Essentials of Life Span Development 3rd Edition by John Santrock test bank

Essentials of Life Span Development  3rd Edition by John Santrock  test bank
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CHAPTER 9: PHYSICAL AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT IN ADOLESCENCE

Multiple Choice Questions

1. Which of the following is a more accurate vision of adolescence?
a. For most individuals, adolescence is a time of evaluation, decision making, commitment, and carving out a place in the world.
b. For most individuals, adolescence is a time of rebellion, crisis, pathology, and deviance.
c. Most adolescents have a brush with juvenile delinquency.
d. Very few adolescents contribute positively to their communities and make a successful transition through adolescence.
Answer: a
Difficulty Level: Medium
Blooms: Understand
Page(s): 258

2. Which theorist proposed the storm-and-stress view that adolescence is a turbulent time charged with conflict and mood swings?
a. Anna Freud
b. Jean Piaget
c. G. Stanley Hall
d. Daniel Offer
Answer: c
Difficulty Level: Hard
Blooms: Remember
Page(s): 259

3. When Daniel Offer and his colleagues studied the self-images of adolescents in the United States, Australia, Bangladesh, Hungary, Israel, Italy, Japan, Taiwan, Turkey, and West Germany, at least _____ percent of the adolescents displayed a healthy self-image.
a. 25
b. 48
c. 60
d. 73
Answer: d
Difficulty Level: Hard
Blooms: Remember
Page(s): 259

4. For the majority of teens, adolescence is marked by:
a. stress and storm.
b. delinquency.
c. a healthy self-image.
d. low self-esteem.
Answer: c
Difficulty Level: Medium
Blooms: Understand
Page(s): 259

5. Puberty refers to a period of:
a. declining abstract thought and emotional maturation during late adolescence involving neural and synaptic development in the brain.
b. declining gross motor development during late childhood due to the maturation of the temporal and parietal lobes.
c. rapid psychological and emotional maturation that lasts through adolescence and is a product of enhanced cognitive development.
d. rapid physical maturation involving hormonal and bodily changes that occurs primarily during early adolescence.
Answer: d
Difficulty Level: Easy
Blooms: Remember
Page(s): 260

6. Puberty:
a. is the same as adolescence.
b. ends long before adolescence does.
c. occurs in a single, sudden event.
d. has an easily identifiable beginning and ending.
Answer: b
Difficulty Level: Easy
Blooms: Remember
Page(s): 260

7. Ms. Chang is trying to prepare her health-class students for the onset of puberty. What should she tell the boys that they are likely to experience first?
a. The first ejaculation
b. Voice changes
c. Increased penis and testicle size
d. Growth of facial hair
Answer: c
Difficulty Level: Hard
Blooms: Apply
Page(s): 261

8. Which of the following is typically the last male pubertal characteristic to occur?
a. The first ejaculation
b. Voice changes
c. Increased penis and testicle size
d. Growth of facial hair
Answer: d
Difficulty Level: Easy
Blooms: Remember
Page(s): 261

9. A girls first menstruation is called _____.
a. gonadarche
b. spermarche
c. menarche
d. adrenarche
Answer: c
Difficulty Level: Easy
Blooms: Remember
Page(s): 261

10. Which of the following statements is true?
a. Boys go through growth spurts earlier than girls do.
b. Both boys and girls who are shorter than their peers before puberty will actually surpass their peers during adolescence.
c. By the end of adolescence, most girls will be taller than boys.
d. Marked weight gains coincide with the onset of puberty for both boys and girls.
Answer: d
Difficulty Level: Medium
Blooms: Understand
Page(s): 261

11. The growth spurt that characterizes pubertal change occurs approximately _____ for girls than for boys.
a. two years earlier
b. one year earlier
c. two years later
d. one year later
Answer: a
Difficulty Level: Hard
Blooms: Remember
Page(s): 261

12. The mean age at the beginning of the growth spurt in girls is _____.
a. 6
b. 14
c. 12
d. 9
Answer: d
Difficulty Level: Easy
Blooms: Remember
Page(s): 261

13. The peak rate of pubertal change occurs at _____ years for girls and _____ years for boys.
a. 13; 14
b. 12; 11
c. 11; 13
d. 10; 13
Answer: c
Difficulty Level: Easy
Blooms: Remember
Page(s): 261

14. Behind the first whisker in boys and the widening of hips in girls is a flood of _____, powerful chemical substances secreted by the endocrine glands and carried through the body by the bloodstream.
a. amino acids
b. phospholipids
c. enzymes
d. hormones
Answer: d
Difficulty Level: Easy
Blooms: Remember
Page(s): 261

15. _____ is a hormone associated in boys with genital development, increased height, and deepening of the voice.
a. Testosterone
b. Estrogen
c. Estradiol
d. Progestin
Answer: a
Difficulty Level: Easy
Blooms: Remember
Page(s): 261

16. Thirteen-year-old Graces blood tests indicate that her levels of testosterone are about twice as high as they were a few years ago, and that her estradiol levels are about eight times higher than earlier. Grace is most likely experiencing:
a. normal changes during puberty.
b. difficulties due to significant imbalances in hormonal levels.
c. abnormal development of male physical characteristics.
d. abnormal development of female physical characteristics.
Answer: a
Difficulty Level: Hard
Blooms: Apply
Page(s): 261

17. Fourteen-year-old Kent recently received his blood test results which indicate an eighteenfold increase in testosterone levels and a twofold increase in estradiol over the past few years. It appears that Kent:
a. is experiencing normal changes during puberty.
b. will be put on hormone therapy to correct the significant imbalances in hormonal levels.
c. has abnormal levels of male sex hormones.
d. has abnormal levels of female sex hormones.
Answer: a
Difficulty Level: Hard
Blooms: Apply
Page(s): 261

