Essentials of Sociology 11th Edition by Henslin Test bank

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Essentials of Sociology 11th Edition by Henslin Test bank

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WITH ANSWERS
Essentials of Sociology 11th Edition by Henslin

Chapter 2    Culture

2.1    True/False Questions

1) A groups way of thinking, including its beliefs, values, and other assumptions about the world, is classified as material culture.

Answer:   FALSE

Diff: 1            Page Ref: 38

Skill Level: Know the Facts

LO:  2.1 Explain what culture is, how culture provides orientations to life, and what practicing cultural relativism means.

Topic/A-head: What Is Culture?
2) Culture becomes the lens through which we perceive and evaluate what is going on around us.

Answer:   TRUE

Diff: 2            Page Ref: 39

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

LO:  2.1 Explain what culture is, how culture provides orientations to life, and what practicing cultural relativism means.

Topic/A-head: What Is Culture?
3) There is nothing natural about material or nonmaterial culture.

Answer:   TRUE

Diff: 1            Page Ref: 38-39

Skill Level: Know the Facts

LO:  2.1 Explain what culture is, how culture provides orientations to life, and what practicing cultural relativism means.

Topic/A-head: What Is Culture?
4) Ethnocentrism is purely a negative trait with no redeeming qualities.

Answer:   FALSE

Diff: 1            Page Ref: 40

Skill Level: Know the Facts

LO:  2.1 Explain what culture is, how culture provides orientations to life, and what practicing cultural relativism means.

Topic/A-head: What Is Culture?
5) The authors description of the arrival of the Hmong in America illustrates that culture shock is experienced by people all over the world and not just Americans.

Answer:   TRUE

Diff: 3            Page Ref: 40

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

LO:  2.1 Explain what culture is, how culture provides orientations to life, and what practicing cultural relativism means.

Topic/A-head: What Is Culture?
6) Viewing bullfighting from its history, its folklore, its ideas of bravery, and its concepts about sex roles is an example of cultural relativism.

Answer:   TRUE

Diff: 2            Page Ref: 41

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

LO:  2.1 Explain what culture is, how culture provides orientations to life, and what practicing cultural relativism means.

Topic/A-head: What Is Culture?
 

7) Madagascars cultural practice of famadihana, dancing with the dead, is an example of what Robert Edgerton would have considered an inferior cultural practice that does not deserve the application of cultural relativism.

Answer:   FALSE

Diff: 1            Page Ref: 41

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

LO:  2.1 Explain what culture is, how culture provides orientations to life, and what practicing cultural relativism means.

Topic/A-head: What Is Culture?
8) Language allows culture to develop by freeing people to move beyond their immediate experiences.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 1            Page Ref: 47

Skill Level: Know the Facts

LO:  2.2 Know the components of symbolic culture: gestures, language, values, norms, sanctions, folkways, mores, and taboos; also explain the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis.

Topic/A-head: Components of Symbolic Culture
9) According to the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, language is nothing more than common sense expressed in words and gestures.

Answer:   FALSE

Diff: 1            Page Ref: 48-49

Skill Level: Know the Facts

LO:  2.2 Know the components of symbolic culture: gestures, language, values, norms, sanctions, folkways, mores, and taboos; also explain the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis.

Topic/A-head: Components of Symbolic Culture
10) A person receiving a positive sanction would be expected to maintain the behavior that he or she exhibited when receiving the sanction.

Answer:   TRUE

Diff: 3            Page Ref: 49

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

LO:  2.2 Know the components of symbolic culture: gestures, language, values, norms, sanctions, folkways, mores, and taboos; also explain the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis.

Topic/A-head: Components of Symbolic Culture
11) When on moral holiday, norms are expected to be broken.

Answer:   TRUE

Diff: 1            Page Ref: 49-50

Skill Level: Know the Facts

LO:  2.2 Know the components of symbolic culture: gestures, language, values, norms, sanctions, folkways, mores, and taboos; also explain the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis.

Topic/A-head: Components of Symbolic Culture
12) The Ten Commandments, the U.S. Constitution, and the penal code of a major city are all examples of folkways.

Answer:   FALSE

Diff: 2            Page Ref: 51

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

LO:  2.2 Know the components of symbolic culture: gestures, language, values, norms, sanctions, folkways, mores, and taboos; also explain the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis.

Topic/A-head: Components of Symbolic Culture
 

 

 

 

 

 

13) By definition, subcultures are a threat to the mainstream culture.

Answer:   FALSE

Diff: 1            Page Ref: 54

Skill Level: Know the Facts

LO:  2.3 Distinguish between subcultures and countercultures.

Topic/A-head: Many Cultural Worlds
14) When the Mormons first established their settlement in Utah, they would have been classified a counterculture because at the time they believed in the practice of polygyny.

Answer:   TRUE

Diff: 2            Page Ref: 54-55

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

LO:  2.3 Distinguish between subcultures and countercultures.

Topic/A-head: Many Cultural Worlds
15) Because America is made up of many different groups, it is classified as being a pluralistic society.

Answer:   TRUE

Diff: 2            Page Ref: 55

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

LO:  2.4 Discuss the major U.S. values and explain value clusters, value contradictions, value clashes, how values are lenses of perception, and ideal versus real culture.

Topic/A-head: Values in U.S. Society
16) A person who professes a belief in freedom and equality but also demonstrates behavior that is sexist and racist is involved in a value contradiction.

Answer:   TRUE

Diff: 3            Page Ref: 56

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

LO:  2.4 Discuss the major U.S. values and explain value clusters, value contradictions, value clashes, how values are lenses of perception, and ideal versus real culture.

Topic/A-head: Values in U.S. Society
17) Culture wars not only identify differences in values and norms, but they may also result in violence and strife among members of the same society.

Answer:   TRUE

Diff: 3            Page Ref: 57

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

LO:  2.4 Discuss the major U.S. values and explain value clusters, value contradictions, value clashes, how values are lenses of perception, and ideal versus real culture.

