Essentials of Sociology 5th Edition By Giddens Richard P. Appelbaum-Test Bank

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Essentials of Sociology 5th Edition By Giddens Richard P. Appelbaum-Test Bank

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WITH ANSWERS
Essentials of Sociology 5th Edition By Giddens Richard P. Appelbaum-Test Bank

CHAPTER 2: Culture and Society

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. According to the text, the sociological study of culture began with which theorist?
a. Margaret Mead
b. Karl Marx
c. mile Durkheim
d. Max Weber
e. Adam Smith

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Page 42          TOP:   What is Culture? (I)

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Johann is from the United Kingdom. In his cross-cultural studies, he sees that women in Afghanistan are often forced to wear headscarves, but women in the United Kingdom are not. He concludes, then, that women in Afghanistan would be more free if their culture were more like that of the United Kingdom. How might sociologists likely critique Johanns position?
a. Johann has not yet made an argument for how the United Kingdom might free the women of Afghanistan.
b. Johann first needs to look at class relations in the two countries, because gender is always an effect of class.
c. Johann cannot make meaningful comparisons without at least four more sample countries.
d. Johann would be better served as a social scientist if he avoided those kinds of value judgments.
e. Johann needs to demonstrate how Islam leads to womens oppression, unlike Christianity, by doing a comparison of religious contexts.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Page 42          TOP:   What Is Culture? (I)

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. Bella will be moving to the United States to study characteristics of contemporary white American culture. Why might sociologists say Bella must be careful in her study?
a. Culture is a fuzzy concept and, thus, unworthy of study.
b. Only Americans should study American culture.
c. There is no single, monolithic white American culture.
d. Anthropologists are typically the ones who study culture.
e. Bella must be careful to collect quantitative as well as qualitative data.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Page 44          TOP:   Defining Culture (I.A)

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. __________ refer(s) to abstract ideals in a given society.
a. Norms
b. Material goods
c. Values
d. Sociobiology
e. Instinct

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 43          TOP:   Values (I.A.i)

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. James wants to investigate why many modern societies tend to strongly encourage monogamous relationships among their members. James will be studying:
a. values
b. norms
c. material goods
d. instinct
e. reproductive labor

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 43          TOP:   Values (I.A.i)

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. __________ are widely agreed-upon principles or rules people are expected to observe; they represent the dos and donts of social life.
a. Norms
b. Material goods
c. Values
d. Primal drives
e. Instincts

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 43          TOP:   Norms (I.A.ii)

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Candace is doing a comparative study in her thesis work to compare different societies expectations of how husbands should treat their in-laws. Candace will be analyzing:
a. values
b. norms
c. material goods
d. instinct
e. reproductive labor

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Page 43          TOP:   Norms (I.A.ii)

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Pablo studies clothing choices in subcultural groups. He is investigating:
a. values
b. norms
c. material culture
d. instinct
e. reproductive labor

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 43          TOP:   Material Goods (I.A.iii)

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. ________ refer(s) to the physical objects that individuals in society create. These objects, in turn, influence how we live.
a. Norms
b. Material goods
c. Values
d. Sociobiology
e. Instinct

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 43          TOP:   Material Goods (I.A.iii)

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Carolina studies mainstream American culture. One of her colleagues notices that she consistently ignores material objects such as food, clothing, and art. Why might her studies be criticized?
a. These objects are a crucial part of culture that influences how we live our lives.
b. Studying American culture is useless since it has spread all over the globe.
c. Culture is a secondary effect of social structures, so Carolina would do better to begin her studies with capitalism and the state.
d. Carolina should be studying American subcultures since mainstream culture is a given.
e. Of the three things Carolina ignores, only art matters in the context of studying culture.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Page 43          TOP:   Material Goods (I.A.iii)

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. Mihir notes in his work on altruism that there are some behaviors that seem innate to humans rather than learned and uses that to criticize the idea that humans are naturally selfish. Mihir is taking note of:
a. values
b. norms
c. material goods
d. instinct
e. reproductive labor

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 44          TOP:   Instinct (I.A.iv)

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. We might think of culture as a design for living or tool kit of practices, knowledge, and symbols acquired through learning rather than through:
a. norms
b. material goods
c. values
d. sociobiology
e. instinct

 

 

ANS:  E                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 44          TOP:   Instinct (I.A.iv)

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. The textbook defines a(n) __________ as a system of interrelationships that connects individuals together.
a. commodity
b. workplace
c. ecosystem
d. family
e. society

 

 

ANS:  E                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Page 45          TOP:   Society (I.B.i)

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Alice stole a bit of money from her friend Rosa to buy groceries. Rosa finds out and angrily chastises Alice for her behavior. What does this exchange demonstrate?
a. labeling theory
b. socialism
c. reinforcement of norms
d. a deviant career
e. mutual exchange