18. Which of the following is a type of estrogen?
a. Insulin
b. Testosterone
c. Progesterone
d. Estradiol
Answer: d
Difficulty Level: Medium
Blooms: Understand
Page(s): 261

19. Which of the following is associated with breast, uterine, and skeletal development in girls?
a. Insulin
b. Thyroxine
c. Estradiol
d. Luteinizing hormone
Answer: c
Difficulty Level: Medium
Blooms: Understand
Page(s): 261

20. Which of the following hormones dominates in male pubertal development?
a. Testosterone
b. Progesterone
c. Estrogen
d. Follicle stimulating hormone
Answer: a
Difficulty Level: Medium
Blooms: Understand
Page(s): 261

21. In the United States, the average age of menarche has _____ since the mid-nineteenth century.
a. increased marginally
b. declined significantly
c. increased significantly
d. not changed
Answer: b
Difficulty Level: Medium
Blooms: Remember
Page(s): 262

22. Which of the following statements about the timing and variations in puberty is true?
a. Children in European countries mature up to a year earlier than their American counterparts.
b. For girls, menarche is considered within the normal range if it appears between the ages of 9 and 15.
c. Genes have little to do with when and how puberty develops.
d. Non-Latino White girls experience puberty earlier than African American girls.
Answer: b
Difficulty Level: Hard
Blooms: Understand
Page(s): 262

23. Who amongst the following is most likely to be dissatisfied with body image as pubertal change proceeds?
a. A girl in early adolescence
b. A girl in late adolescence
c. A boy in early adolescence
d. A boy in late adolescence
Answer: a
Difficulty Level: Medium
Blooms: Understand
Page(s): 262

24. In the Berkeley Longitudinal Study some years ago, early-maturing boys perceived themselves _____ than did their late-maturing counterparts. When the late-maturing boys were in their thirties, however, they had developed a _____ than the early-maturing boys had.
a. as an anomaly; stronger feeling of inadequacy
b. more positively; stronger sense of identity
c. as misfits; a more negative self-image
d. more negatively; deeper sense of regret
Answer: b
Difficulty Level: Medium
Blooms: Understand
Page(s): 262

25. Recent research has found that early-maturing girls are more likely than late-maturing girls to be:
a. satisfied with their figures in late adolescence.
b. taller and thinner when they reach high school.
c. less popular with males their own age.
d. depressed, become alcoholic, and/or have an eating disorder.
Answer: d
Difficulty Level: Hard
Blooms: Understand
Page(s): 263

26. The _____, where fibers connect the brains left and right hemispheres, thickens in adolescence, and this improves adolescents ability to process information.
a. amygdala
b. corpus callosum
c. parietal lobe
d. temporal lobe
Answer: b
Difficulty Level: Medium
Blooms: Remember
Page(s): 263

27. Donna is concerned about her adolescent daughters tendency to flare up at the mildest provocations. Donna says that her daughter refuses to see reason sometimes and seems unable to exercise much self-control. As a specialist in the development of adolescents, you would tell Donna that her daughters behavior could partly be explained by the biological reason that:
a. the prefrontal cortexinvolved in reasoning and self-controlhas developed fully by early adolescence.
b. the corpus callosum, where fibers connect the brains left and right hemispheres, thickens in adolescence.
c. by the end of adolescence, individuals have fewer, less selective, less effective neuronal connections than they did as children.
d. the amygdalathe seat of emotions such as angermatures earlier than the prefrontal cortex in adolescents.
Answer: d
Difficulty Level: Hard
Blooms: Apply
Page(s): 263

28. _____ is the judgment region that reins in intense emotions but doesnt finish developing until at least emerging adulthood.
a. Nucleus acumbens
b. Corpus callosum
c. Prefrontal cortex
d. Amygdala
Answer: c
Difficulty Level: Medium
Blooms: Remember
Page(s): 263

29. Leading researcher Charles Nelson proposed the view that, although adolescents are capable of very strong emotions, their prefrontal cortex has not adequately developed to the point at which they can control these passions. His view reflects the rapidly emerging field of _____, which involves connections between development, the brain, and socioemotional processes.
a. socioemotional neuroscience
b. biosocial neuroscience
c. psychosocial neuroscience
d. developmental social neuroscience
Answer: d
Difficulty Level: Medium
Blooms: Remember
Page(s): 264

30. In a U.S. national survey conducted in 2009, _____ percent of twelfth-graders reported that they had experienced sexual intercourse, compared with _____ percent of ninth-graders.
a. 20; 10
b. 62; 32
c. 77; 90
d. 60; 52
Answer: b
Difficulty Level: Easy
Blooms: Remember
Page(s): 265

31. According to a U.S. national survey conducted in 2009, by age 20, _____ percent of U.S. youth have engaged in sexual intercourse.
a. 77
b. 62
c. 90
d. 52
Answer: a
Difficulty Level: Easy
Blooms: Remember
Page(s): 265

32. In a U.S. national survey conducted in 2009, it was found that nationally, _____ percent of twelfth-graders reported being sexually active.
a. 70
b. 15
c. 49
d. 80
Answer: c
Difficulty Level: Easy
Blooms: Remember
Page(s): 265

