Essentials of Oceanography 7th Edition by Tom S. Garrison Test Bank

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Essentials of Oceanography 7th Edition by Tom S. Garrison Test Bank

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WITH ANSWERS

Essentials of Oceanography 7th Edition by Tom S. Garrison Test Bank

Indicate whether the statement is true or false.

Chapter 2

 

 

1. Prince Henry the Navigator was a well-traveled explorer who was the captain on dozens of sea voyages.

  a. True
  b. False

 

2. Viking ships were the fastest and longest ranging ships in Europe during the Dark Ages.

  a. True
  b. False

 

3. The Hawaiian Islands were one of the last of the Pacific Islands to be colonized by the Polynesians because they are the farthest away, some 2,000 miles from other islands.

  a. True
  b. False

 

4. Latitude is a measurement that uses the prime meridian (Greenwich, England) as a reference point for determining the exact location of a specific point on Earth.

  a. True
  b. False

 

5. A chronometer is a timepiece that can be used to determine longitude.

  a. True
  b. False

 

6. The Library of Alexandria was an important gathering place for intellectuals, and a warehouse for written knowledge relating to trade, natural wonders, artistic achievements, and other items of interest to seafarers.

  a. True
  b. False

 

7. Eratosthenes was a scientist who was interested in the size of Earth and used methods of geometry to determine the circumference of our planet.

  a. True
  b. False

 

8. During the Age of European Discovery, Henry the Navigator was the first to recognize that Earth was spherical.

  a. True
  b. False

 

9. Captain Cook was the first scientist to drift in the ice pack of the Arctic.

  a. True
  b. False

 

10. Humanity did not spread to nearly all of the inhabitable areas of Earth until after the European voyages of discovery in the late 1400s and early 1500s.

  a. True
  b. False

 

Indicate the answer choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

 

11. A(n) ____ is a graphic representation that depicts information about the ocean and ocean features.

  a. map
  b. echo sounder
  c. chart
  d. atlas

 

12. Longitude can be determined with the use of a(n) ____.

  a. pendulum clock
  b. echo sounders
  c. chronometer
  d. remote operated vehicle

 

13. Who is considered to be the father of physical oceanography?

  a. Jacques Cousteau
  b. Ptolemy
  c. Matthew Maury
  d. Captain James Cook

 

14. Which navigator led an expedition in the early 1500s to be the first to circumnavigate the world?

  a. Ferdinand Magellan
  b. Captain James Cook
  c. Christopher Columbus
  d. Prince Henry the Navigator

 

15. The first scientific expedition to use an echo sounder was the ____.

  a. Challenger expedition
  b. Meteor expedition
  c. United States Exploring expedition
  d. voyage of Trieste

 

16. Which technology, available to modern oceanographers in the last few decades, has revolutionized our ability to study the ocean?

  a. remote sensing via ROVs and satellites
  b. shipboard SONAR
  c. leadline soundings
  d. compass/chronometer

 

17. Edward Forbes was an Edinburgh professor who thought that ____.

  a. life was plentiful in the deep sea
  b. there was an easy route to the orient from Europe
  c. no life existed in the deep sea because of high pressure and lack of light
  d. the Pacific Ocean was much smaller than it truly is

 

18. The word oceanography was first coined in association with ____.

  a. Cooks third voyage
  b. the Challenger expedition
  c. Columbus fourth and final voyage
  d. Captain James Cooks first voyage

 

19. What device bounces sound waves off the ocean bottom to study the depth and contours of the seafloor?

  a. echo sounder
  b. satellite
  c. bathyscaphe
  d. submersible

 

20. Modern oceanography began with the efforts of ____, who trapped his ship in pack ice to explore the Arctic.

  a. Forbes
  b. Wilkes
  c. Thompson
  d. Nansen

 

21. Who was the first European explorer to journey to Hawaii?

  a. Magellan
  b. Forbes
  c. Thompson
  d. Cook

 

22. Which statement is true about Christopher Columbus and his explorations?

  a. Columbus had the primary goal of discovering new lands.
  b. As with many early explorers, Columbus thought Earth was flat.
  c. One of Columbus biggest errors was in estimating Earth to be only about half of its true size.
  d. Columbus was the first explorer to see the mainland of North America.

