Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology 11th Edition by Elaine N. Marieb test bank

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Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology 11th Edition by Elaine N. Marieb test bank

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Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology, 11e, (Marieb)
Chapter 5 The Skeletal System

5.1 Multiple Choice Part I Questions

Using Figure 5.1, identify the following:

1) The proximal epiphysis is represented by ________.
A) Label H
B) Label C
C) Label A
D) Label B
E) Label F
Answer: D
Page Ref: 162
Blooms: 1) Knowledge

2) The area that causes the lengthwise growth of a long bone is indicated by ________.
A) Label F
B) Label D
C) Label A
D) Label E
E) Label C
Answer: D
Page Ref: 161, 162
Blooms: 2) Comprehension
3) The area that serves as a storage area for fat in adults is indicated by ________.
A) Label H
B) Label F
C) Label A
D) Label G
E) Label B
Answer: A
Page Ref: 161, 162
Blooms: 2) Comprehension

4) The diaphysis is indicated by ________.
A) Label D
B) Label C
C) Label G
D) Label A
E) Label H
Answer: B
Page Ref: 161, 162
Blooms: 1) Knowledge

5) The periosteum, a connective tissue covering on the diaphysis, is represented by ________.
A) Label C
B) Label A
C) Label G
D) Label B
E) Label F
Answer: E
Page Ref: 161, 162
Blooms: 2) Comprehension

6) The area that contains glassy hyaline cartilage that provides a smooth slippery surface which decreases friction is indicated by ________.
A) Label D
B) Label H
C) Label E
D) Label B
E) Label A
Answer: A
Page Ref: 161, 162
Blooms: 2) Comprehension

7) Blood cell formation is called ________.
A) ossification
B) hematopoiesis
C) homeostasis
D) metabolism
Answer: B
Page Ref: 159
Blooms: 1) Knowledge
8) What bones protect the spinal cord?
A) ribs
B) sternum
C) vertebrae
D) coxal bones
Answer: C
Page Ref: 159
Blooms: 1) Knowledge

9) Cube-shaped bones that contain mostly spongy bone are called ________ bones.
A) flat
B) long
C) short
D) irregular
Answer: C
Page Ref: 160
Blooms: 1) Knowledge

10) Small canals that connect osteocytes in their lacunae to the central canal are known as ________.
A) canaliculi
B) perforating (Volkmanns) canals
C) central (Haversian) canals
D) perforating (Sharpeys) fibers
Answer: A
Page Ref: 161
Blooms: 1) Knowledge

11) The process of bone formation is known as ________.
A) hematopoiesis
B) hemostasis
C) metabolism
D) ossification
Answer: D
Page Ref: 165
Blooms: 1) Knowledge

12) Bone-destroying cells known as osteoclasts are activated by the hormone ________.
A) calcitonin
B) parathyroid hormone (PTH)
C) insulin
D) growth hormone
Answer: B
Page Ref: 166
Blooms: 2) Comprehension
13) The first step in bone healing involves the formation of a blood-filled swelling known as a(n) ________.
A) epiphyseal line
B) bony callus
C) hematoma
D) fibrocartilage callus
Answer: C
Page Ref: 169
Blooms: 1) Knowledge

14) An incomplete bone break, known as a(n) ________ fracture, is commonly seen in children.
A) spiral
B) greenstick
C) impacted
D) comminuted
Answer: B
Page Ref: 168
Blooms: 2) Comprehension

15) The skull, vertebral column, and thoracic cage form the ________ skeleton.
A) appendicular
B) central
C) axial
D) main
Answer: C
Page Ref: 170
Blooms: 1) Knowledge

16) The large hole located in the base of the occipital bone that allows the spinal cord and brain to connect is the ________.
A) occipital condyle
B) vertebral foramen
C) intervertebral foramen
D) foramen magnum
Answer: D
Page Ref: 172
Blooms: 1) Knowledge

17) The temporal bones are joined with the parietal bones at the ________ sutures.
A) coronal
B) sagittal
C) squamous
D) lambdoid
Answer: C
Page Ref: 171
Blooms: 2) Comprehension
18) The shin bone is called the ________.
A) tibia
B) fibula
C) femur
D) radius
Answer: A
Page Ref: 189
Blooms: 1) Knowledge