33. Which of the following has been linked to early sexually intimate behavior in girls?
a. High academic performance
b. Early menarche
c. Late menarche
d. Good parent-child communication
Answer: b
Difficulty Level: Medium
Blooms: Understand
Page(s): 265
34. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs):
a. are rarely passed through oral sex.
b. can be prevented through the use of contraceptive pills or implants.
c. rarely occur in U.S. adolescents.
d. are contracted primarily through sexual contact.
Answer: d
Difficulty Level: Easy
Blooms: Remember
Page(s): 266

35. In a single act of unprotected sex with an infected partner, a teenage girl has a _____ percent risk of getting HIV.
a. 1
b. 10
c. 25
d. 50
Answer: a
Difficulty Level: Hard
Blooms: Remember
Page(s): 266

36. In a single act of unprotected sex with an infected partner, a teenage girl has a _____ percent risk of acquiring genital herpes.
a. 10
b. 50
c. 30
d. 70
Answer: c
Difficulty Level: Hard
Blooms: Remember
Page(s): 266

37. In a single act of unprotected sex with an infected partner, a teenage girl has a ______ percent risk of contracting gonorrhea.
a. 20
b. 30
c. 40
d. 50
Answer: d
Difficulty Level: Hard
Blooms: Remember
Page(s): 266

38. With reference to cross-cultural comparisons, which of the following statements about adolescent pregnancies in the U.S. is true?
a. In 2009, births to adolescent girls fell to a record low.
b. The U.S. adolescent pregnancy rate is much lower than in the Netherlands.
c. Adolescents in the U.S. are more sexually active than adolescents in the Netherlands.
d. The U.S. adolescent birth rate increased significantly from 2007 to 2009.
Answer: a
Difficulty Level: Medium
Blooms: Understand
Page(s): 266

39. The U.S. adolescent pregnancy rate is _____ times as high as in the Netherlands.
a. ten
b. three
c. five
d. eight
Answer: d
Difficulty Level: Easy
Blooms: Remember
Page(s): 266

40. The U.S. adolescent birth rate decreased by _____ percent from 2007 to 2009.
a. 20
b. 8
c. 40
d. 15
Answer: b
Difficulty Level: Easy
Blooms: Remember
Page(s): 266

41. Daughters of teenage mothers are:
a. unlikely to become pregnant during adolescence.
b. likely to be highly intelligent.
c. more likely to use contraceptives.
d. at increased risk for teenage childbearing.
Answer: d
Difficulty Level: Medium
Blooms: Understand
Page(s): 266

42. Research has shown that infants born to adolescent mothers are more likely to have:
a. high birth weight.
b. Down syndrome.
c. childhood illnesses.
d. type II diabetes.
Answer: c
Difficulty Level: Medium
Blooms: Apply
Page(s): 266

43. A number of leading experts on adolescent sexuality conclude that abstinence-only programs:
a. are less effective at reducing the risk of adolescent pregnancy than sex education programs.
b. prevent adolescent pregnancies better than sex-education programs emphasizing contraceptive knowledge.
c. are more effective at reducing the risk of sexually transmitted infections than sex education programs.
d. provide useful knowledge about safe sex to sexually active adolescents.
Answer: a
Difficulty Level: Medium
Blooms: Understand
Page(s): 268

44. A number of leading experts on adolescent sexuality conclude that education programs that emphasize contraceptive knowledge:
a. are less likely to reduce the risk of adolescent pregnancy than abstinence-only programs.
b. do not increase the incidence of sexual intercourse.
c. are no more likely to reduce the risk of sexually-transmitted infections than abstinence-only programs.
d. result in an increase in the incidence of sexual intercourse.
Answer: b
Difficulty Level: Medium
Blooms: Understand
Page(s): 268

45. National data indicates that the percentage of overweight U.S. 12- to 19-year-olds increased from _____ percent from the early 1990s to 2009-2010.
a. 60 to 80
b. 39 to 48
c. 11 to 17
d. 20 to 25
Answer: c
Difficulty Level: Hard
Blooms: Remember
Page(s): 268

46. A recent national study revealed that _____ percent of U.S. 15-year-olds met the federal governments exercise recommendations on weekdays.
a. 31
b. 50
c. 80
d. 12
Answer: a
Difficulty Level: Easy
Blooms: Remember
Page(s): 269

47. Which of the following describes the federal governments exercise recommendations?
a. A minimum of 15 minutes of mild exercise per day
b. A maximum of 30 minutes of moderate to vigorous exercise per day
c. A minimum of 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous exercise per day
d. A maximum of 15 minutes of mild exercise per day
Answer: c
Difficulty Level: Medium
Blooms: Understand
Page(s): 269

48. A national study of U.S. adolescents revealed that physical activity:
a. increased until 13 years of age but then declined through 18 years of age.
b. in childhood and early adolescence would persist through to adulthood.
c. increased until 13 years of age and then remained stable throughout adulthood.
d. decreased until 13 years of age and then stabilized to last through 18 years of age.
Answer: a
Difficulty Level: Medium
Blooms: Understand
Page(s): 269

49. According to the National Youth Risk Survey, _____ boys exercised the most and _____ girls exercised the least among adolescents in the U.S.
a. Latino; Latina
b. African American; non-Latino White
c. Latino; African American
d. non-Latino White; African American
Answer: d
Difficulty Level: Medium
Blooms: Understand
Page(s): 269

50. Exercise is related to all of the following positive outcomes in adolescence, EXCEPT: a. a lower incidence of type I diabetes.
b. reduced triglyceride levels.
c. lower blood pressure.
d. normal weight status.
Answer: a
Difficulty Level: Medium
Blooms: Understand
Page(s): 269