 

23. Which voyage was the first expedition devoted purely to marine science?

  a. Columbus 1496 trip
  b. the Challenger expedition
  c. Benjamin Franklins first voyage across the Atlantic to take up his post as American Ambassador to France
  d. Captain Cooks voyage to Tahiti in the ship Endeavour

 

24. Which individual was the first to publish a reasonably accurate chart of an ocean current, specifically, the Gulf Stream?

  a. Edward Forbes
  b. John Harrison
  c. Benjamin Franklin
  d. Captain James Cook

 

25. Which individual would be most likely to receive the title of first marine scientist?

  a. Matthew Maury
  b. Captain James Cook
  c. Christopher Columbus
  d. Wyville Thompson (of the Challenger expedition)

 

26. The invention of the compass is attributed to the ____.

  a. Americans
  b. Chinese
  c. Spanish
  d. British

 

27. Which is a recent technology currently used in modern marine science?

  a. The remotely operated vehicle
  b. The chronometer
  c. The pendulum clock
  d. The leadline, or sounding line

 

28. Who was the first person to compile a picture of the large-scale wind and current systems?

  a. Ben Franklin
  b. Matthew Maury
  c. Eratosthenes of Cyrene
  d. Wyville Thomson

 

29. The cousin of which scientist worked out the first rough chart of the Gulf Stream?

  a. Darwin
  b. Forbes
  c. Magellan
  d. Benjamin Franklin

 

30. Glomar Challenger is known mainly for ____.

  a. being the first modern scientific survey ship to circumnavigate the globe
  b. being the first nuclear powered scientific research vessel
  c. being owned and operated simultaneously by four governmental agencies
  d. taking the first complete cores of sea-floor sediments

 

31. Why did the Chinese abandon ocean exploration in 1433?

  a. They were too slow in developing ships that would allow them to stay at sea for long periods of time.
  b. They were distracted by the turmoil of the Dark Ages.
  c. They were not interested in showing the wealth or power of the Ming Dynasty to other peoples of the world.
  d. They were victims of changing political winds, and the cost of the exercise was deemed too great.

 

32. What was one accomplishment of Captain James Cook?

  a. He was the first to circumnavigate the world.
  b. He was the first to land on the coast of Antarctica.
  c. He was the first European to explore the South Pacific.
  d. He mapped the coasts of Australia and New Zealand.

 

33. Which statement is true with regard to latitude and longitude?

  a. Longitudinal lines are drawn parallel to the equator, while latitudinal lines are drawn from pole to pole.
  b. Latitude and longitude comprise a system of imaginary lines dividing Earths surface into a grid.
  c. Greenwich, England was the original location of zero longitude.
  d. Zero latitude is the prime meridian and zero longitude is the equator.

 

34. The hybrid remotely-operated vehicle, Nereus, accomplished what feat in 2009?

  a. It circumnavigated the world.
  b. It reached the bottom of the worlds deepest ocean trench.
  c. It collected the first manganese nodules, sparking an interest in deep sea mining.
  d. It collected the longest complete core of deep sea sediments.

 

35. The Challenger expedition (1872-1876) was a unique and historic voyage. Why?

  a. It is the longest continuous oceanographic expedition on record.
  b. Its scientists developed the first reliable navigational charts to indicate current and wind patterns.
  c. It was the first expedition to use an echo sounder to study the seafloor.
  d. It proved the hypothesis that life could not exist in the deep sea.

 

36. Contributions by early Chinese scientists and philosophers include ____.

  a. developing specialized steering oars held against the right side of their ships
  b. designing ships that used only a single mast
  c. development of the chronometer
  d. designing and developing watertight compartments

 

37. What was the most important outcome of Matthew Maurys work?

  a. The discovery of the Hawaiian Islands
  b. The formulation of a working hypothesis for the formation of coral reefs
  c. The invention of a chronometer for the determination of longitude
  d. The charting of ocean currents to significantly shorten the travel time of sailors

 

38. Which island group was originally colonized by the Polynesians?

  a. The Aleutian Islands
  b. The Bahamas
  c. Indonesia
  d. The Hawaiian Islands

 

39. Which group briefly colonized the mainland of North America 500 years before the arrival of Christopher Columbus?

  a. The British
  b. The Chinese
  c. The Norwegian Vikings
  d. The Polynesians

 

40. What type of information about the ocean are satellites most likely to provide to scientists?

  a. sea surface height
  b. pH of the ocean in different locations
  c. sea floor bathymetry
  d. sea floor sedimentation rate

 

 

 

41. Describe the contributions made by Matthew Maury that improved our understanding of ocean science.

 

42. Modern technologies enable scientists to acquire information about the ocean relatively rapidly. How have satellites changed the way we perceive, navigate, and study the ocean?

