Essentials of Negotiation 6th Edition by Roy J Lewicki Irving -Test Bank

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Essentials of Negotiation 6th Edition by Roy J Lewicki Irving -Test Bank





Essentials of Negotiation 6th Edition by Roy J Lewicki Irving Test Bank


Sample  Questions



Chapter 02

Strategy and Tactics of Distributive Bargaining


Fill in the Blank Questions

1. Distributive bargaining is basically a competition over who is going to get the most of a _______________________.



2. Whether or not one or both parties in a distributive bargaining situation achieve their objectives will depend upon the ____________ and ____________ they employ.



3. The ________________________ is the point beyond which a person will not go and would rather break off negotiations.



4. The spread between the resistance points is called the _______________________.



5. A ____________ bargaining range occurs when the buyers resistance point is above the sellers.



6. ____________ are important because they give the negotiator power to walk away from any negotiation when the emerging deal is not very good.



7. The package of issues for negotiation is the _______________________.



8. Central to planning the strategy and tactics for distributive bargaining is effectively locating the other partys _______________________.



9. The more attractive the other partys alternatives, the more likely he or she will be to maintain a ____________ resistance point.



10. Selective ____________ reduces the likelihood of making verbal slips or presenting any clues that the other side could use to draw conclusions.



11. Channeling all communication through a ________________________ reduces inadvertent revelation of information.



12. In some ways, the ultimate weapon in negotiation is to threaten to _______________________.



13. To communicate effectively, a negotiator should try to send a consistent message through both an opening ____________ and an opening ___________.



14. If one side is not prepared to make concessions, the other must ____________ or the negotiations will ___________.



15. An offer that may have been accepted had it emerged as a result of ________________________ may be rejected when it is presented as a fait accompli.



16. A reasonable initial concession communicates a basic stance of ___________.



17. Another way to strengthen a commitment and encourage further concessions is to ____________ with one or more prior concessions.



18. When acting as if the decision to close the deal has already been made, the negotiator is using the ____________________________________ method of closing the agreement.



19. Most hardball tactics are designed to either ____________ the appearance of the bargaining position of the person using the tactic or to ________________________ the appearance of the options available to the other party.



20. Good ____________ is critical for defending against the lowball/highball (or all) hardball tactics.



21. The ________________________ tactic occurs when negotiators overwhelm the other party with so much information that they have trouble determining which information is real or important.



22. ________________________ is a conflict situation wherein parties seek their own advantage through tactics including concealing information, attempting to mislead or using manipulative actions.




True / False Questions

23. Distributive bargaining strategies are the only strategies that are effective in interdependent situations.

True    False


24. Distributive bargaining strategies and tactics are useful when a negotiator wants to maximize the value obtained in a single deal.

True    False


25. The resistance point is the point at which a negotiator would like to conclude negotiations.

True    False


26. Both parties to a negotiation should establish their starting, target and resistance point before beginning negotiation.

True    False


27. Anything outside the bargaining range will be summarily rejected by one of the negotiators.

True    False


28. A negative bargaining range occurs when the buyers resistance point is above the sellers.

True    False


29. Negotiations with a positive settlement range are obvious from the beginning.

True    False


30. A resistance point will be influenced by the cost an individual attaches to delay or difficulty in negotiation.

True    False


31. The more you can do to convince the other party that his or her costs of delay or aborting negotiations will be costly, the more likely he or she will be to establish a modest resistance point.

True    False


32. The first step for a negotiator completing a distributive bargaining negotiation is to obtain information about the other partys outcome values and resistance points.

True    False


33. In calculated incompetence, the negotiator is intentionally given false or misleading information to reveal to the other party.

True    False


34. Selective presentation can be used to lead the other party to form the desired impression of your resistance point or to open up new possibilities for agreement that are more favorable to the presenter than those that currently exist.

True    False


35. Studies indicate that negotiators who make low or modest opening offers get higher settlements than do those who make extreme opening offers.

True    False


36. Parties feel better about a settlement when negotiations involve a progression of concessions.

True    False


37. If a major concession has been made on a significant point, it is expected that the return offer will be on the same item or one of similar weight and comparable magnitude.