51. Which of the following describes the findings of the U.S. survey conducted by the National Sleep Foundation?
a. The majority of the adolescents got less than eight hours of sleep on school nights.
b. Older adolescents got markedly less sleep on school nights than younger adolescents.
c. A higher number of adolescents in ninth grade were getting inadequate sleep on school nights than adolescents in twelfth grade.
d. Adolescents who got inadequate sleep were no more likely to be in a depressed mood than those who got adequate sleep.
Answer: b
Difficulty Level: Medium
Blooms: Understand
Page(s): 269

52. Mary Carskadon and her colleagues research on adolescent sleep patterns found that:
a. when given the opportunity adolescents will sleep an average of 9 hours and 25 minutes a night.
b. adolescents biological clocks undergo a shift as they get older, so that older adolescents start to feel sleepy an hour earlier than younger adolescents.
c. younger adolescents tend to be sleepier during the day than older adolescents.
d. increased sleepiness in adolescents during the day was primarily due to academic work or social pressures.
Answer: a
Difficulty Level: Medium
Blooms: Understand
Page(s): 270

53. Mary Carskadon and her colleagues concluded from their research of the sleep patterns of U.S. adolescents that:
a. schools should start and end earlier to help adolescents to keep to earlier bedtimes.
b. early school starting times may be linked to negative outcomes for adolescents.
c. early school starting times are conducive to the sleep patterns of older adolescents but not to those of younger adolescents.
d. early school starting times are most conducive to the sleep patterns of adolescents.
Answer: b
Difficulty Level: Medium
Blooms: Understand
Page(s): 270

54. Almost half of all deaths from 15 to 24 years of age are due to:
a. a chronic disease.
b. suicide.
c. homicide.
d. unintentional injuries.
Answer: d
Difficulty Level: Medium
Blooms: Remember
Page(s): 270

55. The majority of unintentional injuries in adolescence involve:
a. motor vehicle accident.
b. firearms.
c. homicide.
d. sports-related injury.
Answer: a
Difficulty Level: Medium
Blooms: Understand
Page(s): 270

56. In about _____ percent of motor vehicle fatalities involving adolescents, the driver was found to be intoxicated.
a. 10
b. 30
c. 50
d. 80
Answer: c
Difficulty Level: Easy
Blooms: Remember
Page(s): 271

57. _____ is/are the second leading cause of death in adolescence.
a. Motor vehicle accidents
b. Suicide
c. Homicide
d. Chronic diseases
Answer: c
Difficulty Level: Easy
Blooms: Remember
Page(s): 271

58. Since the 1950s, the adolescent suicide rate has:
a. stayed the same.
b. decreased.
c. doubled.
d. tripled.
Answer: d
Difficulty Level: Easy
Blooms: Remember
Page(s): 271

59. In which of the following groups is death through homicide especially common in adolescence?
a. African American males
b. Latino males
c. Non-Latino White American males
d. Asian American males
Answer: a
Difficulty Level: Medium
Blooms: Understand
Page(s): 271

60. According to the study by Lloyd Johnston and his colleagues at the Institute of Social Research at the University of Michigan monitoring the drug use of Americas high school seniors in a wide range of public and private high schools, the percentage of illicit drug use:
a. declined in the late 1990s.
b. was highest during the early 1990s.
c. has been at the same level since 1990.
d. increased significantly between 2000-2005.
Answer: a
Difficulty Level: Hard
Blooms: Remember
Page(s): 271

61. _____ is the illicit drug most widely used in the United States, and its use by adolescents increased from 2008 to 2011.
a. Heroin
b. Cocaine
c. Marijuana
d. MDMA
Answer: c
Difficulty Level: Easy
Blooms: Remember
Page(s): 271
62. Bill wants to know how he can prevent drug abuse by his adolescent son. You would suggest that Bill:
a. have family dinners most nights of the week.
b. discourage his son from making more friends at school.
c. engage in lesser parental monitoring and control.
d. cease to emphasize educational success.
Answer: a
Difficulty Level: Hard
Blooms: Apply
Page(s): 272

63. Recent research revealed that _____ parenting was linked to lower adolescent alcohol consumption.
a. authoritarian
b. authoritative
c. neglectful
d. indulgent
Answer: b
Difficulty Level: Medium
Blooms: Understand
Page(s): 272

64. According to a recent large-scale study of eighth- and tenth-graders, amongst the various risk factors, which of the following is the strongest predictor of substance abuse among?
a. Monitoring in schools
b. Genetic predisposition
c. Ethnicity
d. Peer relations
Answer: d
Difficulty Level: Medium
Blooms: Understand
Page(s): 272

65. Slightly less than _____ percent of American girls develop anorexia nervosa.
a. 1
b. 10
c. 5
d. 15
Answer: a
Difficulty Level: Easy
Blooms: Remember
Page(s): 272

66. Anorexia nervosa is a(n):
a. eating disorder that involves a binge-and-purge sequence on a regular basis.
b. anxiety disorder whose chief symptom is unrealistic fear of food.
c. drug-induced reaction that produces tremors and vomiting.
d. eating disorder that involves the relentless pursuit of thinness through starvation.
Answer: d
Difficulty Level: Medium
Blooms: Understand
Page(s): 272

67. A person suffering from anorexia nervosa would have a weight less than _____ percent of what is considered normal for their age and height.
a. 25
b. 60
c. 85
d. 60
Answer: c
Difficulty Level: Easy
Blooms: Remember
Page(s): 272

68. _____ refers to a lack of menstruation in girls who have reached puberty.
a. Amenorrhea
b. Anemia
c. Menarche
d. Anorexia
Answer: a
Difficulty Level: Easy
Blooms: Remember
Page(s): 272