 

43. How are clocks used to determine longitude and why does a pendulum clock fail to produce accurate estimates of longitude at sea? Why was the invention of the chronometer so important for explorers?

 

44. How do echo sounders work and what kind of information can they provide about the ocean floor?

 

45. Using specific examples, describe how advances in navigation and voyaging relate to the advent of marine science.

 

Answer Key

1. False

 

2. True

 

3. True

 

4. False

 

5. True

 

6. True

 

7. True

 

8. False

 

9. False

 

10. False

 

11. c

 

12. c

 

13. c

 

14. a

 

15. b

 

16. a

 

17. c

 

18. b

 

19. a

 

20. d

 

21. d

 

22. c

 

23. b

 

24. c

 

25. b

 

26. b

 

27. a

 

28. b

 

29. d

 

30. d

 

31. d

 

32. d

 

33. b

 

34. b

 

35. a

 

36. d

 

37. d

 

38. d

 

39. c

 

40. a

 

41. Matthew Maury was, perhaps, the first person to be engaged in full-time oceanographic
work, and is considered by many to be the father of physical oceanography. A U.S. naval officer, he was interested in exploiting winds and currents for commercial and naval purposes. Working in the Navys Depot of Charts and Instruments, he was able to study ships logs with their many regular readings of temperature and wind direction, and compile this information into coherent wind and current charts. Maury issued these charts to mariners in exchange for logs of their own new voyages, and began to assemble a picture of the worldwide pattern of surface winds and currents. These analyses allowed him to produce a set of directions for sailing great distances more efficiently.

His analyses are still applicable today, as many U.S. charts still carry the inscription, Founded on the researches of M. F. M. while serving as a lieutenant in the U.S. Navy.

 

42. In 1958, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) was organized. Its satellites have contributed greatly to our understanding of the ocean and ocean processes. The first oceanographic satellite, SEASAT, was launched in 1978 sending information about the ocean such as temperature, wave height and variation in sea surface contours. Modern satellites such as the TOPEX/Poseidon, the Jason 3 and the AQUA are capable of sending large amount of scientific date back to Earth very quickly. The type of information that is gathered includes data about the water cycle, evaporation, temperature, phytoplankton, and dissolved organic matter at the surface of the ocean. In terms of navigation, the US Department of Defense has developed a Global Positioning System (GPS) composed of 24 satellites equipped with a computer, atomic clock and a radio transmitter. Any GPS receiver on the ground can calculate its own geographic location. Longitude and latitude are accurate with 1 meter. Overall, the use of satellites for studying the ocean has allowed scientists to see the big picture and watch how it changes over time satellites can collect immense quantities of data, spanning the entire ocean, in a very short period of time. This was virtually impossible when we were limited strictly to shipboard methods. Conquering the spatial and temporal challenges of studying the ocean is one of the biggest accomplishments in oceanography to date.

 

43. Longitude lines are imaginary lines that run from pole to pole dividing the surface of the earth into a grid. You can find longitude using a clock by: (1) determining local noon by observing the path of a shadow of a vertical shaft which is shortest at noon. (2) Set a clock and begin to travel west. At the new location, noon on the clock will no longer correspond with the shortest shadow of the shaft. (3) Determine the time between the clock noon and the shaft noon and calculate how far west (in hours) you have traveled from the starting point. (4) Since we know that the earth rotates east making 1 rotation every 24 hours, the rotation rate is 15 degrees per hour (360 degrees/24 hours= 15 degrees/hour). In summary, the more accurate the clock and the measurement of the shadow of the shaft will increase the accuracy of the longitude reading.

Pendulum clocks are useless on a moving ship because the motion of the sea alters the swing of the pendulum and therefore the time, rendering the clock useless. It was not until the advent of the chronometer that used spring mechanisms instead of a pendulum, that longitude could be determined with any degree of accuracy.