Topic/A-head: Values in U.S. Society
18) Sociologists agree that human behavior has been bred into us through evolutionary principles.

Answer:   FALSE

Diff: 1            Page Ref: 59

Skill Level: Know the Facts

LO:  2.5 Take a position on the issue of the existence of cultural universals and contrast sociobiology with sociology.

Topic/A-head: Cultural Universals
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

19) Groups are more prone to changing their material culture before they change their nonmaterial culture.

Answer:   TRUE

Diff: 3            Page Ref: 61

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

LO:  2.6 Explain how technology changes culture and what cultural lag and cultural leveling are.

Topic/A-head: Technology in the Global Village
20) Cultural lag refers to a situation in which elements of nonmaterial culture (such as norms and values) change, but elements of material culture (such as technology) do not.

Answer:   FALSE

Diff: 1            Page Ref: 61

Skill Level: Know the Facts

LO:  2.6 Explain how technology changes culture and what cultural lag and cultural leveling are.

Topic/A-head: Technology in the Global Village
2.2    Multiple Choice Questions

1) The authors experience in Morocco, which included the absence of women from public positions, intense stares directed at him, pushing and shoving at the train station, and total disregard for sanitation by food vendors, left the author with a profound sense of ________.

  1. A) ethnocentrism
  2. B) culture shock
  3. C) cultural relativity
  4. D) stereotyping

Answer:   B

Diff: 3            Page Ref: 38-39

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

LO:  2.1 Explain what culture is, how culture provides orientations to life, and what practicing cultural relativism means.

Topic/A-head: What Is Culture?
2) Language, beliefs, values, norms, behavior, material objects, and technology that are passed from one generation to the next by members of society describe ________.

  1. A) culture
  2. B) tradition
  3. C) science
  4. D) experience

Answer:   A

Diff: 2            Page Ref: 38

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

LO:  2.1 Explain what culture is, how culture provides orientations to life, and what practicing cultural relativism means.

Topic/A-head: What Is Culture?
3) Jewelry, art, hairstyles, and clothing each represent examples of ________.

  1. A) high culture
  2. B) nonmaterial culture
  3. C) material culture
  4. D) low culture

Answer:   C

Diff: 2            Page Ref: 38

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

LO:  2.1 Explain what culture is, how culture provides orientations to life, and what practicing cultural relativism means.

Topic/A-head: What Is Culture?
 

 

 

4)    Anthropologist Ralph Linton said, The last thing a fish would ever notice would be water. What does this imply about culture?

  1. A) Culture is taken for granted by members of society who share it.
  2. B) There is only one acceptable method of doing any particular job.
  3. C) Every culture establishes firm standards by which it functions.
  4. D) Water is symbolic and has nothing to do with the statement.

Answer:   A

Diff: 3            Page Ref: 39

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

LO:  2.1 Explain what culture is, how culture provides orientations to life, and what practicing cultural relativism means.

Topic/A-head: What Is Culture?
5) In 1906, sociologist William Sumner made the comment, Ones own group is the center of everything, and all others are scaled and rated with reference to it. This statement is most aligned with the concept of ________.

  1. A) cultural relativism
  2. B) ethnocentrism
  3. C) the relativist fallacy
  4. D) the cultural universal

Answer:   B

Diff: 3            Page Ref: 40

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

LO:  2.1 Explain what culture is, how culture provides orientations to life, and what practicing cultural relativism means.

Topic/A-head: What Is Culture?
6) When Harry returned from a business meeting in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, his wife asked him what he thought of the Vietnamese people. Harry replied, Theyre primitive people who eat animals from the streets, drive wildly around town on motor scooters, and talk very fast. Harrys reply best qualifies as an example of ________.

  1. A) ethnocentrism
  2. B) cultural diffusion
  3. C) the self-fulfilling prophecy
  4. D) the relativist fallacy

Answer:   A

Diff: 3            Page Ref: 40

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

LO:  2.1 Explain what culture is, how culture provides orientations to life, and what practicing cultural relativism means.

Topic/A-head: What Is Culture?
7) While in the Peace Corps, Kristina enjoyed a delicious Cambodian dinner that included several entrees. Later that evening she was told that one of the entrees was roast dog, the same canine Kristina was playing with the day before. At this point Kristina became ill and swore she would be a vegetarian as long as she was in Cambodia. Which statement most applies to Kristinas experience?

  1. A) Kristina was practicing cultural relativism.
  2. B) Kristina experienced culture shock.
  3. C) Kristina was introduced to new folkways.
  4. D) Kristina experienced a facet of globalization.

Answer:   B

Diff: 3            Page Ref: 39

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

LO:  2.1 Explain what culture is, how culture provides orientations to life, and what practicing cultural relativism means.

Topic/A-head: What Is Culture?
 

 

 

 

 

8)    The refusal of Christians to accept Islam as a valid religion is a form of ________, while the sincere effort to understand the practice of having multiple wives in some societies is a form of ________.

  1. A) public sociology; culture shock
  2. B) value contradiction; value cluster
  3. C) ethnocentrism; cultural relativism
  4. D) culture shock; cultural diffusion

Answer:   C

Diff: 4            Page Ref: 40-41

Skill Level: Analyze It

LO:  2.1 Explain what culture is, how culture provides orientations to life, and what practicing cultural relativism means.

Topic/A-head: What Is Culture?
9) In his book, Sick Societies, anthropologist Robert Edgerton proposed that cultures should be evaluated on their quality of life and not just automatically accepted. This is contrary to which of the following sociological concepts?

  1. A) symbolic culture
  2. B) cultural relativism
  3. C) Sapir-Whorf hypothesis
  4. D) culture shock

Answer:   B

Diff: 4            Page Ref: 41-43

Skill Level: Analyze It

LO:  2.1 Explain what culture is, how culture provides orientations to life, and what practicing cultural relativism means.