True    False


38. A small concession late in negotiations may indicate that there is little room left to move.

True    False


39. It is important to signal to the other party with both actions and words that the concessions are almost over.

True    False


40. One way negotiators may convey the message that this is the last offer is by making a personalized concession.

True    False


41. Hardball tactics work most effectively against powerful, well-prepared negotiators.

True    False


42. Hardball tactics are infallible if used properly.

True    False


43. To respond to hardball tactics, a negotiator must identify the tactic quickly and understand what it is and how it works.

True    False


44. The best response to the chicken tactic is to challenge the other party by responding with ones own chicken tactic, thereby calling the others bluff.

True    False


45. An effective means of countering the intimidation tactic is to ignore it.

True    False



Multiple Choice Questions

46. Distributive bargaining strategies

A. are the most efficient negotiating strategies to use.


B. are used in all interdependent relationships.


C. are useful in maintaining long term relationships.


D. can cause negotiators to ignore what the parties have in common.


E. None of the above describes distributive bargaining strategies.


47. The target point is the

A. point at which a negotiator would like to conclude negotiations.


B. negotiators bottom line.


C. first offer a negotiator quotes to his opponent.


D. initial price set by the seller.


E. None of the above describes the target point.


48. Starting points

A. are usually contained in the opening statements each negotiator makes.


B. are usually learned or inferred as negotiations get under way.


C. are not known to the other party.


D. are given up as concessions are made.


E. None of the above describes starting points.


49. The objective of both parties in distributive bargaining is to obtain as much of which of the following as possible?

A. bargaining range


B. resistance point


C. target point


D. bargaining mix


E. None of the above.


50. The resistance point is established by the ____________ expected from a particular outcome, which is in turn the product of the ____________ and ____________ of an outcome.

A. cost; value; worth


B. value; worth; costs


C. value; cost; timeliness


D. cost; importance; value


E. None of the above.


51. The more you can convince the other party that your costs of delay or aborting negotiations are ___________, the more modest will be the others resistance point.

A. high


B. modest


C. extreme


D. low


E. None of the above.


52. The more you can convince the other that you value a particular outcome outside the others bargaining range, the more pressure you put on the other party to set by one of the following resistance points.