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Page 46          TOP:   Society (I.B.i)

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Kendrick studies which human behaviors might be innate and which might be learned through social processes. His studies contribute most to which sociological debate?
a. monogamy vs. polygamy
b. economics vs. culture
c. structures of accumulation vs. institutional roles
d. nature vs. nurture
e. macro vs. micro

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Page 47          TOP:   Nature or Nurture (II.B)

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. __________ refers to the application of biological principles to explain the social activities of animals, including human beings.
a. Biological determinism
b. Sociobiology
c. Social constructionism
d. Marxism
e. Symbolic interaction

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 48          TOP:   Sociobiology (II.B.i)

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Mario is researching how genetic factors influence human behaviors. His research would best be described as:
a. social constructionism
b. sociobiology
c. conflict theory
d. structural functionalism
e. institutional ethnography

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 48          TOP:   Sociobiology (II.B.i)

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Simone de Beauvoir once famously asserted that one is not born a woman, but becomes one to suggest that women are created by cultural forces. How might sociobiologists respond to this?
a. De Beauvoir is correct; the essence of women can be found within all cultures.
b. De Beauvoir misses that what constitutes a woman is biological as well as cultural.
c. De Beauvoir fails to show how the category of woman is purely an effect of economics.
d. De Beauvoir is correct because our biology determines our culture.
e. De Beauvoir does not account for the role of industrialization in creating the category of woman.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Page 48          TOP:   Sociobiology (II.B.i)

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. Mandy is studying differences in promiscuity between men and women and is critiquing the notion that men are genetically wired to want more sexual partners than women based on anthropological research that shows a wide variety of sexual practices in different human societies, both contemporarily and historically. She is studying what sociobiologists have called:
a. reproductive strategies
b. human nature
c. human antinomies
d. social contract theory
e. the sexual contract

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 48          TOP:   Sociobiology (II.B.i)

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. __________ does not refer only to people from different cultural backgrounds or those who speak different languages within a larger society. It can also refer to any segment of the population that is distinguishable from the rest of society by its cultural patterns.
a. Subculture
b. Race
c. Ethnicity
d. Polity
e. Aesthetic

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 50          TOP:   Subcultures (II.D.i)

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Yang is researching how many groups that live in Spain seem to have their own sets of norms and values that are at times different from mainstream Spanish norms and values. Which sociological concept best describes what he is studying?
a. political economy
b. ritual ascendance
c. postmodernism
d. essentialism
e. subcultures

 

 

ANS:  E                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Page 49          TOP:   Subcultures (II.D.i)

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Why might sociologists criticize a study of American culture?
a. Americans do not produce their own culture; they only copy others.
b. Culture originated with the high art associated with Western Europe, not the United States.
c. There is no single American culture but rather a contested terrain of mainstream culture and hundreds, if not thousands, of subcultures.
d. Americans are notoriously uncultured people.
e. American culture is the province of anthropology, not sociology.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Page 49          TOP:   Subcultures (II.D.i)

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. __________is the process by which different cultures are absorbed into a single mainstream culture.
a. Multiculturalism
b. Ethnocentrism
c. Apoliticism
d. Assimilation
e. Cultural relativism

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 50          TOP:   Assimilation (II.D.i.a)

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Maria wants to look at how immigrant communities in the United States come to acquire the dominant culture into which they have moved. She is studying the process of:
a. primitive accumulation
b. assimilation
c. cultural resistance
d. nationalism
e. multiculturalism

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 50          TOP:   Assimilation (II.D.i.a)

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Danny looks at U.S. culture differently than Maria. In turn, he studies how many different immigrant communities in the United States maintain more or less separate cultures but might still manage to participate equally in economic and political life. He is studying:
a. primitive accumulation
b. assimilation
c. cultural resistance
d. nationalism
e. multiculturalism

 

 

ANS:  E                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 50          TOP:   Multiculturalism (II.D.i.b)

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Adherents to __________ acknowledge not only that certain central cultural values are shared by most people in a society, but also that certain important differences deserve to be preserved.
a. multiculturalism
b. ethnocentrism
c. apoliticism
d. assimilation
e. cultural relativism

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 50          TOP:   Multiculturalism (II.D.i.b)

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. __________ might be defined as judging other cultures in terms of the standards of ones own.
a. Multiculturalism
b. Ethnocentrism
c. Apoliticism
d. Assimilation
e. Cultural relativism

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 51          TOP:   Ethnocentrism (II.D.ii.a)

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Shannon notes that women in some cultures voluntarily alter their bodies with sometimes painful piercings that look weird from the point of view of her culture. She takes from this that women in those cultures must be horribly oppressed compared to women in her own culture. Shannons position might be best interpreted as:
a. social psychological
b. ethnocentrism
c. cultural relativism
d. historical materialism
e. bureaucratic collectivism