19) The head of the humerus fits into the ________ of the scapula.
A) acromion process
B) glenoid cavity
C) suprascapula notch
D) coracoid process
Answer: B
Page Ref: 182
Blooms: 2) Comprehension

20) Two or more bones meet at a location called a(n) ________.
A) fracture
B) hematoma
C) articulation (joint)
D) marrow cavity
Answer: C
Page Ref: 190
Blooms: 1) Knowledge

21) Immovable joints are functionally classified as ________.
A) diarthroses
B) synarthroses
C) amphiarthroses
D) symphyses
Answer: B
Page Ref: 190
Blooms: 1) Knowledge

Using Figure 5.2, identify the following:

22) The parietal bone is indicated by ________.
A) Label M
B) Label O
C) Label A
D) Label H
E) Label P
Answer: C
Page Ref: 171
Blooms: 1) Knowledge

23) The fibula is indicated by ________.
A) Label Q
B) Label X
C) Label R
D) Label T
E) Label W
Answer: B
Page Ref: 188, 189
Blooms: 1) Knowledge

24) The patella is indicated by ________.
A) Label E
B) Label G
C) Label I
D) Label U
E) Label A
Answer: C
Page Ref: 189
Blooms: 1) Knowledge

25) The manubrium and xiphoid process are markings on the bone indicated by ________.
A) Label O
B) Label N
C) Label A
D) Label K
E) Label B
Answer: A
Page Ref: 181
Blooms: 2) Comprehension

26) The radius bone is indicated by ________.
A) Label T
B) Label R
C) Label F
D) Label S
E) Label Q
Answer: E
Page Ref: 184, 185
Blooms: 1) Knowledge

27) The mandible is indicated by ________.
A) Label N
B) Label W
C) Label M
D) Label C
E) Label B
Answer: A
Page Ref: 174, 175
Blooms: 1) Knowledge
28) The carpals are indicated by ________.
A) Label N
B) Label X
C) Label J
D) Label I
E) Label T
Answer: E
Page Ref: 185
Blooms: 1) Knowledge

29) The greater tubercle and trochlea are bone markings situated on the bone marked by ________.
A) Label O
B) Label I
C) Label E
D) Label Y
E) Label A
Answer: C
Page Ref: 184
Blooms: 2) Comprehension

30) The ilium, pubis, and ischium fuse to form the bone marked by ________.
A) Label F
B) Label G
C) Label T
D) Label H
E) Label I
Answer: B
Page Ref: 186
Blooms: 2) Comprehension

5.2 Multiple Choice Part II Questions

1) The most important minerals stored in bones are ________.
A) calcium and iron
B) sodium and phosphorus
C) sodium and potassium
D) calcium and phosphorus
E) calcium and potassium
Answer: D
Page Ref: 159
Blooms: 1) Knowledge
2)

The arrangement of bone tissue shown in Figure 5.3 consists of ________.
A) osteons (Haversian systems)
B) yellow marrow
C) trabeculae
D) neurons
E) red marrow
Answer: A
Page Ref: 161
Blooms: 2) Comprehension

3) Where does hematopoiesis occur?
A) marrow cavity
B) epiphyseal plate
C) articular cartilage
D) periosteum
E) endosteum
Answer: A
Page Ref: 159
Blooms: 2) Comprehension

4) The femur, tibia, humerus, and radius are all classified as ________.
A) compact bones
B) irregular bones
C) flat bones
D) long bones
E) sesamoid bones
Answer: D
Page Ref: 160
Blooms: 2) Comprehension
5) What type of tissue covers the epiphysis of bones and reduces friction in the joints?
A) yellow marrow
B) endosteum
C) spongy bone
D) periosteum
E) articular cartilage
Answer: E
Page Ref: 161
Blooms: 1) Knowledge

6) In adults, the function of the yellow marrow is to ________.
A) store adipose tissue
B) form blood cells
C) store calcium and phosphorus
D) promote lengthwise growth in long bones
E) decrease friction at joint surfaces
Answer: A
Page Ref: 161
Blooms: 2) Comprehension