Topic/A-head: What Is Culture?
10) All of the following statements are accurate in describing gestures, EXCEPT for which one?

  1. A) Gestures rely on the use of ones body to communicate with others.
  2. B) People in every part of the world use gestures.
  3. C) A gestures meaning may change completely from one culture to another.
  4. D) Social scientists have identified many common gestures and agree that gestures are universal.

Answer:   D

Diff: 6            Page Ref: 45-46

Skill: Analyze It

LO:  2.2 Know the components of symbolic culture: gestures, language, values, norms, sanctions, folkways, mores, and taboos; also explain the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis.

Topic/A-head: Components of Symbolic Culture
11) Symbols can be strung together in an infinite number of ways for the purpose of communicating abstract thought. This is referred to as ________.

  1. A) technology
  2. B) gesture
  3. C) language
  4. D) pattern

Answer:   C

Diff: 1            Page Ref: 46

Skill Level: Know the Facts

LO:  2.2 Know the components of symbolic culture: gestures, language, values, norms, sanctions, folkways, mores, and taboos; also explain the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis.

Topic/A-head: Components of Symbolic Culture
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

12) All of the following statements are accurate regarding language, EXCEPT for which one?

  1. A) Language is the primary method people use to communicate with one another.
  2. B) Language is based on a series of symbols that can be strung together in an infinite number of ways.
  3. C) Language is universal in terms of the meaning of particular sounds.
  4. D) Language allows culture to exist.

Answer:   C

Diff: 6            Page Ref: 46-47

Skill: Analyze It

LO:  2.2 Know the components of symbolic culture: gestures, language, values, norms, sanctions, folkways, mores, and taboos; also explain the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis.

Topic/A-head: Components of Symbolic Culture
13) Without language, human culture would ________.

  1. A) live in the past and have no concept of the future
  2. B) focus more on plans and actions instead of talk
  3. C) be little more advanced than lower primates
  4. D) have to become totally dependent upon memory

Answer:   C

Diff: 6            Page Ref: 47

Skill: Apply What You Know

LO:  2.2 Know the components of symbolic culture: gestures, language, values, norms, sanctions, folkways, mores, and taboos; also explain the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis.

Topic/A-head: Components of Symbolic Culture
14) In America, why is Spanish, rather than English, continuously spoken from generation to generation, with greater commitment than any other non-English speaking language?

  1. A) Spanish is spoken worldwide much more commonly than English.
  2. B) English is one of the most difficult languages to learn.
  3. C) For many Spanish speakers, learning English violates the allegiance to their native countries.
  4. D) There is a constant influx of new Hispanic immigrants into the U.S.

Answer:   D

Diff: 3            Page Ref: 48

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

LO:  2.2 Know the components of symbolic culture: gestures, language, values, norms, sanctions, folkways, mores, and taboos; also explain the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis.

Topic/A-head: Components of Symbolic Culture
15) The two anthropologists who studied the Hopi Indians and concluded that language has embedded within it ways of looking at the world were ________.

  1. A) Edward Sapir and Benjamin Whorf
  2. B) Richard Cloward and Lloyd Ohlin
  3. C) Karl Marx and Frederick Engels
  4. D) Frank Parker and Craig Donovan

Answer:   A

Diff: 1            Page Ref: 48-49

Skill Level: Know the Facts

LO:  2.2 Know the components of symbolic culture: gestures, language, values, norms, sanctions, folkways, mores, and taboos; also explain the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis.

Topic/A-head: Components of Symbolic Culture
16) Harry is in the campus dining hall and has chosen a cheeseburger and fries rather than a veggie burger. Harvey, a fraternity playboy, claims he has only dated the most beautiful women on campus. Horace considers earning an A in a course far superior than a C or even a B. What do Harry, Harvey, and Horace have in common?

  1. A) They are all practicing ethnocentrism in their daily decision making.
  2. B) They are all employing the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis.
  3. C) They are expressing their own values in the choices they make.
  4. D) They are all experiencing culture shock.

Answer:   C

Diff: 4            Page Ref: 49

Skill Level: Analyze It

LO:  2.2 Know the components of symbolic culture: gestures, language, values, norms, sanctions, folkways, mores, and taboos; also explain the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis.

Topic/A-head: Components of Symbolic Culture
17) Sociologists use the concept of norms to describe ________.

  1. A) standards by which people define what is socially desirable
  2. B) expressions of disapproval for violating socially acceptable behavior
  3. C) ideas about what is true or false
  4. D) expectations or rules of behavior that develop from values

Answer:   D

Diff: 1            Page Ref: 49

Skill Level: Know the Facts

LO:  2.2 Know the components of symbolic culture: gestures, language, values, norms, sanctions, folkways, mores, and taboos; also explain the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis.

Topic/A-head: Components of Symbolic Culture
18) Receiving the Medal of Honor and making the Deans List are both examples of ________.

  1. A) value contradictions
  2. B) folkways
  3. C) positive sanctions
  4. D) value clusters

Answer:   C

Diff: 3            Page Ref: 49

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

LO:  2.2 Know the components of symbolic culture: gestures, language, values, norms, sanctions, folkways, mores, and taboos; also explain the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis.

Topic/A-head: Components of Symbolic Culture
19) Anthropologists Edward Sapir and Benjamin Whorf concluded that ________.

  1. A) objects and events force themselves onto our consciousness
  2. B) language creates ways of thinking and perceiving
  3. C) symbols are the basis of human relationships
  4. D) learning a new language creates cultural diversity

Answer:   B

Diff: 1            Page Ref: 49

Skill Level: Know the Facts

LO:  2.2 Know the components of symbolic culture: gestures, language, values, norms, sanctions, folkways, mores, and taboos; also explain the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis.

Topic/A-head: Components of Symbolic Culture
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

20) The notion that language determines our consciousness is the basic premise of which concept?

