Essentials of Sociology 4th Edition Giddens Carr Test bank

Essentials of Sociology  4th Edition Giddens Carr  Test bank
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CHAPTER 4: Social Interaction and Everyday Life in the Age of the Internet

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. The sociologist who developed the field of microsociology and emphasized the importance of understanding the seemingly trivial was:
a.
Erving Goffman
b.
Max Weber
c.
mile Durkheim
d.
Karl Marx
e.
Elijah Anderson

ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: Pages 1089 TOP: Microsociology (I.A)
MSC: Factual

2. According to Erving Goffman, reality is not fixed or static but created through:
a.
mass media
b.
human ideas
c.
human interactions
d.
human mistakes
e.
events

ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: Pages 1089 TOP: Microsociology (I.A)
MSC: Factual

3. Almost __________ of all adult Americans use some kind of social networking site.
a.
75 percent
b.
25 percent
c.
90 percent
d.
50 percent
e.
none of the above

ANS: D DIF: Moderate REF: Pages 1089 TOP: Social Interaction (I.B)
MSC: Factual

4. The study of social interaction shows:
a.
how behavior is shaped and guided by social forces, such as roles and norms
b.
how individuals shape their social reality, including social forces such as roles and norms
c.
how individual behavior is neither fixed nor unstructured
d.
all of the above
e.
none of the above

ANS: D DIF: Moderate REF: Pages 1089 TOP: Social Interaction (I.B)
MSC: Factual

5. According to Erving Goffman, one of the reasons it is important to study subtle day-to-day interactions is because:
a.
it helps with national security
b.
it makes us informed voters
c.
we can learn a great deal about ourselves as human beings
d.
it can inform us about political and military strategy
e.
we can learn how to make more money

ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: Pages 1089 TOP: Social Interaction (I.B)
MSC: Conceptual

6. Two people are standing together in an elevator, but they do not speak to each other or look each other in the eye. Erving Goffman called this type of interaction:
a.
sociological interaction
b.
social attention
c.
civil inattention
d.
uncivil behavior
e.
social recognition

ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: Pages 1089 TOP: Civil Inattention (I.C)
MSC: Applied

7. Civil inattention is defined as:
a.
acknowledging the presence of others but avoiding interaction
b.
totally ignoring the presence of others
c.
acting rude and inappropriate
d.
pretending you do not know someone that you have met before
e.
not paying attention in class but not being disruptive

ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: Pages 1089 TOP: Civil Inattention (I.C)
MSC: Applied

8. Which of the following would NOT be classified as civil inattention?
a.
riding the bus to class and reading a book
b.
waiting in line at the ATM and talking on the phone
c.
selecting a seat in a large lecture hall where you do not know your fellow students
d.
working on a group project but contributing very little and letting others do the work
e.
walking across campus listening to your iPod

ANS: D DIF: Moderate REF: Pages 1089 TOP: Civil Inattention (I.C)
MSC: Applied

9. Gestures and body postures that are an important part of nonverbal communication are:
a.
universal and the same in all cultures
b.
not universal and the same in all cultures
c.
unique to each person
d.
embedded in our DNA
e.
disappearing with the Internet

ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: Pages 10912
TOP: Nonverbal Communication (II) MSC: Applied

10. Infants have facial expressions similar to those of:
a.
adults
b.
primates
c.
children under three years old
d.
older people over eighty
e.
all baby mammals

ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: Pages 10912
TOP: Nonverbal Communication (II) MSC: Factual

11. The research by Paul Ekman and W. V. Friesan show that the modes of human emotional expression:
a.
vary across cultures
b.
change as we grow older
c.
are the same among all human beings
d.
are very similar to other mammals
e.
have changed significantly in the last 50 years

ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: Pages 10912
TOP: Nonverbal Communication (II) MSC: Factual