 

44. Echo sounders changed the way scientists study the ocean floor. Echo sounders bounce sound waves off the ocean floor gathering information about depth and contour. Sound waves are emitted from a ship and travel to the ocean floor and then they are reflected back to the ship. The depth is calculated by taking the velocity of the sound waves and multiplying it by the round-trip time divided by 2 (D=V(T/2)). Initially, this technique was very popular in measuring depths but was further applied to defining ocean floor contours and features.

 

45. Early exploration of the ocean was primarily for economic and political reasons.
The Polynesians, Chinese and Europeans quickly discovered that the ocean was a vast expanse that was both wondrous and plentiful. Advances in navigation, such as the compass or the chronometer, allowed explorers to travel around the ocean with much greater efficiency. In the mid to late 1700s Captain James Cook was the first to use the knowledge the voyagers before him had compiled, and applied this information to the study of the ocean. Cook was both an explorer and scientists and within 100 years of his first voyage in 1768, the first fully organized, scientific expedition was launched (Challenger expedition in 1872). Economists, traders, explorers and scientists learned very early on that an understanding of the ocean could better all of their interests. Governments quickly realized there were great profits to be had from the natural resources in the ocean and started investing in oceanographic exploration.

 

Chapter 6

Indicate whether the statement is true or false.

 

1. The salinity of seawater is a measure of the amount of sodium and chloride in a water sample.

  a. True
  b. False

 

2. Heat and temperature both measure random vibrations of an atom or a molecule.

  a. True
  b. False

 

3. Red light is able to penetrate the water deepest.

  a. True
  b. False

 

4. Scientists believe the global change in greenhouse gases is making the surface ocean fresher in high latitudes.

  a. True
  b. False

 

5. The pycnocline can occur at the same range of depths as a halocline.

  a. True
  b. False

 

6. The most precise way to calculate the salinity of seawater is to evaporate a known weight of seawater and weigh the residue.

  a. True
  b. False

 

7. Frozen water is more dense than liquid water.

  a. True
  b. False

 

8. The density of seawater is affected by both temperature and salinity.

  a. True
  b. False

 

9. As carbon dioxide dissolves at the surface of the ocean, it combines chemically to form a weak acid called carbonic acid.

  a. True
  b. False

 

10. The geometry of the covalent bonds shared by the hydrogen atoms and oxygen atom in a water molecule account for its polarity.

  a. True
  b. False

 

Indicate the answer choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

 

11. The term salinity refers to the total quantity of ____.

  a. dissolved inorganic solids in the ocean
  b. sodium chloride dissolved in the ocean
  c. chlorine in one kilogram of water
  d. chloride ions in the water

 

12. Which region of the ocean generally lacks a thermocline?

  a. tropical region
  b. temperate region
  c. sub-tropical region
  d. polar region

 

13. The property of water that accounts for the ability of liquid water to absorb large amounts of heat and change relatively little in temperature is called ____.

  a. high heat capacity
  b. latent heat of evaporation
  c. latent heat of fusion
  d. freezing coefficient

 

14. Which of the following statements about pH is true?

  a. The pH scale measures the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution.
  b. A pH of 3 is alkaline, a pH of 10 is acid.
  c. An acid is a substance that combines with a hydrogen in solution.
  d. On average, the pH of the ocean is moderately acidic.

 

15. Heat can be carried to the polar regions ____.

  a. in ocean currents from the tropics
  b. in the circumpolar ocean current
  c. as water is transported away from the poles
  d. as water is transported towards lower latitudes

 

16. The density of seawater will increase when ____.

  a. the temperature increases
  b. the salinity decreases
  c. the salinity increases
  d. dissolved gases increase

 

17. If our planet were without its ocean, but otherwise the same as it is today, surface temperatures would be ____.

  a. more extreme
  b. less extreme
  c. about the same as we know today
  d. impossible to tell without more information

 

18. The two most abundant elements (ions) dissolved in seawater are ____.

  a. fluorine and iodine
  b. gold and silver
  c. bromine and boron
  d. sodium and chloride

 

19. Oxygen enters seawater ____.

  a. through the respiration of animals
  b. as a byproduct of photosynthesis and diffusion from the atmosphere
  c. as a result of decomposition of plant and animal remains
  d. through the oxidation of metal ions in seawater

 