  1. A) Sapir-Whorf hypothesis
  2. B) neo-Darwinism
  3. C) pluralism
  4. D) symbolic culture

Answer:   A

Diff: 2            Page Ref: 49

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

LO:  2.2 Know the components of symbolic culture: gestures, language, values, norms, sanctions, folkways, mores, and taboos; also explain the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis.

Topic/A-head: Components of Symbolic Culture
21) Clarisse and Cindy are honor students who conduct themselves in a mature manner at the Christian college they attend in Philadelphia. This year for spring break, they decided to go to Cancun, where they auditioned for the Girls Gone Wild video. Which statement best describes the probable reason behind the behavior of Clarisse and Cindy?

  1. A) Clarisse and Cindy unintentionally broke a taboo due to the stress, authoritarianism, and strict regime involved in Christian education.
  2. B) Clarisse and Cindy considered themselves on a moral holiday, which permitted them to let their hair down.
  3. C) Clarisse and Cindy were evil spirited at heart and their true behavior surfaced in Cancun.
  4. D) Clarisse pushed Cindy, or Cindy pushed Clarisse, into violating their Christian norms and deciding to go wild.

Answer:   B

Diff: 3            Page Ref: 49-50

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

LO:  2.2 Know the components of symbolic culture: gestures, language, values, norms, sanctions, folkways, mores, and taboos; also explain the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis.

Topic/A-head: Components of Symbolic Culture
22) If Alice came to class wearing a soiled and torn blouse, she would be violating a ________. But if Alice came to class not wearing a blouse (or any other garment), she would be violating a ________.

  1. A) norm; folkway
  2. B) folkway; more
  3. C) more; law
  4. D) folkway; value

Answer:   B

Diff: 4            Page Ref: 51

Skill Level: Analyze It

LO:  2.2 Know the components of symbolic culture: gestures, language, values, norms, sanctions, folkways, mores, and taboos; also explain the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis.

Topic/A-head: Components of Symbolic Culture
23) Every December, many Jewish families celebrate Chanukah, the festival of lights, during which special foods are served, rituals are practiced, and traditional activities take place that are unique to this faith. In this context, members of the Jewish faith would represent which concept?

  1. A) folkway
  2. B) counterculture
  3. C) subculture
  4. D) moral holiday place

Answer:   C

Diff: 3            Page Ref: 51-54

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

LO:  2.3 Distinguish between subcultures and countercultures.

Topic/A-head: Many Cultural Worlds
 

 

 

 

24) When a group has a distinctive way of looking at life, but at the same time its values and norms reflect the dominant culture of its society, the group would be considered a(n) ________.

  1. A) counterculture
  2. B) example of cultural relativism
  3. C) example of cultural diffusion
  4. D) subculture

Answer:   D

Diff: 1            Page Ref: 54

Skill Level: Know the Facts

LO:  2.3 Distinguish between subcultures and countercultures.

Topic/A-head: Many Cultural Worlds
25) At the Back to Nature Nudist Colony, Ernie and Morello take a walk every morning along the beach, totally nude. Within the colony, which statement best describes the behavior of Ernie and Morello?

  1. A) They are conforming to the folkways of their subculture.
  2. B) They are violating a more of their society.
  3. C) They are challenging a taboo of their counterculture.
  4. D) They are showing a need for cultural relativism.

Answer:   A

Diff: 6            Page Ref: 49

Skill: Apply What You Know

LO:  2.2 Know the components of symbolic culture: gestures, language, values, norms, sanctions, folkways, mores, and taboos; also explain the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis.

Topic/A-head: Components of Symbolic Culture
26) Courtney raises champion sheep, Joe is a cab driver in New York, and Rufus is a member of the RAW family of professional wrestling. What do Courtney, Joe, and Rufus have in common?

  1. A) They are all members of countercultures.
  2. B) They are all engaged in ethnocentrism.
  3. C) They are all practicing cultural relativism.
  4. D) They are all members of subcultures.

Answer:   D

Diff: 2            Page Ref: 51-54

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

LO:  2.3 Distinguish between subcultures and countercultures.

Topic/A-head: Many Cultural Worlds
27) All of the following statements are examples of countercultures, EXCEPT for which one?

  1. A) bikers in an outlaw motorcycle club
  2. B) Chicago Cubs fans
  3. C) individuals advocating the legalization of prostitution
  4. D) gang members operating in the San Quentin prison

Answer:   B

Diff: 6            Page Ref: 54

Skill: Apply What You Know

LO:  2.3 Distinguish between subcultures and countercultures.

Topic/A-head: Many Cultural Worlds
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

28) From a sociological perspective, which statement best classifies 19th century Mormons and 21st century physicians?

  1. A) Both would be classified as subcultures.
  2. B) Both would be classified as countercultures.
  3. C) The Mormons would be classified a counterculture and the physicians as a subculture.
  4. D) The Mormons would be classified a subculture and the physicians as a counterculture.

Answer:   C

Diff: 6            Page Ref: 54-55

Skill: Apply What You Know

LO:  2.3 Distinguish between subcultures and countercultures.

Topic/A-head: Many Cultural Worlds
29) People from all walks of life, races, religions, and ethnic groups participate in the U.S. legislative process. In view of this, which term best describes American society?

  1. A) America is a polytheistic society.
  2. B) America is a society of subcultures and countercultures.
  3. C) America is a pluralistic society.
  4. D) America is based on the principles of oligarchy.

Answer:   C

Diff: 3            Page Ref: 55

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

LO:  2.4 Discuss the major U.S. values and explain value clusters, value contradictions, value clashes, how values are lenses of perception, and ideal versus real culture.

Topic/A-head: Values in U.S. Society
30) Good nutrition, medical care, comfortable housing, and a nice car are included in a classification of values in American society that sociologist Robin Williams would call ________.