12. With email it is difficult to capture dimensions of emotional expressions that are only present in facial expressions and with body language. For example, Jane sent her boss an email suggesting that she begin a performance review to see if she was ready for a raise. Her boss replied angrily in an email that Jane was out of line and that she would give her a performance review at the same time as other employees. Face-to-face communication may have helped Jane avoid upsetting her boss by:
a.
allowing her to pressure her boss by looking her straight in the eye
b.
allowing her to make her boss feel guilty by saying no to her face
c.
allowing Jane to claim gender discrimination without putting it in writing
d.
allowing her to subtly try out the idea of a performance review and evaluate her bosss body language before suggesting she was ready for a raise
e.
none of the above; face-to-face communication would not have made a difference

ANS: D DIF: Difficult REF: Pages 10912
TOP: Nonverbal Communication (II) MSC: Conceptual

13. According to Charles Darwin, basic human emotional expressions:
a.
are exactly the same as the basic emotional expressions of primates
b.
are the same in all human beings
c.
vary widely, depending on the culture one is in
d.
are learned and vary among cultures
e.
should not be studied since they do not affect evolution

ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: Pages 10912
TOP: Nonverbal Communication (II) MSC: Factual

14. The exchange of information about human emotion through facial expressions, gestures, and movements of the body is called:
a.
nonverbal communication
b.
harassment
c.
the compulsion of proximity
d.
civil inattention
e.
emoticon

ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: Pages 10912
TOP: Nonverbal Communication (II) MSC: Factual

15. People use impression management to:
a.
trick others into believing they have more status than they do
b.
compel others to react to them in ways they wish
c.
be good actors
d.
make sure their body language matches their intentions
e.
none of the above; people are not conscious of impression management

ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: Page 112
TOP: Impression Management (III) MSC: Factual

16. When a CEO wears a suit and tie to a board meeting and later in the day changes into jeans and a T-shirt to attend a football event with friends, he is engaging in:
a.
social costuming
b.
impression management
c.
social positioning
d.
false impressions
e.
role management

ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: Page 112
TOP: Impression Management (III) MSC: Applied

17. Wearing a new dress on a first date is an example of:
a.
sexuality
b.
social status
c.
impression management
d.
social interaction
e.
conformity

ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: Page 112
TOP: Impression Management (III) MSC: Applied

18. According to Erving Goffman, social interaction is like:
a.
playing basketball in a gym
b.
playing baseball in a stadium
c.
swimming in a pool
d.
performing a play in a theater
e.
drinking coffee in a coffeehouse

ANS: D DIF: Easy REF: Page 112
TOP: Impression Management (III) MSC: Factual

19. Marias friend posted an unflattering picture of her from a Halloween party on Facebook. Maria was embarrassed and quickly took it down since she is friends with many coworkers on Facebook. This is an example of:
a.
impression management
b.
social role management
c.
inappropriate behavior
d.
insecurity
e.
image management

ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: Page 112
TOP: Impression Management (III) MSC: Applied

20. Individuals occupy:
a.
only one social role at a time
b.
many social roles at a time
c.
one social role at home and one social role at work or school
d.
only one social role their whole life
e.
one social role when they are children and one social role when they are adults

ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: Pages 11213
TOP: Social Roles (III.A) MSC: Factual

21. You may be a sibling, a spouse, a student, an employee, and a parent. These are called:
a.
social roles
b.
stereotypes
c.
occupations
d.
social positions
e.
impressions

ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: Pages 11213
TOP: Social Roles (III.A) MSC: Applied

22. Another term for social status is:
a.
social impression
b.
social role
c.
social marker
d.
social class
e.
social position

ANS: E DIF: Easy REF: Pages 11213
TOP: Social Roles (III.A) MSC: Factual

23. Socially defined expectations of a person in a given social position are referred to as:
a.
status positions
b.
social roles
c.
markers of inequality
d.
prejudices
e.
stereotypes

ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: Pages 11213
TOP: Social Roles (III.A) MSC: Factual

24. Arrive to class on time, raise your hand before speaking, turn in assignments on timethese expectations are part of the __________ of students.
a.
status marker
b.
social role
c.
stereotype
d.
identity
e.
category

ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: Pages 11213
TOP: Social Roles (III.A) MSC: Applied

25. The social honor or prestige accorded to a group of people by society is called:
a.
status
b.
social role
c.
privilege
d.
expectation
e.
social award

ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: Pages 11213
TOP: Status (III.B) MSC: Factual

26. As a medical doctor, Enrique has the privilege of being called Dr. Chavez. This is because our society gives high __________ to medical doctors.
a.
occupation position
b.
wages
c.
status
d.
expectations
e.
social award

ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: Pages 11213
TOP: Status (III.B) MSC: Applied

27. Social positions can be both general and specific. Which of the following is an example of a general social position in American society?
a.
politician
b.
doctor
c.
gender
d.
father
e.
student

ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: Pages 11213
TOP: Social Position (III.C) MSC: Applied

28. Social positions can be both general and specific. Which of the following is an example of a specific social position in American society?
a.
race
b.
doctor
c.
gender
d.
sexual orientation
e.
ethnicity

ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: Pages 11213
TOP: Social Position (III.C) MSC: Applied

29. The social positions that a person occupies determines that persons:
a.
social roles
b.
ideas
c.
gender
d.
racial identity
e.
status markers

ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: Pages 11213
TOP: Social Position (III.C) MSC: Factual

30. Unfocused interaction is when people:
a.
ignore each other completely in a small space
b.
exhibit mutual awareness but do not engage in face-to-face interaction
c.
demonstrate how they perceive others through body language
d.
communicate over email or text message
e.
are engaged in conversation but are not really paying attention to each other

ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: Page 113
TOP: Unfocused Interaction (IV.A) MSC: Factual

31. Trevor takes the subway to and from work. He usually wears his headphones and listens to his music on the subway. He is careful not to bump shoulders with the passengers next to him when he is standing on the crowded train. Trevor engages in __________ on the subway.
a.
social positioning
b.
focused interaction
c.
impression management
d.
unfocused interaction
e.
nonverbal talk

ANS: D DIF: Moderate REF: Page 113
TOP: Unfocused Interaction (IV.A) MSC: Factual

32. When Jane arrived at the party, her friend Alyssa came over immediately to say hello. According to Erving Goffman, this is an example of:
a.
friendship
b.
focused interaction
c.
unfocused interaction
d.
insecurity
e.
impression management

ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: Page 114 TOP: Focused Interaction (IV.B)
MSC: Applied

33. Which of the following would NOT be a case in which both focused and unfocused interaction are likely to occur?
a.
an individual watching TV alone
b.
the parking lot before a football game
c.
a lunchtime crowd in a university cafeteria
d.
the first day of a university class
e.
an airplane trip

ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: Page 114 TOP: Focused Interaction (IV.B)
MSC: Applied

34. Encounters always need __________, which indicate(s) that civil inattention is being discarded and focused interaction will begin.
a.
impression management
b.
discussion
c.
openings
d.
flirtations
e.
response cries

ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: Page 114 TOP: Encounter (IV.C)
MSC: Factual

35. Encounters are face-to-face interactions with one or more other people. In modern societies, most of the encounters we have are with:
a.
our best friends
b.
people we do not like
c.
coworkers
d.
our family members
e.
strangers

ANS: E DIF: Moderate REF: Page 114 TOP: Encounter (IV.C)
MSC: Factual

36. People engage in __________ to reconcile their role in one part of life with their role in another part of their social world.
a.
gender segregation
b.
audience segregation
c.
social management
d.
deception
e.
role swapping

ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: Pages 11617
TOP: Audience Segregation (V) MSC: Factual

37. An example of audience segregation is:
a.
being openly gay at home but being straight at work for fear of discrimination
b.
inviting both spouses families over for a holiday even though they are uncomfortable around each other
c.
keeping two of your friends who do not like each other apart at a party
d.
making sure that your white and black friends never meet each other
e.
taking a friend to a concert to introduce her to music she has never heard before

ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: Pages 11617
TOP: Audience Segregation (V) MSC: Applied

38. While grocery shopping, you run into your sociology professor. This creates an awkward interaction since you are not used to seeing her outside of class and you are not sure how to behave. The interaction is awkward because it violated your:
a.
audience segregation
b.
status position
c.
sense of self
d.
stress-free space
e.
unfocused interaction

ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: Pages 11617
TOP: Audience Segregation (V) MSC: Applied

39. In order to understand a conversation, we need to understand __________, which is why electronic communication such as email or text messaging can lead to miscommunication.
a.
the social context
b.
the language
c.
what the participants look like
d.
the emoticons
e.
the names of the participants

ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: Page 118 TOP: Shared Understandings (VI)
MSC: Factual

40. Ethnomethodology is the study of:
a.
how people sustain meaningful interactions with each other
b.
how people learn language
c.
the methods sociologists use
d.
extraordinary social events that occur over space and time
e.
different culture

ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: Page 118 TOP: Ethnomethodology (VII)
MSC: Factual

41. Ethnomethodology is the study of __________, which every person uses in day-to-day life to make sense of what others do.
a.
the nonintrusive recognition of others
b.
interviews
c.
ethnic clothing
d.
social management
e.
ethnomethods

ANS: E DIF: Easy REF: Page 118 TOP: Ethnomethodology (VII)
MSC: Factual

42. Harold Garfinkel founded the field of __________, the study of micro interaction.
a.
language studies
b.
ethnomethodology
c.
symbolic studies
d.
communications
e.
micro studies

ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: Page 118 TOP: Ethnomethodology (VII)
MSC: Factual

43. According to Harold Garfinkel, people use __________ to structure and organize everyday conversation.
a.
formal grammar
b.
background expectancies
c.
deceptive tactics
d.
facial expressions
e.
political motives

ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: Page 118 TOP: Ethnomethodology (VII)
MSC: Factual

44. The technique used to examine the organized principles of talk is called:
a.
survey analysis
b.
language studies
c.
conversation analysis
d.
talk analysis
e.
semiotics

ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: Page 119
TOP: Conversation Analysis (VIII.A) MSC: Factual

45. A street vendor tries to sell products to people by walking next to them and putting the products in peoples line of vision. As he does so, people ignore him and avert their eyes. This is an example of:
a.
rudeness
b.
ethnomethodology
c.
civil inattention
d.
social avoidance
e.
interactional vandalism

ANS: E DIF: Moderate REF: Page 119
TOP: Interactional Vandalism (VIII.B) MSC: Applied

46. Interactional vandalism is defined as:
a.
a subordinate person breaking the tacit rules of interaction
b.
a high-status person refusing to interact
c.
two people having a miscommunication
d.
social avoidance
e.
leaving an emotional scar on someone

ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: Page 119
TOP: Interactional Vandalism (VIII.B) MSC: Applied

47. Interactional vandalism, such as when men on the street call out to and follow women, is likely to have the affect of:
a.
challenging status positions
b.
encouraging violence
c.
supporting status positions
d.
breaking down audience segregation
e.
starting fistfights

ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: Page 119
TOP: Interactional Vandalism (VIII.B) MSC: Conceptual

48. During a dinner at a fancy restaurant, a young woman knocks over a glass of water as she reaches for the salt. As the water soaks the tablecloth she exclaims, Oops, sorry! This is an example of a:
a.
response cry
b.
reflex cry
c.
status marker
d.
social cover up
e.
simple reflex

ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: Page 120 TOP: Response Cries (VIII.C)
MSC: Applied

49. Response cries, according to Erving Goffman, are an example of what he calls:
a.
human overreaction
b.
universal responses
c.
getting others to feel sorry for ones failures
d.
controlled alertness
e.
rapid communication

ANS: D DIF: Moderate REF: Page 120 TOP: Response Cries (VIII.C)
MSC: Factual

50. Acceptable personal space is determined by which of the following?
a.
what is normal in our culture
b.
the degree of familiarity you have with the person
c.
whether the relationship with the person is a formal or informal one
d.
the goal of the social interaction
e.
all of the above