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 51          TOP:   Ethnocentrism (II.D.ii.a)

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Why do sociologists try to avoid judging other cultures based on their own cultural values?
a. because no culture could ever possibly be better than any other in any regard
b. because sociologists do not make value judgments
c. because first we must examine the institutions that give rise to these cultures
d. because human cultures vary so widely that people belonging to one culture frequently find it difficult to understand the ideas or behavior of those from a different culture
e. because human cultures cannot be reasonably compared, as each of them springs from the natural human condition

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Page 51          TOP:   Ethnocentrism (II.D.ii.a)

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. The practice of judging a society by its own standards is called:
a. multiculturalism
b. ethnocentrism
c. apoliticism
d. assimilation
e. cultural relativism

 

 

ANS:  E                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 51

TOP:   Cultural Relativism (II.D.ii.b)         MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Sapphire studies differences between nations that are largely Islamic and those that are largely Christian. She takes great care in her research to examine the differences she finds neutrally and without value judgments. Sapphires position might be called:
a. social psychological
b. ethnocentrism
c. cultural relativism
d. historical materialism
e. bureaucratic collectivism

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 51

TOP:   Cultural Relativism (II.D.ii.b)         MSC:  Applied

 

  1. According to the text, two cultural universals particularly stand out in human societies. They are __________ and __________ .
a. ways of expressing meaning; material goods
b. material goods; money
c. market relations; ways of expressing meaning
d. market relations; money
e. ways of expressing meaning; capital accumulation

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Pages 5354   TOP:   Cultural Universals (II.E)

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Juanita is studying why some behaviors and social relations seem to be a part of every human society. She is researching:
a. language
b. morality
c. marriage
d. material culture
e. cultural universals

 

 

ANS:  E                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 52          TOP:   Cultural Universals (II.E)

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Michelle claims that all human cultures are different and cannot be compared. How might sociologists critique her claim?
a. They would not. All cultures are different and cannot be meaningfully compared.
b. Sociologists would respond that we cannot talk about human culture because it is not separate from our natural environment.
c. They would criticize it on the grounds that it focuses on something as nebulous as human culture instead of our institutions.
d. They would critique it for ignoring the central role of the economy in shaping this thing that Michelle calls human culture.
e. Sociologists would point out that there are cultural universals that seem to be shared by all human cultures.

 

 

ANS:  E                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Page 52          TOP:   Cultural Universals (II.E)

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. __________ is one of the best examples for demonstrating both the unity and the diversity of human culture, because there are no cultures without it.
a. Dental care
b. Medicalization
c. Psychiatry
d. Monogamy
e. Language

 

 

ANS:  E                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 54          TOP:   Language (II.E.i)

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. The book asserts that each of the following is a function of language EXCEPT:
a. Language gives permanence to a culture.
b. Language gives identity to a people.
c. Language is never used by some groups to dominate others in a collective.
d. Language is a representation of reality.
e. Language can be a source of cultural pride.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Page 57          TOP:   Language (II.E.i)

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Karl notes that in all human societies, people use symbols to communicate ideas to one another. Karl is taking note of:
a. language
b. morality
c. marriage
d. political economy
e. ethnographic methods

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 52          TOP:   Language (II.E.i)

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. The __________ argues that the language we use influences our perceptions of the world.
a. theorem of symbolic order
b. hypothesis of communication
c. linguistic relativity hypothesis
d. structuration theory
e. hypothesis of symbolic codes

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 54

TOP:   Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis (II.E.i.a)                        MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Alan notes that some groups who have many different words for snow tend to perceive snow differently than groups who use English. Alan is noting __________ at work.
a. natural selection
b. the material representation of culture
c. structural determination
d. resource mobilization
e. the linguistic relativity hypothesis

 

 

ANS:  E                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Page 54

TOP:   Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis (II.E.i.a)                        MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Ana is studying the ways different societies socially sanction and formally approve of certain sexual relationships. She is researching:
a. language
b. morality
c. marriage
d. material culture
e. cultural universals

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 52          TOP:   Marriage (II.E.ii)

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. According to the text, what percentage of human societies uses speech?
a. 100 percent
b. 75 percent
c. 50 percent
d. 25 percent
e. 15 percent

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 57          TOP:   Speech and Writing (II.E.iii)

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. According to the text, writing serves all of the following functions EXCEPT:
a. It can be a means of storing information.
b. It can serve the administrative needs of society.
c. It can be used to pass information on to other species.
d. It can allow societies to locate themselves in a particular time and space.
e. It can allow for documents that record information about the past.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 58          TOP:   Speech and Writing (II.E.iii)