  1. A) achievement and success
  2. B) progress
  3. C) material comfort
  4. D) efficiency and practicality

Answer:   C

Diff: 3            Page Ref: 55

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

LO:  2.4 Discuss the major U.S. values and explain value clusters, value contradictions, value clashes, how values are lenses of perception, and ideal versus real culture.

Topic/A-head: Values in U.S. Society
31) Most American high schools routinely schedule ceremonies to recognize the most talented student athletes and scholars. Such activities illustrate the importance that Americans place on which value, as defined by sociologist Robin Williams?

  1. A) efficiency and practicality
  2. B) achievement and success
  3. C) group superiority
  4. D) freedom

Answer:   B

Diff: 2            Page Ref: 55

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

LO:  2.4 Discuss the major U.S. values and explain value clusters, value contradictions, value clashes, how values are lenses of perception, and ideal versus real culture.

Topic/A-head: Values in U.S. Society
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

32) The sociologist who identified ten underlying core values of American society was ________.

  1. A) Michael Burawoy
  2. B) Edward Wilson
  3. C) Robin Williams
  4. D) John Jacob Natzke

Answer:   C

Diff: 1            Page Ref: 55

Skill Level: Know the Facts

LO:  2.4 Discuss the major U.S. values and explain value clusters, value contradictions, value clashes, how values are lenses of perception, and ideal versus real culture.

Topic/A-head: Values in U.S. Society
33) Which of Williams U.S. values is contradicts the other values of freedom, democracy, and equality?

  1. A) science and technology
  2. B) material comfort
  3. C) group superiority
  4. D) religiosity

Answer:   C

Diff: 2            Page Ref: 55

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

LO:  2.4 Discuss the major U.S. values and explain value clusters, value contradictions, value clashes, how values are lenses of perception, and ideal versus real culture.

Topic/A-head: Values in U.S. Society
34) The author added three values to the original list of ten core values that Robin Williams identified as the most common in American society. Which of the following is NOT one of the three values added?

  1. A) education
  2. B) religiosity
  3. C) equality
  4. D) romantic love

Answer:   C

Diff: 1            Page Ref: 55-56

Skill Level: Know the Facts

LO:  2.4 Discuss the major U.S. values and explain value clusters, value contradictions, value clashes, how values are lenses of perception, and ideal versus real culture.

Topic/A-head: Values in U.S. Society
35) Americans usually recognize hard work, education, and efficiency as desired qualities. Where one of these qualities is found, the other two also apply. This is an example of ________.

  1. A) emergent values
  2. B) a value cluster
  3. C) cultural leveling
  4. D) a normative cluster

Answer:   B

Diff: 3            Page Ref: 56

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

LO:  2.4 Discuss the major U.S. values and explain value clusters, value contradictions, value clashes, how values are lenses of perception, and ideal versus real culture.

Topic/A-head: Values in U.S. Society
 

 

 

 

 

36) Lamont believes in democracy and equality, and when asked to describe himself he cites his appreciation for people of all races and ethnic heritages. But at the same time, Lamont believes women should not be in the armed services and he avoids taking courses from female professors. In view of this, which statement best describes Lamont?

  1. A) Lamont holds a value cluster of achievement and success, equality, and freedom.
  2. B) Lamont is suffering from value strain.
  3. C) Lamont is a victim of role conflict due to his multiple statuses.
  4. D) Lamont is engaged in value contradiction.

Answer:   D

Diff: 3            Page Ref: 56

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

LO:  2.4 Discuss the major U.S. values and explain value clusters, value contradictions, value clashes, how values are lenses of perception, and ideal versus real culture.

Topic/A-head: Values in U.S. Society
37) Several years ago, the gay community applied for a permit to march in the St. Patrick Days Parade in Boston. When denied, the gay community filed suit and won. Rather than permitting the gay community to march in the parade, the parade trustees cancelled the event. Sociologists would suggest this conflict in values between the trustees of the parade and the gay community would eventually lead to ________.

  1. A) consensus that gays are evil because they caused a traditional event to be cancelled
  2. B) social change that brings attention to gay rights and eventual acceptance
  3. C) social integration of the gay and straight communities resulting in a bisexual society
  4. D) armed conflict, or cultural war, between the gay and straight communities

Answer:   B

Diff: 3            Page Ref: 56

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

LO:  2.4 Discuss the major U.S. values and explain value clusters, value contradictions, value clashes, how values are lenses of perception, and ideal versus real culture.

Topic/A-head: Values in U.S. Society
38) Sociologists have identified an emerging set of five interrelated values in American society. What are these emerging values?

  1. A) self-destiny, spirituality, environmental concern, technological awareness, and physical fitness
  2. B) leisure, self-fulfillment, physical fitness, youthfulness, and environmental concern
  3. C) freedom, equality, romantic love, youthfulness, and physical fitness
  4. D) romantic love, individualism, mental health, self-fulfillment, and equality

Answer:   B

Diff: 1            Page Ref: 56-57

Skill Level: Know the Facts

LO:  2.4 Discuss the major U.S. values and explain value clusters, value contradictions, value clashes, how values are lenses of perception, and ideal versus real culture.

Topic/A-head: Values in U.S. Society
39) Of the five interrelated core values emerging in American society, the one that is reflected in the human potential movement that focuses on self help, relating, and personal development is ________.

  1. A) leisure
  2. B) romantic love
  3. C) physical fitness
  4. D) self-fulfillment

Answer:   D

Diff: 1            Page Ref: 56-57

Skill Level: Know the Facts

LO:  2.4 Discuss the major U.S. values and explain value clusters, value contradictions, value clashes, how values are lenses of perception, and ideal versus real culture.

Topic/A-head: Values in U.S. Society
40) Many fundamentalist Christians lobby for laws making same-sex marriage illegal. Gays and lesbians consider same-sex relationships and same-sex marriage as basic human rights. Which concept best describes the relationship between these fundamentalist Christians and the gay/lesbian community?