ANS: E DIF: Moderate REF: Page 121 TOP: Personal Space (VIII.D)
MSC: Factual

51. Edward T. Hall identifies how many zones for personal space?
a.
one
b.
two
c.
three
d.
four
e.
infinite, since we define acceptable personal space based on each person we encounter

ANS: D DIF: Easy REF: Page 121 TOP: Personal Space (VIII.D)
MSC: Factual

52. According to Edward T. Hall, which zone of personal space is most acceptable during an encounter with your spouse or romantic partner?
a.
touching distance
b.
public distance
c.
social distance
d.
personal distance
e.
intimate distance

ANS: E DIF: Moderate REF: Page 121 TOP: Personal Space (VIII.D)
MSC: Applied

53. Throughout our day we alternate our activities and where they take place according to what sociologists call:
a.
time-space
b.
space continuum
c.
time-mood
d.
social expectations
e.
time expectations

ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: Page 123 TOP: Time-Space (IX.A)
MSC: Factual

54. Our actions throughout the day are generally organized according to both the time of day and:
a.
information
b.
other people
c.
mood
d.
space
e.
social status

ANS: D DIF: Moderate REF: Page 123 TOP: Time-Space (IX.A)
MSC: Factual

55. The scenario in which a young woman sleeps from midnight to 5 a.m. in her apartment bedroom, eats breakfast in her kitchen from 6 to 6:30 a.m., works in her law office from 8:30 a.m. to 5 p.m., has dinner with her friends from 5:30 to 7:30 p.m., and then returns to her apartment to watch TV illustrates the sociological concept of:
a.
work-time
b.
regionalization
c.
time maximization
d.
spatial-social movement
e.
constructionism

ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: Page 123 TOP: Regionalization (IX.B)
MSC: Applied

56. Regionalization is the idea that social life is separated into regional settings or zones. These social zones are separated physically, such as a kitchen and a bedroom, but also by:
a.
time
b.
income
c.
modern architectural design
d.
interior design principles
e.
constructionism

ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: Page 123 TOP: Regionalization (IX.B)
MSC: Applied

57. In modern societies large-scale social institutions are organized by __________, which allows for the precise timing of activities.
a.
clock-time
b.
managers
c.
time maximization
d.
time-rules
e.
the Internet

ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: Page 124 TOP: Clock-Time (IX.C)
MSC: Factual

58. The measuring of time by clocks is standard around the world today. World standard time was first introduced in:
a.
the 1900s
b.
the early 2000s
c.
the 1600s
d.
the 1800s
e.
none of the above; there is no standard world time

ANS: D DIF: Moderate REF: Page 124 TOP: Clock-Time (IX.C)
MSC: Factual

59. Sociologists Deirdre Boden and Harvey Molotch argue that even with the growth of electronic communication such as text messaging and email, people have a strong need to interact in each others presence. They call this concept:
a.
focused interaction
b.
compulsion of proximity
c.
impression management
d.
social status
e.
social interaction

ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: Page 127
TOP: Compulsion of Proximity (IX.D) MSC: Applied

60. Which of the following is an example of the compulsion of proximity?
a.
John and Irma went to high school together and reconnected on Facebook.
b.
Maria and Thomas met online and communicated using email, text messages, and the phone on a regular basis, but they did not feel a real connection until they met in person for the first time over coffee.
c.
Trevor and Alyssa broke up, and now they dislike having to see each other in their sociology class.
d.
Travis and Alma do not know each other, but the bus they are on is very crowded, which forces them to rub shoulders
e.
None of the above is correct.