7) The presence of an epiphyseal plate indicates that ________.
A) bone is dead
B) bone length is no longer increasing
C) bone diameter is increasing
D) bone diameter is decreasing
E) bone length is increasing
Answer: E
Page Ref: 161
Blooms: 3) Application

8) Each complex of central canal and matrix rings in compact bone is known as ________.
A) a perforating (Volkmanns) canal
B) the epiphysis
C) a canaliculus
D) a central (Haversian) canal
E) an osteon (Haversian system)
Answer: E
Page Ref: 161
Blooms: 2) Comprehension

9) The bone cells that respond to parathyroid hormone (PTH) to destroy bone matrix and release calcium into the blood are called ________.
A) osteocytes
B) chondrocytes
C) erythrocytes
D) osteoclasts
E) osteoblasts
Answer: D
Page Ref: 166
Blooms: 2) Comprehension
10) Which of the following is ONLY found associated with a childs bone?
A) diaphysis
B) marrow cavity
C) epiphyseal plate
D) periosteum
E) articular cartilage
Answer: C
Page Ref: 161
Blooms: 3) Application

11) Which of these bone markings is a projection that serves as a site for muscle or ligament attachment?
A) meatus
B) fossa
C) foramen
D) fissure
E) tubercle
Answer: E
Page Ref: 164
Blooms: 2) Comprehension

12) Which of the following bones is considered part of the axial skeleton?
A) femur
B) sternum
C) radius
D) metatarsals
E) scapula
Answer: B
Page Ref: 170
Blooms: 3) Application

13) The canal that runs through the core of each osteon (Haversian system) contains ________.
A) cartilage and lamellae
B) osteoclasts and osteoblasts
C) yellow marrow and perforating, or Sharpeys, fibers
D) blood vessels and nerve fibers
E) red marrow
Answer: D
Page Ref: 161
Blooms: 1) Knowledge

14) The small cavities in bone tissue where osteocytes are found are called ________.
A) lacunae
B) perforating (Volkmanns) canals
C) central (Haversian) canals
D) trabeculae
E) lamellae
Answer: A
Page Ref: 161
Blooms: 1) Knowledge
15) What kind of tissue is the forerunner of long bones in the embryo?
A) elastic connective tissue
B) dense fibrous connective tissue
C) fibrocartilage
D) hyaline cartilage
E) loose fibrous connective tissue
Answer: D
Page Ref: 165
Blooms: 1) Knowledge

16) What type of bone cell is primarily active when bone growth occurs?
A) osteocyte
B) erythrocyte
C) chondrocyte
D) osteoblast
E) osteoclast
Answer: D
Page Ref: 165
Blooms: 2) Comprehension

17) The factor(s) that determine WHERE bone matrix is to be remodeled is (are) ________.
A) sex hormones
B) growth hormone
C) stress of gravity and pull of muscles on the skeleton
D) parathyroid hormone (PTH)
E) calcium level of the blood
Answer: C
Page Ref: 166
Blooms: 3) Application

18) There are four stages in the healing of a bone fracture. Which of the following best illustrates the sequence of these stages?
1. bony callus formation 3. fibrocartilage callus formation
2. bone remodeling 4. hematoma formation
A) 4, 3, 2, 1
B) 4, 3, 1, 2
C) 1, 2, 3, 4
D) 1, 3, 4, 2
E) 1, 3, 2, 4
Answer: B
Page Ref: 169
Blooms: 4) Analysis

19) Bone growth that occurs due to weight lifting at age 40 is most likely ________.
A) endochondrial growth
B) none since bones do not grow after adolescence
C) appositional growth
D) occurring at the epiphyseal lines
E) occurring at the epiphyseal plates
Answer: C
Page Ref: 166
Blooms: 3) Application

20) An open, or compound, fracture can be described as when ________.
A) the bone is crushed
B) the broken bone ends are forced into each other
C) the broken bone is exposed to the outside
D) the bone is broken into many fragments
E) adjacent bones fracture simultaneously
Answer: C
Page Ref: 169
Blooms: 2) Comprehension

21) A bone fracture where the bone is broken into many fragments is a ________.
A) compound fracture
B) simple fracture
C) comminuted fracture
D) compression fracture
E) greenstick fracture
Answer: C
Page Ref: 168
Blooms: 2) Comprehension