  1. A) culture shock on both sides
  2. B) differences in norms and folkways
  3. C) different symbols and languages
  4. D) culture war due to conflicting values

Answer:   D

Diff: 3            Page Ref: 57

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

LO:  2.4 Discuss the major U.S. values and explain value clusters, value contradictions, value clashes, how values are lenses of perception, and ideal versus real culture.

Topic/A-head: Values in U.S. Society
41) Americans glorify academic progress and material success. However, most students do not graduate with honors and most citizens are not wealthy. This condition characterizes the difference between ________ and ________.

  1. A) material culture; symbolic culture
  2. B) ideal culture; real culture
  3. C) real culture; symbolic culture
  4. D) unrealistic culture; realistic culture

Answer:   B

Diff: 6            Page Ref: 58

Skill: Apply What You Know

LO:  2.4 Discuss the major U.S. values and explain value clusters, value contradictions, value clashes, how values are lenses of perception, and ideal versus real culture.

Topic/A-head: Values in U.S. Society
42) The anthropologist who gathered data on hundreds of groups around the world to compare their customs, and then concluded that specific customs differed from one group to another, was ________.

  1. A) Benjamin Whorf
  2. B) Edward Wilson
  3. C) Edward Sapir
  4. D) George Murdock

Answer:   D

Diff: 1            Page Ref: 58-59

Skill Level: Know the Facts

LO:  2.5 Take a position on the issue of the existence of cultural universals and contrast sociobiology with sociology.

Topic/A-head: Cultural Universals
43) The concept of natural selection, which proposed that genes of a species are not distributed evenly among the offspring, thus enabling certain members of the species to survive while others die out, was developed by ________.

  1. A) Charles Darwin
  2. B) Herbert Spencer
  3. C) William Ogburn
  4. D) Edmund Wilson

Answer:   A

Diff: 1            Page Ref: 59-60

Skill Level: Know the Facts

LO:  2.5 Take a position on the issue of the existence of cultural universals and contrast sociobiology with sociology.

Topic/A-head: Cultural Universals
 

 

 

 

 

 

44) Pigs, spiders, elephants, and other animals that rely solely on instinct act as they do because they lack a ________.

  1. A) cerebral cortex
  2. B) brain
  3. C) central nervous system
  4. D) moral compass

Answer:   A

Diff: 1            Page Ref: 59-60

Skill Level: Know the Facts

LO:  2.5 Take a position on the issue of the existence of cultural universals and contrast sociobiology with sociology.

Topic/A-head: Cultural Universals
45) Three of the following terms are interchangeable. Which one does NOT belong with the other three?

  1. A) sociobiology
  2. B) neo-Darwinism
  3. C) social learning
  4. D) evolutionary psychology

Answer:   C

Diff: 4            Page Ref: 59

Skill Level: Analyze It

LO:  2.5 Take a position on the issue of the existence of cultural universals and contrast sociobiology with sociology.

Topic/A-head: Cultural Universals
46) Sociologists are now developing what they call _________, which emphasizes the influence of genes on human behavior.

  1. A) technological sociology
  2. B) scientific sociology
  3. C) gene sociology
  4. D) genetics-informed sociology

Answer:   D

Diff: 1            Page Ref: 60

Skill Level: Know the Facts

LO:  2.5 Take a position on the issue of the existence of cultural universals and contrast sociobiology with sociology.

Topic/A-head: Cultural Universals
47) The automobile, and the skills needed to drive it, would be an example of ________.

  1. A) nonmaterial culture
  2. B) technology
  3. C) cultural leveling
  4. D) cultural adaptation

Answer:   B

Diff: 2            Page Ref: 60

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

LO:  2.6 Explain how technology changes culture and what cultural lag and cultural leveling are.

Topic/A-head: Technology in the Global Village
48) The emerging tools and the skills needed to use them, which have a significant impact on social life, are called ________.

  1. A) nonmaterial culture
  2. B) cultural lag
  3. C) sociocultural evolution
  4. D) new technology

Answer:   D

Diff: 1            Page Ref: 60

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

LO:  2.6 Explain how technology changes culture and what cultural lag and cultural leveling are.

Topic/A-head: Technology in the Global Village
49) The term cultural lag, referring to the varying ________ among elements within cultures, was coined by sociologist ________.

  1. A) countercultures; Talcott Parsons
  2. B) subcultures; Douglas Massey
  3. C) rates of change; William Ogburn
  4. D) types of symbols; Edmund Wilson

Answer:   C

Diff: 1            Page Ref: 61

Skill Level: Know the Facts

LO:  2.6 Explain how technology changes culture and what cultural lag and cultural leveling are.

Topic/A-head: Technology in the Global Village
50) Today we can type our symptoms into a computer search engine and often find out why we are sick, what condition we may have, and how we might treat it. But we still go to see a doctor. This is an example of ________.

  1. A) cultural lag
  2. B) cultural leveling
  3. C) ideal culture versus real culture
  4. D) cultural norms versus cultural folkways

Answer:   A

Diff: 1            Page Ref: 61

Skill Level: Know the Facts

LO:  2.6 Explain how technology changes culture and what cultural lag and cultural leveling are.

Topic/A-head: Technology in the Global Village
51) The spread of cultural characteristics from one group to another refers to ________.

  1. A) folkways
  2. B) cultural diffusion
  3. C) values
  4. D) cultural universals

Answer:   B

Diff: 1            Page Ref: 61-62

Skill Level: Know the Facts

LO:  2.6 Explain how technology changes culture and what cultural lag and cultural leveling are.

Topic/A-head: Technology in the Global Village
52) Within a few blocks in midtown Manhattan, you can purchase a bagel with cream cheese, a hot dog, a steak, a polish sausage, or a pizza, as well as chow mein, lamb curry, sushi, lasagna, falafels, chicken couscous, enchiladas, and a host of ethnic specialties. This range of culinary possibilities illustrates the process of ________.