ANS: B DIF: Difficult REF: Page 127
TOP: Compulsion of Proximity (IX.D) MSC: Applied

61. The verbal harassment of a single woman by a group of men as she walks past a construction site can be examined as a social interaction but must also be understood as part of a larger system of:
a.
gendered behavior
b.
gender inequality
c.
politeness norms
d.
social control
e.
shared understandings

ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: Pages 12728
TOP: Men and Women in Public (X.A) MSC: Conceptual

62. The sociologist Carol Brooks Gardner linked the harassment of women by men to the larger system of male privilege in public spaces, womens physical vulnerability, and the omnipresent threat of rape. Her analysis of these interactions shows the importance of linking __________ and __________ to understand social interaction.
a.
microsociology; discrimination
b.
harassment; violence
c.
norms; actions
d.
microsociology; macrosociology
e.
macrosociology; privilege

ANS: D DIF: Moderate REF: Pages 12728
TOP: Men and Women in Public (X.A) MSC: Conceptual

63. In Elijah Andersons book Streetwise: Race, Class, and Change in an Urban Community (1990), he noted that studying everyday life sheds light on how social order is created by the individual building blocks of:
a.
macro-level institutions
b.
prejudice and racism
c.
impression management
d.
micro-level interactions
e.
none of the above

ANS: D DIF: Moderate REF: Pages 12829
TOP: Blacks and Whites in Public (X.B) MSC: Factual

64. According to Elijah Andersons research, interactional tensions derive from outside social statuses such as:
a.
race
b.
gender
c.
class
d.
all of the above
e.
none of the above

ANS: D DIF: Easy REF: Pages 12829
TOP: Blacks and Whites in Public (X.B) MSC: Factual

ESSAY

1. What is civil inattention? Using the example of a crowded public bus, explain how individuals on the bus might engage in civil inattention.

ANS:
To answer this question, students must define civil inattention as behavior in which an individual indicates recognition of the other persons presence but avoids any gesture that might be taken as too intrusive. Students must then describe a situation on a bus in which individuals are placed in close proximity to one another and acknowledge the presence of others but do not engage with the people on the bus. Students can pick any number of scenarios.

DIF: Moderate REF: Pages 1089 TOP: Civil Inattention (I.C)
MSC: Applied

2. According to sociologists, in what ways do individuals communicate their emotions to each other? Explain how technology altered some of the ways in which individuals communicate their emotions?

ANS:
To answer this question, students must define nonverbal communication as communication through facial expression and body language. This requires face-to-face contact. Technologies such as email and text messaging have altered the ability to communicate nonverbally by taking away the face-to-face interaction that makes nonverbal communication possible. Students can discuss the ways in which individuals try to communicate body language such as emoticons.

DIF: Difficult REF: Pages 10912
TOP: Nonverbal Communication (II) MSC: Conceptual

3. What is impression management? Give an example of how a college student engages in impression management when interacting with professors.

ANS:
To answer this question, the student must define impression management as how we present compliance with our social role to compel others to react the way we want them to. A college student will be expected to perform the role of student in relation to the role of professor. In this sense, students will manage their behavior to show that they respect the status position of their professor with behavior such as arriving to class on time, sitting quietly while the professor lectures, raising their hands to ask questions, and/or calling the professor Professor or Doctor.

DIF: Moderate REF: Page 112 TOP: Impression Management (III)
MSC: Applied

4. According to sociologists, all of us have multiple social roles. What are your social roles, and how are they related to your social position?

ANS:
To answer this question, students must define a social role as the socially expected behavior for a person in a specific social position, which is the social identity of an individual in a given social group. Students should indicate that they understand that social positions can be specific, such as an occupational position, or general, such as a gender or race. The students can pick any number of social roles that they occupy as examples. One possible answer could be a young woman who is an engineering major, daughter, friend, president of the student board, and a girlfriend. This student can discuss the ways in which her social role as an engineering student shapes her behavior in relation to her professor. However, her role as a woman causes her to interact differently with her male and female professors.

DIF: Moderate REF: Pages 11213 TOP: Social Roles (III.A)
MSC: Applied

5. As of July 2011, Facebook had 750 million active users. Explain how electronic technology such as Facebook affects audience segregation. Be sure to define audience segregation.