69. Which of the following is one of the main characteristics of people suffering from anorexia nervosa?
a. Higher than average body weight
b. Higher than average height
c. A distorted image of the body shape
d. A constant need to consume food
Answer: c
Difficulty Level: Medium
Blooms: Understand
Page(s): 272

70. Which of the following is one of the main characteristics that applies to people suffering from anorexia nervosa?
a. Precocious puberty in girls
b. Amenorrhea in girls who have reached puberty
c. Body weight that falls in the 98th percentile of the BMI scale
d. Binge eating followed by purging
Answer: b
Difficulty Level: Medium
Blooms: Understand
Page(s): 272

71. Which of the following characterizes a person suffering from anorexia nervosa?
a. A relentless pursuit of weight gain through binge eating
b. A positive image of the body shape
c. An intense fear of gaining weight that does not decrease with weight loss
d. A high level of self-efficacy
Answer: c
Difficulty Level: Medium
Blooms: Understand
Page(s): 272

72. Based on age of onset, when is anorexia nervosa most likely to begin?
a. Childhood
b. Late adulthood
c. Emerging adulthood
d. Early to middle adolescent years
Answer: d
Difficulty Level: Medium
Blooms: Understand
Page(s): 272

73. Anorexia nervosa is about _____ likely to occur in females than males.
a. twice more
b. 10 times more
c. half as
d. three times more
Answer: b
Difficulty Level: Easy
Blooms: Remember
Page(s): 272

74. Katie weighs less than 85 percent of what is considered normal for her age and height. Yet, she sees herself as too fat and starves to become thinner. Katie most likely suffers from:
a. anorexia nervosa.
b. bulimia nervosa.
c. sickle-cell anemia.
d. hypochondria.
Answer: a
Difficulty Level: Hard
Blooms: Apply
Page(s): 272

75. Most anorexics are young adult females from:
a. middle- and upper-income families.
b. poor and working-class families.
c. Asian American and African American families.
d. families with low achievement demands.
Answer: a
Difficulty Level: Medium
Blooms: Understand
Page(s): 272

76. Anorexia and bulimia nervosa affect:
a. men and women equally.
b. men more than women.
c. women more than men.
d. women more than older men, but less than younger men.
Answer: c
Difficulty Level: Medium
Blooms: Understand
Page(s): 272
77. Jackie, 15, has been diagnosed with anorexia nervosa. It is most likely that Jackie:
a. sets very low standards for herself.
b. is not very concerned about how others perceive her.
c. is competitive and high-achieving.
d. is an African American from a low-income family.
Answer: c
Difficulty Level: Hard
Blooms: Apply
Page(s): 272

78. Amandas mother suffers from anorexia nervosa. Which of the following statements about Amanda is true?
a. Amanda is highly likely to have a more positive body-image.
b. Amanda is at risk of becoming anorexic herself.
c. Amanda is more likely to have healthy eating habits.
d. Amanda is not at risk for anorexia due to increased awareness.
Answer: b
Difficulty Level: Hard
Blooms: Apply
Page(s): 273

79. Anorexic people and bulimic people differ in the:
a. severity of their disorders.
b. degree of restrictions they place on food intake.
c. psychological factors underlying their disorders.
d. degree of control they have over their families demands of them.
Answer: b
Difficulty Level: Medium
Blooms: Understand
Page(s): 273

80. Dalia tends to go on eating binges and then purges by self-inducing vomiting or using a laxative. Which of the following conditions does Dalia suffer from?
a. Hypochondria
b. Anemia
c. Anorexia
d. Bulimia
Answer: d
Difficulty Level: Medium
Blooms: Apply
Page(s): 273

81. Which of the following is a similarity between anorexics and bulimics?
a. They are highly perfectionistic.
b. They are severely underweight.
c. They have a positive body image.
d. They have a fear of weight loss.
Answer: a
Difficulty Level: Medium
Blooms: Understand
Page(s): 273

82. Identify the similarity between anorexics and bulimics.
a. They are unconcerned about their weight.
b. They are severely underweight.
c. They have a distorted body image.
d. They maintain a healthy, well-balanced diet.
Answer: c
Difficulty Level: Medium
Blooms: Understand
Page(s): 273

83. Jordan is very afraid of gaining weight but she cannot control her eating habits. She has been making up for her eating binges by vomiting immediately after a meal or by purging with laxatives. This pattern of behavior has been occurring thrice a week for the past four months. Jordan is most likely suffering from:
a. anorexia nervosa.
b. bulimia nervosa.
c. sickle-cell anemia.
d. hypochondria.
Answer: b
Difficulty Level: Hard
Blooms: Apply
Page(s): 273

84. Penny has been diagnosed as suffering from bulimia nervosa. It is most likely that she:
a. has a positive body image.
b. also suffers from anorexia.
c. is severely underweight.
d. falls within a normal weight range.
Answer: d
Difficulty Level: Hard
Blooms: Apply
Page(s): 273

85. Approximately _____ percent of U.S. women are estimated to develop bulimia nervosa.
a. 1 to 2
b. 5 to 6
c. 10 to 12
d. 15 to 20
Answer: a
Difficulty Level: Easy
Blooms: Remember
Page(s): 273

86. Bulimia nervosa typically begins in:
a. late adulthood.
b. childhood.
c. late adolescence or early adulthood.
d. early- to mid-adolescence.
Answer: c
Difficulty Level: Medium
Blooms: Understand
Page(s): 273