  1. A) cultural absolutism
  2. B) cultural discovery
  3. C) cultural diffusion
  4. D) cultural innovation

Answer:   C

Diff: 3            Page Ref: 61-62

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

LO:  2.6 Explain how technology changes culture and what cultural lag and cultural leveling are.

Topic/A-head: Technology in the Global Village
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

53) In recent years, cultures have become more similar to each other as a result of travel and communication. Sociologists use the term ________ to describe this process.

  1. A) cultural bridging
  2. B) cultural adaptation
  3. C) cultural dissolution
  4. D) cultural leveling

Answer:   D

Diff: 2            Page Ref: 61-63

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

LO:  2.6 Explain how technology changes culture and what cultural lag and cultural leveling are.

Topic/A-head: Technology in the Global Village
54) Although computers are supplied by the university, many professors never quite learn how to use them. Others feel they might break them so they avoid trying anything new. Others save data to their hard drive but also make a paper copy to keep. Such behavior is an example of ________.

  1. A) cultural lag
  2. B) cultural leveling
  3. C) positive sanction
  4. D) negative sanction

Answer:   A

Diff: 3            Page Ref: 61

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

LO:  2.6 Explain how technology changes culture and what cultural lag and cultural leveling are.

Topic/A-head: Technology in the Global Village
55) McDonalds sells Quarter Pounders in Tokyo, Moscow, Paris, Berlin, and practically every other major city in the world. Mickey Mouse and Fred Flintstone are among the most popular cartoon figures in Mexico. These are examples of ________.

  1. A) cultural leveling
  2. B) cultural folkways
  3. C) cultural universals
  4. D) value clusters

Answer:   A

Diff: 3            Page Ref: 62-63

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

LO:  2.6 Explain how technology changes culture and what cultural lag and cultural leveling are.

Topic/A-head: Technology in the Global Village
 

 

 

2.3    Short Answer Questions

1) What is the difference between material and nonmaterial culture?

Answer:   Material culture refers to concrete objects and things that people in a society use. Nonmaterial culture refers to abstract thoughts and ideas that guide the people in a society, including values, beliefs, attitudes, assumptions.

Diff: 4            Page Ref: 38-39

Skill Level: Analyze It

LO:  2.1 Explain what culture is, how culture provides orientations to life, and what practicing cultural relativism means.

Topic/A-head: What Is Culture?
2) Understanding a culture in its own terms, and from the perspective of those who practice that culture, is referred to as ________.

Answer:   cultural relativism

Diff: 1            Page Ref: 41

Skill Level: Know the Facts

LO:  2.1 Explain what culture is, how culture provides orientations to life, and what practicing cultural relativism means.

Topic/A-head: What Is Culture?
 

3) Why did anthropologist Robert Edgerton challenge unconditional cultural relativism?

Answer:   He felt that each culture and its practices should be evaluated based upon quality of life, and not just blindly accepted based upon cultural relativism.

Diff: 6            Page Ref: 42-45

Skill: Know the Facts

LO:  2.1 Explain what culture is, how culture provides orientations to life, and what practicing cultural relativism means.

Topic/A-head: What Is Culture?
4) Why is nonmaterial culture also called symbolic culture?

Answer:   A symbol can be anything that conveys meaning and is used by people to communicate. It is the central component of nonmaterial culture.

Diff: 1            Page Ref: 45

Skill Level: Know the Facts

LO:  2.2 Know the components of symbolic culture: gestures, language, values, norms, sanctions, folkways, mores, and taboos; also explain the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis.

Topic/A-head: Components of Symbolic Culture
5) Why can gestures lead to misunderstanding and embarrassment?

Answer:   They are not universally understood, so a particular gesture may be classified as benign in one culture but offensive in another.

Diff: 2            Page Ref: 45-46

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

LO:  2.2 Know the components of symbolic culture: gestures, language, values, norms, sanctions, folkways, mores, and taboos; also explain the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis.

Topic/A-head: Components of Symbolic Culture
6) What is language?

Answer:   a set of symbols that can be combined in an infinite number of ways to communicate abstract thought

Diff: 1            Page Ref: 46

Skill Level: Know the Facts

LO:  2.2 Know the components of symbolic culture: gestures, language, values, norms, sanctions, folkways, mores, and taboos; also explain the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis.

Topic/A-head: Components of Symbolic Culture
7) What is the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis?

Answer:   the belief that a societys language influences the way its members look at the world and define reality

Diff: 1            Page Ref: 48-49

Skill Level: Know the Facts

LO:  2.2 Know the components of symbolic culture: gestures, language, values, norms, sanctions, folkways, mores, and taboos; also explain the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis.

Topic/A-head: Components of Symbolic Culture
 

 

 

 

8)    What is a moral holiday?

Answer:   a period of time, at a specified place, when people are allowed and even encouraged to break norms

Diff: 1            Page Ref: 49-50

Skill Level: Know the Facts

LO:  2.2 Know the components of symbolic culture: gestures, language, values, norms, sanctions, folkways, mores, and taboos; also explain the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis.

Topic/A-head: Components of Symbolic Culture
9) As opposed to a subculture, a counterculture ________.

Answer:   holds values and norms that place it at odds with the dominant culture

Diff: 4            Page Ref: 51-54

Skill Level: Analyze It

LO:  2.3 Distinguish between subcultures and countercultures.

Topic/A-head: Many Cultural Worlds
10) The U.S. is made up of many different groups. This classifies it as a __________.

Answer:   pluralistic society

Diff: 1            Page Ref: 55

Skill Level: Know the Facts

LO:  2.4 Discuss the major U.S. values and explain value clusters, value contradictions, value clashes, how values are lenses of perception, and ideal versus real culture.

Topic/A-head: Values in U.S. Society
11) A set of values that are usually linked together to describe a larger whole, such as hard work, education, and efficiency, are classified as being a ________.