A. high


B. low


C. modest


D. extreme


E. None of the above.


53. A large majority of agreements in distributive bargaining are reached when the deadline is

A. near.


B. flexible.


C. past.


D. undefined.


E. None of the above.


54. Disruptive action tactics can cause

A. embarrassment.


B. increased costs.


C. anger.


D. escalation of conflict.


E. Disruptive action tactics can cause all of the above.


55. The opening stance is

A. another name for the first round of concessions.


B. the first price that a buyer quotes to a seller.


C. the attitude to adopt during the negotiation.


D. a package of concessions.


E. All of the above describe the opening stance.


56. The bargaining range is defined by

A. the opening stance and the initial concession.


B. the initial round of concessions.


C. the bargaining mix and the opening stance.


D. the opening offer and the counteroffer.


E. The bargaining range is defined by all of the above.


57. What action can be taken after the first round of offers?

A. hold firm


B. insist on the original position


C. make some concessions


D. make no concessions


E. All of the above.


58. Good distributive bargainers will

A. begin negotiations with the other party with an opening offer close to their own resistance point.


B. ensure that there is enough room in the bargaining range to make some concessions.


C. accept an offer that is presented as a fait accompli.


D. immediately identify the other partys target point.


E. All of the above are actions that good distributive bargainers will take.


59. Parties feel better about a settlement when negotiations involve a(n)

A. immediate settlement.


B. single round of concessions.


C. progression of concessions.


D. fait accompli.


E. All of the above.


60. What statement about concessions is false?

A. Concessions are central to negotiations.


B. Concessions is another word for adjustments in position.


C. Concession making exposes the concession maker to some risk.


D. Reciprocating concessions is a haphazard process.


E. All of the above statements are true.


61. Concession making

A. indicates an acknowledgment of the other party.


B. shows a movement toward the others position.


C. implies a recognition of the legitimacy of the other partys position.


D. recognizes the other partys position.


E. All of the above are characteristics of concession making.


62. When successive concessions get smaller, the most obvious message is that

A. the negotiator is reaching the fatigue point.


B. the resistance point is being approached.


C. the concession makers position is weakening.


D. the negotiator has passed the resistance point.


E. None of the above.


63. Skilled negotiators may

A. suggest different forms of a potential settlement that are worth about the same to them.


B. recognize that not all issues are worth the same amount to both parties.


C. frequently save a final small concession for near the end of the negotiation to sweeten the deal.


D. make the last concession substantial to indicate that this is the last offer.


E. Skilled negotiators may take all of the above actions.


64. Hardball tactics are designed to

A. be used primarily against powerful negotiators.


B. clarify the users adherence to a distributive bargaining approach.


C. pressure targeted parties to do things they would not otherwise do.


D. eliminate risk for the person using the tactic.


E. Hardball tactics are designed to accomplish all of the above.


65. Aggressive behavior tactics include

A. the relentless push for further concessions.


B. asking for the best offer early in negotiations.


C. asking the other party to explain and justify their proposals item by item.


D. forcing the other side to make many concessions to reach an agreement.


E. Aggressive behavior tactics include all of the above.


66. The negotiators basic strategy is to

A. get information about the opposition and its positions.


B. reach the final settlement as close to the others resistance point as possible.


C. convince members of the other party to change their minds about their ability to achieve their own goals.


D. promote his or her own objectives as desirable, necessary, and inevitable.


E. All of the above.



Short Answer Questions

67. Define distributive bargaining.





68. List two situations when distributive bargaining strategies are useful.





69. A negative bargaining range occurs when:





70. How can a negotiation that begins with a negative bargaining range be resolved?





71. What can happen when one or both parties do not think they got the best agreement possible?





72. Define bargaining mix.





73. What are the four important tactical tasks for a negotiator in a distributive bargaining situation?





74. What is the simplest way to screen a position?





75. Define calculated incompetence.





76. Define selective presentation.





77. What negative effect can be caused by using trivial items as distractions or magnifying minor issues?





78. What are the three ways to manipulate the costs of delay in negotiation?





79. Why is it advantageous to make an extreme opening offer?





80. What are the disadvantages of making a more extreme opening offer?





81. What characteristics of original offer, opening stance and opening concession would signal a position of firmness? Of flexibility?





82. What are the advantages of adopting a flexible position?





83. What is the disadvantage of letting the absence of further concessions convey the message of the final offer?





84. What are the risks involved when using hardball tactics?





85. What are the strategies for responding to hardball tactics?




Chapter 04

Negotiation: Strategy and Planning


Fill in the Blank Questions

1. Without effective planning and target setting, results occur more by ____________ than by negotiator effort.



2. Effective strategy and ____________ are the most critically important precursors for achieving negotiation objective.



3. Effective goals must be ___________, ___________, and ___________.



4. Tactics are subordinate to strategy; they are structured, directed and driven by ____________ considerations.



5. The decision to negotiate is closely related to the desirability of _______________________.



6. ____________ strategies tend to create we-they or superiority-inferiority patterns, which often lead to distortions in judgment regarding the other sides contributions and efforts, and to distortions in perceptions of the other sides values, needs and positions.



7. ____________ strategies may generate a pattern of constantly giving in to keep the other happy or to avoid a fight.



8. Multiple-issue negotiations lend themselves more to more ____________ negotiations.



9. ____________ issues are often difficult to discuss and rank-order.



10. ____________ are other agreements negotiators could achieve and still meet their needs.



11. A ________________________ is the place where you decide that you should absolutely stop the negotiation rather than continue because any settlement beyond this point is not minimally acceptable.



12. In a ____________ negotiation, the other party may be less likely to disclose information, and/or may misrepresent their limits and alternatives.



13. _______________________ often requires considering how to package several issues and objectives.