87. About _____ percent of individuals with bulimia nervosa eventually recover from their disorders.
a. 25
b. 40
c. 90
d. 70
Answer: d
Difficulty Level: Easy
Blooms: Remember
Page(s): 273

88. According to Jean Piaget, around age 11, the fourth stage of cognitive development, the _____ stage, begins.
a. concrete operational
b. formal operational
c. postoperational
d. passive operational
Answer: b
Difficulty Level: Easy
Blooms: Remember
Page(s): 274

89. Which of the following is the final stage of Jean Piagets theory of cognitive development?
a. Concrete operational stage
b. Passive operational stage
c. Preconventional reasoning stage
d. Formal operational stage
Answer: d
Difficulty Level: Easy
Blooms: Remember
Page(s): 274

90. According to Jean Piaget, which of the following types of thought is the most abstract?
a. Concrete operational thought
b. Formal operational thought
c. Preoperational thought
d. Passive operational thought
Answer: b
Difficulty Level: Easy
Blooms: Remember
Page(s): 274

91. The abstract quality of thinking during the _____ stage is evident in the adolescents verbal problem-solving ability.
a. passive operational
b. concrete operational
c. formal operational
d. conventional reasoning
Answer: c
Difficulty Level: Medium
Blooms: Understand
Page(s): 274

92. During the beginning of the _____ stage, when assimilation dominates, an adolescents thoughts are full of idealism and possibilities.
a. formal operational
b. preconventional reasoning
c. concrete operational
d. conventional reasoning
Answer: a
Difficulty Level: Medium
Blooms: Understand
Page(s): 274

93. In the formal operational stage, adolescents begin to think more as a scientist thinks, devising plans to solve problems and systematically testing solutions. This type of problem solving requires _____.
a. trial-and-error reasoning
b. hypothetical-deductive reasoning
c. concrete operational reasoning
d. preconventional reasoning
Answer: b
Difficulty Level: Easy
Blooms: Remember
Page(s): 274

94. _____ thinkers develop hypotheses about ways to solve problems and then systematically deduce the best path to follow to solve the problem.
a. Formal operational
b. Preoperational
c. Concrete operational
d. Postconventional
Answer: a
Difficulty Level: Medium
Blooms: Remember
Page(s): 274

95. Only about one in three young adolescents is a _____ thinker.
a. postconventional
b. preoperational
c. concrete operational
d. formal operational
Answer: d
Difficulty Level: Medium
Blooms: Remember
Page(s): 274-275

96. In contrast to Piagets views, the development of formal operational thinking:
a. does not occur during adolescence.
b. is promoted by education in the logic of science and mathematics.
c. is unaffected by the influence of culture and education.
d. is commonly seen among all American adults.
Answer: b
Difficulty Level: Medium
Blooms: Understand
Page(s): 275

97. Who is the founder of the present field of cognitive development?
a. Jean Piaget
b. Lawrence Kohlberg
c. Albert Bandura
d. Erik Erikson
Answer: a
Difficulty Level: Easy
Blooms: Remember
Page(s): 275

98. Adolescent _____ is the heightened self-consciousness of adolescents.
a. mirror complex
b. ethnocentrism
c. solipsism
d. egocentrism
Answer: d
Difficulty Level: Easy
Blooms: Remember
Page(s): 275

99. According to David Elkind, personal fable and imaginary audience are parts of adolescent:
a. co-rumination.
b. expression.
c. egocentrism.
d. solipsism.
Answer: c
Difficulty Level: Easy
Blooms: Remember
Page(s): 275

100.The _____ is adolescents belief that others are as interested in them as they themselves are, as well as attention-getting behaviorattempts to be noticed, visible, and on stage.
a. personal fable
b. stage fear
c. imaginary audience
d. collective myth
Answer: c
Difficulty Level: Easy
Blooms: Remember
Page(s): 275

101. The _____ is the part of adolescent egocentrism involving a sense of uniqueness and invincibility.
a. personal fable
b. self-fulfilling prophecy
c. imaginary audience
d. collective myth
Answer: a
Difficulty Level: Easy
Blooms: Remember
Page(s): 275

102. Fifteen-year-old Juanita wants to skip school today because she is having a bad hair day and is convinced that everybody will notice and think badly of her. Which aspect of adolescent egocentrism is Juanita experiencing?
a. Personal fable
b. Imaginary audience
c. Fight-or-flight response
d. Top-dog phenomenon
Answer: b
Difficulty Level: Hard
Blooms: Apply
Page(s): 275

103. Leila, 14, feels that nobody understands her, especially her parents and teachers. Leilas feelings reflect the _____ aspect of an adolescents egocentrism.
a. personal fable
b. imaginary audience
c. self-fulfilling prophecy
d. collective myth
Answer: a
Difficulty Level: Hard
Blooms: Apply
Page(s): 275

104. I know I can handle the car at high speeds much better than others can, says 18-year-old Jake. This reflects the tendency of adolescents to engage in:
a. personal fable.
b. collective myths.
c. imaginary audience.
d. perspective taking.
Answer: a
Difficulty Level: Hard
Blooms: Apply
Page(s): 275

105. As part of their effort to retain a sense of _____, adolescents might craft a story about the self that is filled with fantasy, immersing themselves in a world that is far removed from reality.
a. imaginary audience
b. invincibility
c. transitivity
d. personal uniqueness
Answer: d
Difficulty Level: Easy
Blooms: Remember
Page(s): 275
106. George wants to ensure that his sons become competent decision makers. Which of the following is a strategy you would suggest for improving their decision making?
a. Provide more opportunities for them to engage in role playing and peer group problem solving
b. Encourage the presence of peers in risk-taking situations
c. Supply contexts where substances and other temptations are readily available, testing their willingness to make risky decisions
d. Keep them in a sequestered environment where they will not have to face decision-making in real-world contexts
Answer: a
Difficulty Level: Hard
Blooms: Apply
Page(s): 277