ANS:
To answer this question, the student must define audience segregation as the ways in which we endeavor to keep our social roles both distinct and separate from each other since we occupy many social roles, which are sometimes not consistent with each other. Electronic technology such as Facebook may make it difficult for individuals to keep their audiences separate from each other. For example, if an individual is friends with her parents, coworkers, and friends on Facebook, she may not be able to keep her social role as friend separate from her social role of daughter. An example could be a situation in which a friend tags an individual in a picture at a rowdy party with beer and alcohol. The next day, the persons mother may call about the picture she saw on Facebook of the person consuming alcohol. Or the next day the individuals coworkers may ask if the person is too hung over to do a good job at work today.

DIF: Moderate REF: Pages 11213 TOP: Social Roles (III.A)
MSC: Applied

6. Using the example of fans watching a football game at your college stadium, explain how individuals would be engaged in both unfocused and focused interaction with others. Discuss the appropriate terms used by Erving Goffman and other sociologists to analyze such situations.

ANS:
To answer this question, students must define focused attention as interaction in which individuals are engaged in direct interaction with each other and unfocused attention as interaction in which individuals are aware of each other but not engaged in direct communication. Several examples can be used at a football game but should include the football players, referees, fans, cheerleaders, coaches, etc. One example could be that the football players are aware of the fans but are not directly interacting with them, but the players are in direct interaction with the other players through eye contact, conversation, and physical contact.

DIF: Moderate REF: Pages 11314
TOP: Unfocused Interaction (IV.A) | Focused Interaction (IV.B)
MSC: Applied

7. What is interactional vandalism? Give an example. Why does interactional vandalism create problems in everyday interaction and conversation?

ANS:
To answer this question, students must define interactional vandalism as the subversion of the tacit rules of conversation. Students can pick any number of scenarios to use as an example. The example must demonstrate the power differences among participants and how one participant violates shared understandings for behavior and interaction in the situation. Students should conclude with a discussion of how interactional vandalism makes participants disoriented and unable to make sense of the situation.

DIF: Moderate REF: Page 119 TOP: Interactional Vandalism (VIII.B)
MSC: Conceptual

8. Using the concept of regionalization, explain how time and space shaped your social activities and interactions in the last 24 hours.

ANS:
To answer this question, the student must define regionalization as the division of social life into different regional settings or zones. The student will be expected to use examples from the last 24 hours of life that illustrate how both space and time shape how we interact, who we interact with, and where we interact. The student should employ concepts such as: clock-time, social roles, status positions, audience segregation, and/or impression management in the answer.

DIF: Moderate REF: Page 123 TOP: Regionalization (IX.B)
MSC: Conceptual

9. What is the compulsion of proximity? Explain how the increase in electronic communication affects the compulsion of proximity. Use examples.

ANS:
To answer this question, the student must define compulsion of proximity as the need to interact in the presence of others. Using examples of email, Internet sites such as Facebook, text messaging, and/or the telephone, the student will explain the increase in the use of these forms of communication as well as the fact that they have not erased our desire to interact with each other face to face.

DIF: Moderate REF: Page 127 TOP: Compulsion of Proximity (IX.D)
MSC: Applied

10. Use an example from your own experience to explain how our day-to-day social interactions are shaped by gender and racial hierarchies and in turn reinforce those same hierarchies.

ANS:
To answer this question, the student must demonstrate an understanding of the linkages between micro-level social interactions and the larger macro-level social structures that are shaped by and shape those social interactions. A possible example could be one in which the student discusses a time in which she had to walk home late at night from a study session. As she walked across campus, she avoided a group of young men she saw across the quad by walking in a different direction and thereby adding 5 minutes to her trip to her dorm. This example illustrates the way in which male privilege, gender inequality, and the fear of sexual violence that women face in our society shape their interactions with others and also reinforce gender inequality.

DIF: Difficult REF: Pages 12728
TOP: Men and Women in Public (X.A) | Blacks and Whites in Public (X.B)
MSC: Conceptual

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