22) The physician knew her patient was most likely a child before she walked into the examination room because the X-ray revealed a(n) ________.
A) impacted fracture
B) compression fracture
C) comminuted fracture
D) greenstick fracture
E) open fracture
Answer: D
Page Ref: 168
Blooms: 3) Application

23) A fracture that is common in osteoporotic bones is a(n) ________.
A) impacted fracture
B) compression fracture
C) spiral fracture
D) depressed fracture
E) simple fracture
Answer: B
Page Ref: 168
Blooms: 2) Comprehension

24) The axial skeleton contains ________.
1. skull
2. scapula
3. true and false ribs
4. vertebrae
5. phalanges
A) 1, 3, 4, 5
B) 1, 3, 4
C) 2, 5
D) 2, 3, 4, 5
E) 1, 2, 3, 5
Answer: B
Page Ref: 170
Blooms: 4) Analysis

25) The suture situated anteriorly between the parietal bones and occipital bone is the ________.
A) squamous suture
B) lambdoid suture
C) sagittal suture
D) coronal suture
E) both the squamous suture and the sagittal suture
Answer: B
Page Ref: 172
Blooms: 2) Comprehension

26) Identify the bones that do NOT house a paranasal sinus ________.
A) frontal bones
B) maxillary bones
C) ethmoid bones
D) sphenoid bones
E) zygomatic bones
Answer: E
Page Ref: 172-175
Blooms: 1) Knowledge

27) The fibrous connections between the bones of a fetal skull are ________.
A) alveolar margins
B) sinuses
C) palates
D) crista galli
E) fontanels
Answer: E
Page Ref: 176
Blooms: 1) Knowledge

28) Which of these bones is associated with the hand?
A) talus
B) calcaneus
C) metatarsals
D) tarsals
E) metacarpals
Answer: E
Page Ref: 185
Blooms: 2) Comprehension

29) The hyoid bone is unique because it ________.
A) is the only bone of the body that does not directly articulate with any other bone
B) is an irregular bone
C) belongs to both the axial and appendicular skeletons
D) has no specific function
E) largely consists of cartilage
Answer: A
Page Ref: 175
Blooms: 3) Application

30) What feature is uniquely associated with cervical vertebrae?
A) spinous processes
B) transverse processes
C) vertebral foramina
D) transverse foramina
E) pedicles
Answer: D
Page Ref: 180
Blooms: 4) Analysis

31) How many true ribs do humans have?
A) three
B) five
C) seven
D) twelve
E) fifteen
Answer: C
Page Ref: 181, 182
Blooms: 1) Knowledge

32) The dens is a process projecting from the ________.
A) sacrum
B) coccyx
C) intervertebral discs
D) atlas
E) axis
Answer: E
Page Ref: 178
Blooms: 1) Knowledge
33) The atlas is the ________.
A) last lumbar vertebra
B) first thoracic vertebra
C) part of the sacrum
D) second cervical vertebra
E) first cervical vertebra
Answer: E
Page Ref: 178
Blooms: 1) Knowledge

34) Which is the correct order of ribs, from superior to inferior?
A) floating ribs, true ribs, false ribs
B) floating ribs, false ribs, true ribs
C) true ribs, false ribs, floating ribs
D) true ribs, floating ribs, false ribs
E) false ribs, floating ribs, true ribs
Answer: C
Page Ref: 181, 182
Blooms: 4) Analysis

35) The sternum is the result of fusion of three bones called the ________.
A) ischium, ilium, coccyx
B) pubis, ischium, ilium
C) manubrium, body, xiphoid process
D) jugular notch, sternal angle, xiphisternal joint
E) true ribs, manubrium, xiphoid process
Answer: C
Page Ref: 181
Blooms: 1) Knowledge

36) Which two bones constitute the forearm?
A) radius and humerus
B) humerus and scapula
C) fibula and tibia
D) ulna and radius
E) femur and fibula
Answer: D
Page Ref: 185
Blooms: 2) Comprehension