Answer:   value cluster

Diff: 1            Page Ref: 56

Skill Level: Know the Facts

LO:  2.4 Discuss the major U.S. values and explain value clusters, value contradictions, value clashes, how values are lenses of perception, and ideal versus real culture.

Topic/A-head: Values in U.S. Society
12) What are the five interrelated core values now emerging in the United States?

Answer:   (1) leisure;
(2) self-fulfillment;
(3) physical fitness;
(4) youthfulness;
(5) concern for the environment

Diff: 1            Page Ref: 56-57

Skill Level: Know the Facts

LO:  2.4 Discuss the major U.S. values and explain value clusters, value contradictions, value clashes, how values are lenses of perception, and ideal versus real culture.

Topic/A-head: Values in U.S. Society
13) What is a culture war?

Answer:   a situation in which changes in core values are met with strong resistance by the people who embrace them

Diff: 3            Page Ref: 57

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

LO:  2.4 Discuss the major U.S. values and explain value clusters, value contradictions, value clashes, how values are lenses of perception, and ideal versus real culture.

Topic/A-head: Values in U.S. Society
 

 

 

14) What is the difference between real and ideal culture?

Answer:   Ideal culture refers to the values, norms, and goals that members of a group publicly acclaim and pursue.  Real culture refers to the actual values, norms, and goals that members of a group accept and demonstrate in their daily lives.

Diff: 6            Page Ref: 58

Skill: Apply What You Know

LO:  2.4 Discuss the major U.S. values and explain value clusters, value contradictions, value clashes, how values are lenses of perception, and ideal versus real culture.

Topic/A-head: Values in U.S. Society
15) Values, norms, and other cultural traits found in all societies are called ________.

Answer:   cultural universals

Diff: 1            Page Ref: 58

Skill Level: Know the Facts

LO:  2.5 Take a position on the issue of the existence of cultural universals and contrast sociobiology with sociology.

Topic/A-head: Cultural Universals
16) What is natural selection?

Answer:   Certain genetic characteristics of a species are passed onto some members, making it easier for them to survive their environment, and increasing the likelihood that these genetic traits will continue to be passed on to subsequent generations.

Diff: 1            Page Ref: 59

Skill Level: Know the Facts

LO:  2.5 Take a position on the issue of the existence of cultural universals and contrast sociobiology with sociology.

Topic/A-head: Cultural Universals
17) What are two other names for sociobiology?

Answer:   neo-Darwinism and evolutionary psychology

Diff: 1            Page Ref: 59

Skill Level: Know the Facts

LO:  2.5 Take a position on the issue of the existence of cultural universals and contrast sociobiology with sociology.

Topic/A-head: Cultural Universals
18) What is technology?

Answer:   a groups material culture, particularly its tools and the necessary skills to use them

Diff: 1            Page Ref: 60

Skill Level: Know the Facts

LO:  2.6 Explain how technology changes culture and what cultural lag and cultural leveling are.

Topic/A-head: Technology in the Global Village
19) The main difference between traditional technology and what is classified as new technology is ________.

Answer:   the degree of impact that each has on social life

Diff: 4            Page Ref: 60-61

Skill Level: Analyze It

LO:  2.6 Explain how technology changes culture and what cultural lag and cultural leveling are.

Topic/A-head: Technology in the Global Village
20) What is cultural lag?

Answer:   human behavior lagging behind technological innovations

Diff: 3            Page Ref: 61

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

LO:  2.6 Explain how technology changes culture and what cultural lag and cultural leveling are.

Topic/A-head: Technology in the Global Village
2.4    Essay Questions

1) Why is culture often taken for granted and considered as being natural for members of the society in which it is practiced?

Answer:   Culture is the lens through which we perceive and evaluate what is going on around us. Although there is nothing natural about culture, it is assumed to be so because the material and nonmaterial aspects of a respective culture are all that we have usually experienced since birth. As Linton said, The last thing a fish would ever notice would be the water. We have a tendency to use our own standards and ways of doing things as the yardstick by which all other aspects of society are judged.

Diff: 4            Page Ref: 38-41

Skill Level: Analyze It

LO:  2.1 Explain what culture is, how culture provides orientations to life, and what practicing cultural relativism means.

Topic/A-head: What Is Culture?
 

2) What is ethnocentrism? Discuss how ethnocentrism can have both positive and negative consequences for group life. Provide examples to illustrate your discussion of the positive and negative consequences of ethnocentrism.

Answer:   Ethnocentrism is the tendency to use our own groups ways of doing things as the yardstick for judging others. Positive effects include the tendency to build group loyalty, social solidarity, and patriotism, and to deal with threatening situations effectively. Negative consequences are based primarily on the tendency to allow ethnocentrism to overshadow our relationships with others who are different, creating prejudice and discrimination. A positive impact of ethnocentrism was Americas ability to improve in math and science during the Cold War. A negative example would be the mass murder of Muslims by the Serbs in Bosnia.

Diff: 5            Page Ref: 40-41

Skill: Analyze It

LO:  2.1 Explain what culture is, how culture provides orientations to life, and what practicing cultural relativism means.

Topic/A-head: What Is Culture?
3) What is cultural relativism? Why do some people find it difficult to practice cultural relativism?

Answer:   Cultural relativism is the attempt to understand an unfamiliar culture on its own terms. Cultural relativism is difficult to practice because ones own culture appears to be both natural and right, since it was acquired as a child and practiced throughout life. When one encounters a new and different culture, the practices, tools, values, and behavior may be radically different, resulting in confusion and disorientation. This further adds to the inability to accept or objectively evaluate a different culture.

Diff: 3            Page Ref: 41-45

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

LO:  2.1 Explain what culture is, how culture provides orientations to life, and what practicing cultural relativism means.

Topic/A-head: What Is Culture?
4) Why did Robert Edgerton advance the notion that cultures should be evaluated on their qua

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