. B) month 8
  3. C) month 4
  4. D) month 7
  5. E) month 2

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  20-5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

46) Neural tube formation occurs during which gestational age?

  1. A) 4 months
  2. B) 2 weeks
  3. C) 1 month
  4. D) 9 weeks
  5. E) 5 months

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  20-5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

 

47) During pregnancy,

  1. A) maternal respiratory rate decreases.
  2. B) maternal blood volume decreases.
  3. C) maternal nutrient requirements decrease significantly.
  4. D) a womans glomerular filtration rate decreases by 20 percent.
  5. E) maternal tidal volume increases.

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  20-5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

48) Match the gestational age with the corresponding prenatal development.

  1. A) 1 month / mammary glands develop
  2. B) 2 months / movement of fetus can be felt by mother
  3. C) 3 months / formation of the gonads, ducts, and genitalia
  4. D) 4 months / eye and ear formation
  5. E) 5 months / migration of lymphocytes to lymphoid organs

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  20-5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analyzing

 

49) When labor begins, the fetal pituitary gland secretes ________, which may be the actual trigger for the onset of labor.

  1. A) prolactin
  2. B) hCG
  3. C) oxytocin
  4. D) growth hormone
  5. E) thyroxine

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  20-5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Remembering

50) Distortion of the cervix stimulates maternal release of which hormone?

  1. A) estrogen
  2. B) progesterone
  3. C) oxytocin
  4. D) relaxin
  5. E) human chorionic gonadotropin

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  20-5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

 

51) Which of the following is an example of positive feedback during labor?

  1. A) the movement of the fetus toward the cervical canal
  2. B) the pressure the unborn exerts on the cervix
  3. C) the distortion of the myometrium stimulates oxytocin release
  4. D) the dilation of the cervix followed by the rupture of the amnion
  5. E) the ejection of the placenta at the end of the placental stage

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  20-5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analyzing

 

52) The last stage of labor is the

  1. A) dilation stage.
  2. B) expulsion stage.
  3. C) placental stage.
  4. D) decidual stage.
  5. E) neonate stage.

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  20-6

Blooms Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

53) The stage of labor during which the fetus begins to shift toward the cervical canal is the

  1. A) emergence stage.
  2. B) dilation stage.
  3. C) placental stage.
  4. D) expulsion stage.
  5. E) fetal stage.

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  20-6

Blooms Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

54) Which statement is true regarding conjoined twins?

  1. A) Splitting of the inner cell mass may have occurred before gastrulation.
  2. B) Surgical separation is nearly impossible even with minor fusion.
  3. C) Separation of the blastomeres early in cleavage may have occurred.
  4. D) Splitting of the blastomeres or of the embryonic disc is not
  5. E) Two separate oocytes are fertilized at the same time.

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  20-6

Blooms Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

55) The goal of labor is

  1. A) parturition.
  2. B) fertilization.
  3. C) gastrulation.
  4. D) cleavage.
  5. E) placentation.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  20-6

Blooms Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

56) When two separate oocytes are ovulated and fertilized, ________ develop.

  1. A) identical twins
  2. B) conjoined twins
  3. C) monozygotic twins
  4. D) polygametic twins
  5. E) dizygotic twins

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  20-6

Blooms Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

57) Regarding lactation and the mammary glands, which statement is true?

  1. A) Colostrum contains more proteins than breast milk.
  2. B) An expectant mothers mammary glands begin producing colostrum by the end of the second month of pregnancy.
  3. C) As colostrum production increases, the mammary glands convert to milk production.
  4. D) Colostrum, unlike milk, contains large quantities of lysozymes.
  5. E) Colostrum has much more fat than breast milk.

Answer:  A

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