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1. The first major step that a researcher must undertake in a qualitative analysis is which of the following?
A) A search for major themes
B) A search for appropriate metaphors
C) The use of quasi-statistics
D) Developing a system for organizing and indexing the data
2. Before the advent of computer software for qualitative analysis, the main procedure for managing qualitative data was the development of which of the following?
A) Conceptual files
B) Core categories
3. Which of the following statements is true?
A) Narrative materials tend to be linear, which simplifies the coding process.
B) Qualitative researchers typically develop a category scheme before they collect their data.
C) CAQDAS is available for coding, organizing, and retrieving qualitative data.
D) Content analysis is the analytic method used in phenomenologic studies.
4. Steps generally employed in the management and analysis of qualitative data include which of the following? Select all that apply.
A) Testing hypotheses
B) Searching for recurrent themes and patterns
C) Validating themes and patterns
D) Developing a category scheme
5. Quasi-statistics are essentially a method of which of the following?
A) Statistical analysis
C) Thematic generation
D) Constant comparison
6. Spradleys method includes which type of data analysis? Select all that apply.
A) Domain analysis
B) Taxonomic analysis
C) Componential analysis
D) Statistical analysis
7. Validation of themes by conferring with study participants was specifically considered inappropriate by whom?
8. An alternative to Spradleys approach to produce and analyze ethnographic data was developed by whom?
B) Van Manen
9. Diekelmann and colleagues proposed a 7-stage process of hermeneutic analysis that includes the identification of which of the following?
A) An appropriate metaphor
B) A constitutive pattern
C) A hermeneutic circle
D) An exemplar
10. The process referred to as constant comparison involves which of the following?
A) Comparing two researchers interpretation of the data
B) Comparing the researchers interpretation of the data against study participants interpretation
C) Comparing elements present in one data source with those in another
D) Comparing data from the study with data and categories from other similar studies
11. In the Strauss and Corbin approach to grounded theory, the initial process of breaking down, categorizing, and coding the data is often referred to as which of the following?
A) Axial coding
B) Core coding
C) Open coding
D) Selective coding
12. Level III codes, in the Glaser and Strauss approach to grounded theory, are which of the following?
A) Axial codes
B) In vivo codes
C) Open codes
D) Theoretical constructs
13. Selective coding in Glaserian approach to grounded theory studies begins when which of the following occurs?
A) Constant comparison has ended
B) Data saturation has occurred
C) Memos have been prepared
D) A core category has been identified
14. Constructivist grounded theory is an approach developed by whom?
15. Which of the following is a significant challenge in qualitative analysis?
A) Mastering the standard procedures for analyzing qualitative data
B) Lack of narrative materials to analyze
C) Reducing data for reporting purposes
D) Deducing particulars from a universal
16. Which of the following best describes the purpose of constant comparison?
A) To identify commonalities among elements present in one data source with those in another
B) To describe the essential nature of an experience
C) To find patterns in the behavior and thoughts of participants
D) To fit concepts with the incidents they are representing
17. In qualitative data analysis, which element can be used as an analytic strategy?
18. Which of the following is an activity involved in qualitative content analysis? Select all that apply.
A) Breaking down data into smaller units
B) Coding and naming units according to the content they represent
C) Collecting information on participants
D) Grouping coded material based on shared concepts
19. Phenomenology most fundamentally involves a search for which of the following?
A) A core category from open coding
B) Intersubjective agreement among judges
C) Thematic descriptions from artistic sources
D) Common patterns shared by particular instances
20. The Duquesne School of Phenomenology is based on the philosophy of which of the following?
B) Van Kaam
21. Which of the following is the first stage of Diekelmann, Allen, and Tanners (1989) process of data analysis in hermeneutics?
A) Interpretive summaries of each interview are written.
B) A team of researchers analyzes selected transcribed interviews or texts.
C) All the interviews or texts are read for an overall understanding.
D) Common meanings and shared practices are identified by comparing and contrasting the text.
22. What is the primary outcome of Strauss and Corbins (2008) approach to grounded theory?
A) A theory of how a social problem is processed
B) A full conceptual description
C) A central category
D) A core category
23. Which of the following accurately describes a task that computer-assisted qualitative data analysis software can accomplish? Select all that apply.
A) Code interview portions and observational records
B) Facilitate examination of relationships between codes
C) Inform the researcher of how best to analyze the data
D) Allow retrieval of portions of text corresponding to specified codes for analysis
24. The primary goal of ethnography is which of the following?
A) To identify and categorize descriptors
B) To abstract major themes
C) To find patterns in the behavior and thoughts of participants
D) To collect, describe, and record data
25. Which of the following is the final phase of Leininger and McFarlands (2006) ethnonursing data analysis guide?
A) Abstract major themes and present findings
B) Identify and categorize descriptors
C) Analyze data to discover repetitive patterns in their context
D) Collect, describe, and record data
26. Which of the following is the correct order of tasks in organizing and managing narrative data for qualitative analysis?
A) 1. Organize the data; 2. develop a category scheme; 3. read and code the data; 4. check the accuracy of transcribed data
B) 1. Develop a category scheme; 2. check the accuracy of transcribed data; 3. read and code the data; 4. organize the data
C) 1. Check the accuracy of transcribed data; 2. develop a category scheme; 3. read and code the data; 4. organize the data
D) 1. Read and code the data; 2. develop a category scheme; 3. check the accuracy of transcribed data; 4. organize the data
27. Which of the following can best facilitate researchers search for themes?
A) Charting devices
B) Detailed coding
D) Computer software
28. Why does a researcher introduce quasi-statistics?
A) As an analytic strategy
B) To validate and refine themes
C) As a taxonomic analysis
D) To provide an overall structure
4. B, C, D
6. A, B, C
18. A, B, D
23. B, D
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