14. A field analysis is one way to assess all the key parties in a ___________.



15. When the other side raises an unexpected issue the negotiator is completely unprepared to discuss, the experienced negotiator may ask for a ____________ to get information and prepare themselves on the new issue.



16. Having a sense of direction and the ____________ derived from it is a very important factor in affecting negotiating outcomes.




True / False Questions

17. If what we want exceeds what the other party is capable of or willing to give, we must either change our goals or end the negotiation.

True    False


18. Accommodation is as much a win-lose strategy as competition, although it has a decidedly different image that involves an imbalance of outcomes, but in the opposite direction (I lose, you win as opposed to I win, you lose).

True    False


19. Distributive strategies may generate a pattern of repeatedly giving in to keep the other happy or to avoid a fight.

True    False


20. In the Negotiation Planning Guide it is not necessary to define the alternatives (BATNAs).

True    False


21. A single planning process can be followed for both a distributive and an integrative process.

True    False


22. The first iteration through the planning process should be firm, and the negotiator should be inflexible and not modify and adjust previous steps as new information becomes available.

True    False


23. Single-issue negotiations can often be made integrative by working to decrease the number of issues.

True    False


24. Single-issue negotiations and the absence of a long-term relationship with the other party are the strongest drivers of claiming value strategies.

True    False


25. Large bargaining mixes allow many possible components and arrangements for settlement.

True    False


26. It is important to set priorities and possibly assign points for both tangible and intangible issues.

True    False


27. Interests may be process-based and relationship-based.

True    False


28. Interests are what a negotiator wants.

True    False


29. Alternatives are very important in both distributive and integrative processes because they define whether the current outcome is better than any other possibility.

True    False


30. Gathering information about the other party is a critical step in preparing for negotiation.

True    False


31. In a distributive negotiation, the other party may be less likely to disclose information about their limits and alternatives.

True    False


32. It is not possible to evaluate packages as opening bids and others as targets in the same way as evaluating individual issues.

True    False


33. If intangibles are a key part of the bargaining mix, negotiators must know the point at which they are willing to abandon the pursuit of an intangible in favor of substantial gains on tangibles.

True    False


34. Context issues (e.g., history of the relationship) can affect negotiation.

True    False


35. Drawing up a firm list of issues before the initial negotiation meeting is a valuable process because it forces negotiators to think through their positions and decide on objectives.

True    False


36. In new bargaining relationships, discussions about procedural issues should occur after the major substantive issues are raised.

True    False



Multiple Choice Questions

37. What are the most critical precursors for achieving negotiation objectives?

A. effective strategizing and planning


B. goal setting and target planning


C. defining frames and setting goals


D. framing and strategizing


E. none of the above


38. Which of the following is not a reason that negotiations fail?

A. Allowing insufficient time for planning


B. Failing to set clear objectives


C. Understanding the strengths and weaknesses of their and the other partys positions


D. Depending on being quick and clever during negotiations


E. Designing a road map that will guide to an agreement


39. The less concrete and measurable goals are:

A. the harder it is to communicate to the other party what we want


B. the easier it is to understand what your opponent wants


C. the easier it is to determine whether a particular outcome satisfies our goals


D. the harder it is to restate what the initial goal was


E. all of the above


40. Which is not a difference between strategy and tactics?

A. Scale


B. Goals


C. Perspective


D. Immediacy


E. Adaptation


41. A strong interest in achieving only substantive outcomes tends to support which of the following strategies?

A. collaborative


B. accommodating


C. competitive


D. avoidance


E. none of the above


42. Which one of the following is as much a win-lose strategy as competition, although it has a decidedly different image?