37) The tailbone is the ________.
A) ischium
B) sacrum
C) pubis
D) coccyx
E) patella
Answer: D
Page Ref: 180
Blooms: 1) Knowledge
38) You examine an articulated skeleton in the laboratory and determine the skeleton to be a female since ________.
A) the angle of the female pubic arch is smaller than in a male
B) the distance between the female ischial spines is greater than in a male
C) the distance between the female ischial tuberosities is less than in a male
D) the female iliac bones are less flared than in a male
E) the female pelvis as a whole is deeper, and the bones are heavier and thicker than in a male
Answer: B
Page Ref: 186
Blooms: 3) Application

39)

The type of joint shown in Figure 5.4 is ________.
A) a suture
B) a fibrous joint
C) an amphiarthrotic joint
D) a cartilaginous joint
E) a synovial joint
Answer: E
Page Ref: 194
Blooms: 2) Comprehension
40) A structure found on the femur is the ________.
A) anterior crest
B) trochlea
C) lateral malleolus
D) intercondylar fossa
E) medial malleolus
Answer: D
Page Ref: 188-189
Blooms: 1) Knowledge

41) Articulations permitting only slight degrees of movement are ________, whereas articulations permitting no movement are called ________.
A) amphiarthroses; synarthroses
B) synarthroses; amphiarthroses
C) diarthroses; amphiarthroses
D) amphiarthroses; diarthroses
E) diarthroses; synarthroses
Answer: A
Page Ref: 190
Blooms: 2) Comprehension

42) The wrist bones are actually ________.
A) tarsals
B) metacarpals
C) phalanges
D) metatarsals
E) carpals
Answer: E
Page Ref: 185
Blooms: 1) Knowledge

43) Which of these bones articulates with the acetabulum of the coxal bone?
A) femur
B) patella
C) fibula
D) sacrum
E) tibia
Answer: A
Page Ref: 188
Blooms: 2) Comprehension

44) Four of the five answers listed below are parts of the same anatomical area. Select the exception.
A) humerus
B) radius
C) scapula
D) fibula
E) clavicle
Answer: D
Page Ref: 182-184
Blooms: 3) Application

45) The elbow is classified as a(n) ________.
A) plane joint
B) hinge joint
C) pivot joint
D) saddle joint
E) condylar joint
Answer: B
Page Ref: 194
Blooms: 2) Comprehension

5.3 True/False Questions

1) Hematopoiesis refers to the formation of blood cells within the red marrow cavities of certain bones.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 159
Blooms: 2) Comprehension

2) Articular cartilage covers the diaphysis of long bones.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 161
Blooms: 1) Knowledge

3) The arrangement of lamellae around central (Haversian) canals forms osteons (Haversian systems).
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 161
Blooms: 2) Comprehension

4) Hypercalcemia promotes the deposition of calcium to bones.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 166
Blooms: 2) Comprehension

5) A closed, or simple, fracture is one that penetrates through the skins surface.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 169
Blooms: 1) Knowledge

6) The last two pairs of ribs are called true ribs because they have no anterior attachments.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 182
Blooms: 2) Comprehension

7) Teeth are anchored in the maxillary bones and the mandible.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 173, 175
Blooms: 1) Knowledge
8) The spinal cord passes through the body of each vertebra.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 178
Blooms: 1) Knowledge

9) The intervertebral discs that cushion the spine and absorb shock are composed of fibrocartilage.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 193
Blooms: 1) Knowledge

10) In anatomical position, the lateral lower leg bone is the fibula.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 189
Blooms: 2) Comprehension

11) There are seven cervical, twelve thoracic, and five lumbar vertebrae.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 176-177
Blooms: 1) Knowledge

12) A newborn baby has an S-shaped spinal curvature known as a primary curvature.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 177
Blooms: 2) Comprehension

13) Diarthroses have a greater degree of mobility and flexibility than synarthroses.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 190-191
Blooms: 4) Analysis

14) Joint inflammation is known as ankylosis.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 196
Blooms: 1) Knowledge

5.4 Matching Questions

Match the following:

A) greenstick fracture
B) depression fracture
C) impacted fracture
D) comminuted fracture
E) spiral fracture

1) Incomplete bone break
Page Ref: 168
Blooms: 1) Knowledge

2) Broken bone portion is pushed inward
Page Ref: 168
Blooms: 1) Knowledge

3) Ragged bone break resulting from twisting forces
Page Ref: 168
Blooms: 1) Knowledge