20. Eighty calories of heat energy must be removed per gram of pure water at 0C to form ice. This represents waters ____.

  a. latent heat of evaporation
  b. latent heat of fusion
  c. sensible heat
  d. temperature

 

21. As carbon dioxide enters the ocean, it ____.

  a. is used by animals for respiration
  b. bonds to water molecules to increase the salinity of the ocean
  c. forms carbonic acid
  d. becomes a product of photosynthesis

 

22. Residence time is the ____.

  a. same for all elements in the ocean
  b. average length of time an element spends in the ocean
  c. length of time it takes an element to dissolve in the ocean
  d. same as mixing time

 

23. The components of ocean water whose quantities are less than 1 part per million (ppm) are considered ____.

  a. excess volatiles
  b. Zwitterions
  c. major constituents
  d. trace elements

 

24. The wavelengths of light that penetrate deepest into the ocean are ____.

  a. red and violet
  b. red and yellow
  c. blue and red
  d. green and blue

 

25. What type of bond enables water molecules to stick together?

  a. covalent bond
  b. molecular bond
  c. hydrogen bond
  d. atomic bond

 

26. What is the approximate mixing time of the world ocean?

  a. about 1,600 years
  b. about 160,000 years
  c. about 160,000,000 years
  d. about 1 million years

 

27. The thin layer of lighted water near the surface of the ocean is called the ____.

  a. SOFAR layer
  b. photic zone
  c. aphotic zone
  d. pycnocline

 

28. The principle of constant proportions states that the ____.

  a. total amount of dissolved solids in the ocean is a constant
  b. salinity of the ocean is a constant
  c. excess volatile ratio of the ocean is a constant
  d. ratio of major salts in samples of seawater from various places is a constant

 

29. The hydrogen atoms in a water molecule tend to bond to ____.

  a. each other
  b. oxygen atoms of another water molecule
  c. hydrogen atoms of another water molecule
  d. all positively charged ions

 

30. Which of the following statements is true regarding the oceans SOFAR layer?

  a. SOFAR is an acronym for sound finding and refraction.
  b. Ssound transmits for only a very short distance within this layer.
  c. Sound velocity is at a minimum within this layer.
  d. Sound velocity is at a maximum within this layer.

 

31. The deepest thermoclines can be found ____.

  a. in temperate zones
  b. in Antarctica
  c. in the tropics
  d. anywhere, depending on water salinity

 

32. At the present time, the salinity of the ocean seems to be ____.

  a. increasing due to evaporation as the Earth warms up
  b. decreasing due to several years of excessive rainfall
  c. increasing due to pollution
  d. in chemical equilibrium, where ions are added to the ocean at the same rate as they are being removed

 

33. The hydrogen bonds of water molecules account for which of the following?

  a. Water can dissolve almost any substance.
  b. Water has a low surface tension.
  c. Water has a low boiling point.
  d. Water has a low heat capacity.

 

34. The average salinity of the world ocean is about ____.

  a. 35%
  b. 21.5%
  c. 3.5%
  d. 52%

 

35. Which of the following statements is true regarding sound in the ocean?

  a. Sound is scattered as it bounces off suspended particles in the water.
  b. Sound intensity increases as it moves through the ocean because of absorption.
  c. The speed of sound in the ocean is ten times less than the speed of sound in air.
  d. The speed of sound in the ocean decreases as temperature increases.

 

36. About what percentage of the incoming sunlight that is intercepted by Earth actually reaches the surface to be converted to heat?

  a. 20%
  b. 35%
  c. 50%
  d. 65%

 

37. A zone in which the oceans salinity changes rapidly with increasing depth is called a ____.

  a. a halocline
  b. a thermocline
  c. a pycnocline
  d. a metacline

 

38. The amount of oxygen that seawater can hold in solution will be greater in ____.

  a. colder water
  b. warmer water
  c. water with a higher salinity
  d. water with less pressure and density

 

39. The bending of light or sound waves is referred to as ____.

  a. reflection
  b. refraction
  c. absorption
  d. transmission

 

40. The ocean is stratified with respect to ____.

  a. pH
  b. temperature
  c. amount of dissolved oxygen
  d. amount of dissolved carbon dioxide

 

 

 

41. Describe how carbon dioxide acts as a buffer in seawater.

 

42. Describe the distribution of oxygen in the ocean from the surface to the deep sea.

 

43. Explain at least three processes that happen to light from the sun as it reaches the surface of the ocean.

 

44. What is meant by the mixing time of the ocean?

 

45. Describe the factors that affect the distance and the rate at which sound travels in the ocean. Would you expect sound to travel faster through warm or cold water? Shallow or deep? Why?