107. When students make the transition to middle or junior high school, they experience the _____ phenomenon, moving from being the oldest, biggest, and most powerful students in the elementary school to being the youngest, smallest, and least powerful students in the middle or junior high school.
a. big-brother
b. top-dog
c. domino effect
d. underdog
Answer: b
Difficulty Level: Easy
Blooms: Remember
Page(s): 278

108. The Carnegie Foundation evaluated U.S. middle schools and recommended that:
a. smaller communities or houses should be developed to lessen the impersonal nature of large middle schools.
b. schools improve their use of technology, computers, and skills that will be needed in the 21st century.
c. schools add more grade levels to encompass a wider age range to reflect differences in adolescent development.
d. middle schools be integrated with high schools so that the younger adolescents can take advantage of having older adolescents as role models.
Answer: a
Difficulty Level: Medium
Blooms: Understand
Page(s): 278

109. Which of the following is a concern related to U.S. high school education?
a. High expectations for success
b. High standards for learning
c. Fostering of passivity in students
d. Too much variety in the pathways students can take
Answer: c
Difficulty Level: Hard
Blooms: Understand
Page(s): 278

110. In the last half of the twentieth century and the first several years of the twenty-first century, U.S. high school dropout rates:
a. increased.
b. declined.
c. remained unchanged.
d. plateaued.
Answer: b
Difficulty Level: Easy
Blooms: Remember
Page(s): 279

111. The lowest school dropout rate in the United States in 2008 occurred for:
a. Latinos.
b. Native Americans.
c. African Americans.
d. Asian Americans.
Answer: d
Difficulty Level: Easy
Blooms: Remember
Page(s): 279

112. In a study, almost 50 percent of high school dropouts cited _____ reasons for leaving school.
a. economic
b. peer-related
c. school-related
d. family-related
Answer: c
Difficulty Level: Medium
Blooms: Understand
Page(s): 280

113. The most effective programs that discourage dropping out of high school include:
a. abstinence-only programs.
b. early reading programs.
c. special education services.
d. financial aid programs.
Answer: b
Difficulty Level: Medium
Blooms: Understand
Page(s): 280

114. _____ learning is a form of education that promotes social responsibility and service to the community.
a. Service
b. Social
c. Collaborative
d. Cooperative
Answer: a
Difficulty Level: Easy
Blooms: Remember
Page(s): 280

115. Service learning is often more effective when two conditions are met: (1) giving students some degree of choice in the service activities in which they participate, and (2) _____.
a. fixing certain minimum levels of compliance
b. guiding students in their tasks
c. providing students opportunities to reflect about their participation
d. limiting the amount of time spent volunteering
Answer: c
Difficulty Level: Medium
Blooms: Understand
Page(s): 280

116. _____ learning takes education out into the community.
a. Social
b. Service
c. Collaborative
d. Cooperative
Answer: b
Difficulty Level: Easy
Blooms: Remember
Page(s): 280

Identification Questions

117. In 1904, this famous theorist proposed that adolescence was a turbulent time of storm-and-stress.
Answer: G. Stanley Hall
Difficulty Level: Easy
Blooms: Remember
Page(s): 259

118. A period of rapid physical maturation involving hormonal and bodily changes that occurs primarily during adolescence.
Answer: Puberty
Difficulty Level: Easy
Blooms: Remember
Page(s): 260

119. A girls first menstruation.
Answer: Menarche
Difficulty Level: Easy
Blooms: Remember
Page(s): 261

120. In 2003, this researcher suggested that adolescents have difficulty controlling their emotions, because their prefrontal cortex has not yet fully developed.
Answer: Charles Nelson
Difficulty Level: Easy
Blooms: Remember
Page(s): 264

121. This theorist and her colleagues have conducted extensive research into adolescent sleep patterns, and found that when given the opportunity adolescents will sleep an average of 9 hours and 25 minutes a night.
Answer: Mary Carskadon
Difficulty Level: Easy
Blooms: Remember
Page(s): 270

122. An eating disorder that involves the relentless pursuit of thinness through starvation.
Answer: Anorexia nervosa
Difficulty Level: Easy
Blooms: Remember
Page(s): 272

123. The belief, reflecting adolescents egocentrism, that others are as interested in them as they themselves are, as well as attention-getting behaviorattempts to be noticed, visible, and on stage.
Answer: Imaginary audience
Difficulty Level: Easy
Blooms: Remember
Page(s): 275

124. This theorist suggested that adolescent egocentrism is characterized by the imaginary audience and the personal fable.
Answer: David Elkind
Difficulty Level: Easy
Blooms: Remember
Page(s): 275

125. This theorist suggested that, in the later years of childhood and continuing in adolescence, individuals approach cognitive levels that may or may not be achieved, in contrast to the largely universal cognitive levels that young children attain.
Answer: Deanna Kuhn
Difficulty Level: Easy
Blooms: Remember
Page(s): 276

126. A form of education that promotes social responsibility and service to the community.
Answer: Service learning
Difficulty Level: Easy
Blooms: Remember
Page(s): 280