4) Bone breaks into many fragments
Page Ref: 168
Blooms: 1) Knowledge

5) Broken bone ends are forced into each other
Page Ref: 168
Blooms: 1) Knowledge

Answers: 1) A 2) B 3) E 4) D 5) C

Match the following:

A) osteoclasts
B) epiphyseal plate
C) lamellae
D) osteoblasts
E) canaliculi

6) Cells that can dissolve the bony matrix
Page Ref: 166
Blooms: 1) Knowledge

7) Layers or rings of calcification that are found in compact bone
Page Ref: 161
Blooms: 1) Knowledge

8) Small channels that radiate through the matrix of compact bone
Page Ref: 161
Blooms: 1) Knowledge

9) Cells that can build bony matrix
Page Ref: 165
Blooms: 1) Knowledge

10) Area where bone growth takes place in a long bone
Page Ref: 161
Blooms: 1) Knowledge

Answers: 6) A 7) C 8) E 9) D 10) B

Match the following:

A) ball-and-socket joint
B) pivot joint
C) plane joint
D) hinge joint
E) condylar joint

11) Wrist joint
Page Ref: 194
Blooms: 1) Knowledge

12) Shoulder joint
Page Ref: 196
Blooms: 1) Knowledge

13) Ankle joint
Page Ref: 194
Blooms: 1) Knowledge

14) Knuckle joints
Page Ref: 196
Blooms: 1) Knowledge

15) Joint between atlas and axis
Page Ref: 194
Blooms: 1) Knowledge
Answers: 11) C 12) A 13) D 14) E 15) B

Match the following:

A) appendicular skeleton
B) axial skeleton

16) Tarsals
Page Ref: 170
Blooms: 1) Knowledge

17) Femur
Page Ref: 170
Blooms: 1) Knowledge

18) Phalanges
Page Ref: 170
Blooms: 1) Knowledge

19) Ulna
Page Ref: 170
Blooms: 1) Knowledge

20) Atlas
Page Ref: 170
Blooms: 1) Knowledge

21) Sternum
Page Ref: 170
Blooms: 1) Knowledge

22) Fibula
Page Ref: 170
Blooms: 1) Knowledge

23) Coxal bone
Page Ref: 170
Blooms: 1) Knowledge

24) True ribs
Page Ref: 170
Blooms: 1) Knowledge

25) Parietal bones
Page Ref: 170
Blooms: 1) Knowledge

Answers: 16) A 17) A 18) A 19) A 20) B 21) B 22) A 23) A 24) B 25) B

5.5 Essay Questions

1) Explain the five functions of the skeletal system.
Answer:
1. Supportthe skeletal system forms the bodys internal structural framework. The bones of the legs act as pillars to support the body trunk when we stand, and the rib cage supports the thoracic wall.
2. Movementthe skeletal muscles, attached to bones by tendons, use the bones as levers to move the body and its parts.
3. Protectionbones, such as the skull, thorax, and pelvis, protect the enclosed soft body organs.
4. Storagefat is stored in the internal cavities of bones. Bones also serve as a storehouse for minerals, the most important being calcium and phosphorus.
5. Hematopoiesisblood cell formation occurs within the red marrow of certain bones.
Page Ref: 159
Blooms: 2) Comprehension

2) Differentiate between the functions of yellow marrow and red marrow.
Answer: Yellow or red marrow may be found in the medullary (marrow) cavity of a long bone, depending on the age of the individual. Yellow marrow is adipose tissue that stores energy. Red marrow functions in blood cell production, a process known as hematopoiesis.
Page Ref: 161
Blooms: 4) Analysis