 

Answer Key

1. False

 

2. False

 

3. False

 

4. True

 

5. True

 

6. False

 

7. False

 

8. True

 

9. True

 

10. True

 

11. a

 

12. d

 

13. a

 

14. a

 

15. a

 

16. c

 

17. a

 

18. d

 

19. b

 

20. b

 

21. c

 

22. b

 

23. d

 

24. d

 

25. c

 

26. a

 

27. b

 

28. d

 

29. b

 

30. c

 

31. c

 

32. d

 

33. a

 

34. c

 

35. a

 

36. c

 

37. a

 

38. a

 

39. b

 

40. b

 

41. The proportion of carbon dioxide gas in the ocean is greater than that in the atmosphere, however CO2 still readily dissolves into seawater because it reacts with H2O to change chemical forms. In the ocean, CO2 combines chemically with water to form carbonic acid, (H2 CO3), which can further break down into bicarbonate (HCO3) and carbonate (CO32-). While carbonic acid will lower pH (more acidic), formation of bicarbonate and carbonate increase pH (more alkaline). These chemical changes help to balance pH and hence act as a buffer. This chemical equilibrium is important for marine organisms because the carbonate ions are an important component of calcium carbonate (CaCO3), the compound that forms the skeletal material of many marine organisms (sponges, corals, snails, sea stars etc). An increase in CO2 ultimately reduces the amount of carbonate available to organisms for building their skeleton, another threat to their survival.

 

42. Oxygen is very unevenly distributed in the ocean. At the surface, oxygen readily diffuses into the ocean water from the atmosphere. In addition, photosynthesis activity by phytoplankton and other plants and algae releases oxygen. Therefore, the shallow waters of photic zone are rich in oxygen. Oxygen concentration decreases below the sunlit layer because of the respiration of marine animals and bacteria, and because of the oxygen consumed by the decay
of tiny dead organisms slowly sinking through the area. In the deep sea, oxygen levels increase slightly because deep sea water is carried from the surface by deep water currents that originated in the cold, oxygenated surface water of the poles. Additionally, fewer animals are present in the deep water to take up oxygen reaching these depths.

 

43. Light is a form of electromagnetic radiation (energy). As light from the sun hits the surface of the ocean, many different things happen. First, some of the light is reflected back into the atmosphere. Secondly, light wavelengths are absorbed by the water and the energy is converted to heat. Thirdly, some of the suns energy is absorbed by particles or by photosynthetic organisms living in the photic zone. Light is also scattered in the ocean. Scattering occurs as light is bounced around between water molecules/organisms and particles in the ocean. The result of all this activity is that light is attenuated very quickly in the ocean only reaching a couple hundred meters.

 

44. The ocean, as a vast body of water, is mixed by the constant action of winds and currents, which in turn mixes all of the oceans dissolved constituents. If constituent minerals remain in the ocean water for long periods of time, they will become evenly distributed throughout the ocean. The mixing time of the ocean is about 1,600 years, so all elements with a residence time longer than this (the major constituents) will disperse throughout the ocean. At this rate, the ocean has been mixed hundreds of thousands of times. The result of this long-term thorough mixing is the basis for the principle of constant proportions.

 

45. Sound is a form of energy transmitted by rapid pressure changes in an elastic medium. Like light, sound intensity decreases as it travels through the ocean due to scattering and absorption. However, sound can travel much greater distances through water than light. The speed of sound in seawater is about 1500 meters per second which is 5 times faster than in air. The speed of sound increases as temperature and pressure increases. Therefore, sound travels fast in warm surface waters and decreases with depth due to decreasing temperature. However, below about 1,000 meters, the effect of increasing pressure offsets temperature influences, causing the speed of sound to increase. The zone at which sound travels slowest (~1,000 meters) is called the minimum velocity layer. Sound can travel very far distances in this layer because sound waves generated in this layer are refracted toward layers of lower velocity, causing them to stay within this zone.

 

 

 

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