A. collaboration


B. avoidance


C. engagement


D. accommodation


E. reciprocation


43. Characteristics of collaborative strategies include:

A. long-term focus


B. trust and openness


C. efforts to find mutually satisfying solutions


D. pursuit of goals held jointly with others


E. all of the above


44. In an accommodative negotiation, the relationships have:

A. a short-term focus


B. a long-term focus


C. may be either short term or long term


D. secrecy and defensiveness


E. none of the above


45. Which is not a key step to an ideal negotiation process?

A. Preparation


B. Relationship Building


C. Information Gathering


D. Bidding


E. All of the above are key steps


46. What is the primary determinant for success in negotiation?

A. a distributive vs. integrative strategy


B. the planning that takes place prior to the dialogue


C. the discussions that precede planning sessions


D. the tactics selected in support of strategic goals


E. all of the above


47. Effective planning requires hard work on the following points:

A. Defining the issues


B. Defining the bargaining limit


C. Defining interests


D. Defining limits and alternatives


E. All of the above


48. Interests can be:

A. substantive, directly related to the focal issues under negotiation


B. process-based, related to the manner in which we settle this dispute


C. relationship-based, tied to the current or desired future relationship between the parties


D. based in the intangibles of the negotiation


E. all of the above


49. If the other party has a strong and viable alternative, he/she will

A. be dependent on achieving a satisfactory agreement.


B. appear aggressive and hostile in negotiations.


C. set and push for high objectives.


D. have unlimited negotiating authority.


E. all of the above.


50. Does any of the following represent the point at which we realistically expect to achieve a settlement?

A. specific target point


B. resistance point


C. alternative


D. asking price


E. none of the above


51. Reactive strategies:

A. encourage negotiators to be more flexible and creative


B. can efficiently clear up confusion about issues


C. will lessen a negotiators defensive posture


D. can make negotiators feel threatened and defensive


E. none of the above


52. A negotiator should ask which of the following questions when presenting issues to the other party to assemble information?

A. What facts support my point of view?


B. Whom may I consult or take with to help me elaborate or clarify the facts?


C. What is the other partys point of view likely to be?


D. How can I develop and present the facts so they are most convincing?


E. All of the above questions should be asked.


53. Under which of the following questions of protocol would you find a bargaining relationship discussion about procedural issues that should occur before the major substantive ones have been raised?

A. What agenda should we follow?


B. Where should we negotiate?


C. What is the time period of the negotiation?


D. What might be done if negotiation fails?


E. How will we keep track of what is agreed to?



Short Answer Questions

54. What are the most critical precursors for achieving negotiation objectives?





55. What are the three types of goals negotiators must anticipate to achieve in a negotiation?





56. Can wishes be goals?





57. Why is important for goals to be concrete, specific and measurable?





58. How does the single episodic assumption affect our choice of strategy?





59. Define strategy and tactics.





60. What are the three types of initial strategies for negotiators?





61. What is the primary goal in the use of the strategy of accommodation?





62. What is a drawback of accommodation strategies?





63. What specific steps are entailed in effective planning?





64. Define bargaining mix.





65. What are the advantages and disadvantages of large bargaining mixes?





66. Why may bargainers want to consider giving away something for nothing?





67. What information do we need about the other party to prepare effectively?





68. What is the danger about making assumptions to predict the other partys negotiating behavior?




Chapter 06

Perception, Cognition, and Emotion


Fill in the Blank Questions

1. Perception is a sense-making process; people interpret their ____________ so they can make appropriate responses to it.



2. The perceivers own needs, desires, motivations, and personal experiences may be likely to create a ____________ about the other party in an upcoming negotiation.



3. ________________________ occur when people generalize about a variety of attributes based on the knowledge of one attribute of an individual.



4. Projection occurs when people ascribe to others the characteristics or ____________ that they possess themselves.



5. A ____________ is the subjective mechanism through which people evaluate and make sense out of situations, leading them to pursue or avoid subsequent actions.



6. The frames of those who hear or interpret communication may create ____________ of their own.



7. ____________ in frames between parties are sources of conflict.



8. Parties who focus on ____________ in a dispute are often able to find ways to resolve that dispute.



9. Disputes settled by ____________ usually create clear winners and losers.



10. Frames are shaped by conversations that the parties have with each other about the issues in the _______________________.



11. ____________ can also occur as one party uses metaphors, analogies, or specific cases to illustrate a point.



12. Frames shape what the parties define as the ________________________ and how they talk about them.



13. Negotiators operating under ____________ also reached agreements having higher joint value for the two parties.



14. Negotiations in which the outco

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