3) List and explain the steps in the repair process of a simple fracture.
Answer:
Step 1 is hematoma formation. A hematoma, or blood-filled swelling, forms when bone breaks and blood vessels rupture. Bone cells are deprived of nutrition and die.
Step 2 is fibrocartilage callus formation. The site of damage experiences growth of new capillaries into the clotted blood and disposal of dead tissue by phagocytes. Connective tissue cells of various types form a mass of repair tissue called fibrocartilage callus. This fibrocartilage callus contains several elements: some cartilage matrix, some bony matrix, and collagen fibers. This fibrocartilage callus acts to splint the broken bone, closing the gap.
Step 3 is bony callus formation. As more osteoblasts and osteoclasts migrate into the area and multiply, fibrocartilage is gradually replaced by a callus of spongy bone (the bony callus).
Step 4 is bone remodeling. Over the next few months, bony callus is remodeled in response to the mechanical stresses placed on it, so that it forms a strong, permanent patch at the fracture site.
Page Ref: 169
Blooms: 1) Knowledge

4) Explain how the anatomy of compact bone differs from that of spongy bone.
Answer: Compact bone is composed of osteons (Haversian systems). Concentric rings of matrix, called lamellae, are situated around a central (Haversian) canal. The rings and central canal constitute an osteon, or Haversian system. Other canals, called canaliculi, spread outward from central canals to connect to lacunae which house osteocytes.
Spongy bone is open, airy, spiky and is composed of small, needlelike pieces of bone. Spongy bone lacks osteons and a network of canals.
Page Ref: 159, 161-162
Blooms: 4) Analysis
5) Explain how bones are remodeled in response to parathyroid hormone (PTH).
Answer: Parathyroid hormone (PTH) activates bone-destroying cells called osteoclasts to break down the bones matrix and release the stored calcium into the blood. PTH determines when bone will be broken down in response to the level of calcium ions in the blood.
Page Ref: 166
Blooms: 2) Comprehension

6) List some of the features of a female pelvis that make it different from a male pelvis.
Answer: The female pelvis:
a. has a larger and more circular inlet.
b. is shallower than the male pelvis.
c. has lighter and thinner bones.
d. has a shorter and less curved sacrum.
e. has a more rounded pubic arch.
f. has shorter ischial spines that are also farther apart.
Page Ref: 186
Blooms: 1) Knowledge

7) If 6-year-old Sarah fell and broke her femur, damaging the proximal epiphyseal plate, what might she expect as she grows older? What is an epiphyseal plate and why is it significant to this situation?
Answer: The epiphyseal plate is a flat plate of hyaline cartilage seen in young growing bone. Epiphyseal plates cause the lengthwise growth of long bone. Since this child is still growing and has not completed puberty, she may expect impaired growth in that one epiphyseal plate. Lucky for Sarah, there is an epiphyseal plate located at both the distal and proximal ends of the femur. The healthy distal plate can continue to grow.
Page Ref: 161, 165-166
Blooms: 3) Application

8) Maria observes a patient in her clinic with a spinal curvature abnormality. She notices the patients spine curves laterally from the midline. Determine the abnormality she observed and explain how she differentiated it from the other two types of spinal abnormalities.
Answer: Maria observed a patient with scoliosis in which the spinal strays laterally from the midline. Lordosis, or sway back, results in lumbar curvature exaggerated in the ventral (anterior) direction. Kyphosis produces a humped back due to a thoracic curvature exaggerated in the dorsal (posterior) direction.
Page Ref: 177-178
Blooms: 3) Application

9) Explain how atlas and axis are different from other vertebrae. Discuss the roles they play in the body.
Answer:
1. Unlike all other vertebra, atlas (C1) has no body. Axis (C2) has a large process called the dens.
2. The structural differences of these two vertebrae allow you to rotate your head from side to side to indicate no. The joint between these two vertebrae is a pivot joint.
Page Ref: 178, 180
Blooms: 4) Analysis
10) Differentiate among the three types of joints based on structural and functional classification. Provide examples of each type of joint.
Answer:
1. Synarthroses are immovable joints. These joints are structurally classified as fibrous joints since the bones are united by fibrous tissue. Skull sutures are one example of a fibrous joint.
2. Amphiarthroses are slightly movable joints. These joints are structurally classified as cartilaginous joints since the bone ends are connected by cartilage. The pubic symphysis and intervertebral joints are two examples.
3. Diathroses are freely movable joints. These joints are structurally classified as synovial joints since the articulating bone ends are separated by a joint cavity containing synovial fluid. There are many examples of synovial joints, including the elbow, knee, and shoulder.
Page Ref: 190-191
Blooms: 4) Analysis

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