Short Answer Questions

127. Explore the link between hormones and behavior in adolescence.
Answer: The influx of hormones that causes physiological changes in adolescence may also contribute to psychological development. In one study of boys and girls ranging in age from 9 to 14, a higher concentration of testosterone was present in boys who rated themselves as more socially competent. However, hormonal effects by themselves do not account for adolescent development. For example, in one study, social factors were much better predictors of young adolescent girls depression and anger than hormonal factors. Behavior and moods also can affect hormones. Stress, eating patterns, exercise, sexual activity, tension, and depression can activate or suppress various aspects of the hormonal system. In sum, the hormone-behavior link is complex.
Difficulty Level: Hard
Blooms: Analyze
Page(s): 261-262

128. Discuss the psychological changes that are observed in adolescents during puberty.
Answer: One psychological aspect of physical change in puberty is certain: Adolescents are preoccupied with their bodies and develop images of what their bodies are like. One study revealed that adolescents with the most positive body images engaged in health-enhancing behaviors, especially regular exercise. Gender differences characterize adolescents perceptions of their bodies. In general, girls are less happy with their bodies and have more negative body images than boys throughout puberty. Girls more negative body images may be due to media portrayals of the attractiveness of being thin and the increase in body fat in girls during puberty. A recent study found that both boys and girls body images became more positive as they moved from the beginning to the end of adolescence.
Difficulty Level: Medium
Blooms: Understand
Page(s): 262

129. Discuss how early or late maturation affects boys and girls.
Answer: In the Berkeley Longitudinal Study some years ago, early-maturing boys perceived themselves more positively and had more successful peer relations than did their late-maturing counterparts. When the late-maturing boys were in their thirties, however, they had developed a stronger sense of identity than the early-maturing boys had. An increasing number of researchers have found that early maturation increases girls vulnerability to a number of problems. Early-maturing girls are more likely to smoke, drink, be depressed, have an eating disorder, struggle for earlier independence from their parents, and have older friends; and their bodies are likely to elicit responses from males that lead to earlier dating and earlier sexual experiences. Early maturing girls also are less likely to graduate from high school and they cohabit and marry earlier.
Difficulty Level: Easy
Blooms: Remember
Page(s): 262-263

130. Why is bulimia often more difficult to detect than anorexia?
Answer: Unlike anorexics, who exhibit the tell-tale signs of a weight at or below 85 percent than normal for their age and height, people who binge and purge typically fall within a normal weight range, making bulimia more difficult to detect.
Difficulty Level: Easy
Blooms: Remember
Page(s): 273

131. What are the characteristics of the formal operational stage?
Answer: An indication of the abstract quality of adolescents thought is their increased tendency to think about thought itself. Formal operational thought is also full of idealism and possibilities, especially during the beginning of the formal operational stage, when assimilation dominates. Logical thought also increases as is reflected in adolescents ability to engage in hypothetical-deductive reasoning, which involves creating a hypothesis and deducing its implications, steps that provide ways to test the hypothesis.
Difficulty Level: Easy
Blooms: Remember
Page(s): 274

132. Discuss two key components of adolescent egocentrism according to David Elkind.
Answer: David Elkind points out that adolescent egocentrism has two key componentsthe imaginary audience and personal fable. The imaginary audience is adolescents belief that others are as interested in them as they themselves are, as well as attention-getting behaviorattempts to be noticed, visible, and on stage. The personal fable is the part of adolescent egocentrism that involves a sense of uniqueness and invincibility or invulnerability that the adolescent feels, often leading them to engage in risky behavior.
Difficulty Level: Easy
Blooms: Remember
Page(s): 275-276

133. Discuss the importance of controlling ones attention during adolescence.
Answer: Controlling attention is a key aspect of learning and thinking in adolescence and emerging adulthood. Distractions that can interfere with attention in adolescence and emerging adulthood come from the external environment or intrusive distractions from competing thoughts in the individuals mind. Self-oriented thoughts, such as worrying, self-doubt, and intense emotionally laden thoughts may especially interfere with focusing attention on thinking tasks.
Difficulty Level: Easy
Blooms: Remember
Page(s): 276-277

134. What role does the top-dog phenomenon play when adolescents make the transition to middle or to junior high school?
Answer: When students make the transition to middle or junior high school, they experience the top-dog phenomenon, moving from being the oldest, biggest, and most powerful students in the elementary school to being the youngest, smallest, and least powerful students in the middle or junior high school.
Difficulty Level: Easy
Blooms: Remember
Page(s): 278

135. In 1989, the Carnegie Foundation issued an extremely negative evaluation of U.S. middle schools. They made several recommendations for how to improve schools. Imagine you are a middle school principal and can institute any changes you want. Based on these recommendations what kinds of things would you do to create a more effective schools for adolescents?
Answer: In 1989, the Carnegie Foundation issued an extremely negative evaluation of U.S. middle schools. It recommended that the nation should develop smaller communities or houses to lessen the impersonal nature of large middle schools, have lower student-to-counselor ratios (10 to 1 instead of several hundred to 1), involve parents and community leaders in schools, develop new curricula, have teachers team teach in more flexibly designed curriculum blocks that integrate several disciplines, boost students health and fitness with more in-school programs, and help students who need public health care to get it.
Difficulty Level: Hard
Blooms: Apply
Page(s): 278

136. A high school principal sends home a letter to parents stating that she is instituting a service learning component and all students are required to participate. What is service learning? When is it most effective, and why would schools want to use them?
Answer: Service learning is a form of education that promotes social responsibility and service to the community. Service learning is often more effective when two conditions are met: (1) giving students some degree of choice in the service activities in which they participate, and (2) providing students opportunities to reflect about their participation.
Difficulty Level: Hard
Blooms: Analyze
Page(s): 280

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