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. A __________ is used to describe any vehicle of meaningany set of elements used to communicate, including all types of communication.
a. language
b. signifier
c. gesture
d. word
e. script

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 58          TOP:   Signifier (II.E.iv.a)

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Danny studies winks, waves, language, smiles, frowns, laughs, and any other kind of symbolic communication. What is he is researching?
a. material culture
b. signifiers
c. tools
d. cultural relativism
e. functionalism

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 58          TOP:   Signifier (II.E.iv.a)

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Alice studies how subcultures use verbal and nonverbal cues to produce meanings in opposition to the dominant culture. Her studies would best be described as:
a. cultural relativism
b. functionalism
c. semiotics
d. material culture
e. linguistics

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 58          TOP:   Semiotics (II.E.iv.b)

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Hector is doing research on a tribe called the Malagasians. This group organizes itself in highly participatory ways, moves around a lot, and affords older people a lot of respect within the group. This group could be described as:
a. pastoral
b. agrarian
c. industrial
d. huntergatherer
e. postmodern

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 60

TOP:   The Earliest Societies: Hunters and Gatherers (III.A)      MSC:  Applied

 

  1. According to the text, compared with larger societiesparticularly modern societies, such as the United Statesmost hunting and gathering groups were:
a. egalitarian
b. brutish
c. nasty
d. authoritarian
e. complex

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Page 60

TOP:   The Earliest Societies: Hunters and Gatherers (III.A)      MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Societies whose subsistence derives from the rearing of domesticated animals are called __________societies.
a. agrarian
b. industrialized
c. postmodern
d. pastoral
e. millenarian

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 61          TOP:   Pastoral Societies (III.B.i)

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Ricky notes in his comparative historical research that one group he studied was not fully industrialized and relied primarily on domesticated livestock for its livelihood. This group would best be classified as:
a. pastoral
b. agrarian
c. industrial
d. huntergatherer
e. postmodern

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 61          TOP:   Pastoral Societies (III.B.i)

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Societies whose means of subsistence are based on agricultural production (crop growing) are called __________ societies.
a. pastoral
b. urban
c. agrarian
d. industrialized
e. nomadic

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 61          TOP:   Agrarian Societies (III.B.ii)

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Rosa notes in her comparative historical research that one group she studied was sedentary but was not fully industrialized and relied primarily on crops as its means of livelihood. This group would best be classified as:
a. pastoral
b. agrarian
c. industrial
d. huntergatherer
e. postmodern

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 61          TOP:   Agrarian Societies (III.B.ii)

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Medina is looking at the historical period in which smaller groupings of humans developed into much larger societies, often ruled by kings, queens, and emperors with the creation of cities and increasing inequality. She is studying the birth of what most sociologists call:
a. currency
b. religion
c. spirituality
d. art
e. civilization

 

 

ANS:  E                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 62

TOP:   Traditional Societies or Civilizations (III.C)                               MSC:   Applied

 

  1. The book refers to the emergence of machine production based on the use of inanimate power resources (such as steam or electricity) as:
a. capitalism
b. communization
c. feudal progression
d. linearity
e. industrialization

 

 

ANS:  E                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 62

TOP:   How Has Industrialization Shaped Modern Society? (IV)          MSC:   Factual

 

  1. Frank notices that at some point in relatively recent times, humans in some places began using machines powered by non-human means such as steam and coal. Frank is noting what process?
a. stone-cutting
b. communization
c. industrialization
d. state formation
e. political process

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 62

TOP:   How Has Industrialization Shaped Modern Society? (IV)          MSC:   Applied

 

  1. Chen studies the process through which Brazil is shifting from workers mostly working in fields and living in rural villages to people living in cities and working in factories, offices, and the like. He is noting how Brazil is becoming a(n) __________ society?
a. pastoral
b. agrarian
c. industrial
d. huntergatherer
e. postmodern

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 63

TOP:   The Industrialized Societies (IV.A)                                 MSC:  Applied

 

  1. The process whereby Western nations established their rule in parts of the world away from their home territories is called:
a. McDonaldization
b. cultural appropriation
c. ethnocentrism
d. colonialism
e. Manifest Destiny

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 63          TOP:   Colonialism (IV.B.i)

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Sweta studies how Britain came to control large parts of India before the Indian independence movement. It could be said that she is studying:
a. liberation theology
b. nationalization
c. primitivism
d. anarchist economics
e. colonialism

 

 

ANS:  E                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 63          TOP:   Colonialism (IV.B.i)

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Sociologists often refer to less developed societies, in which industrial production is either virtually nonexistent or only developed to a limited degree, as:
a. the developing world
b. core nations
c. McDonaldized societies
d. nontraditionalist societies
e. trade bureaucracies

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 64          TOP:   Developing World (IV.B.ii)

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Jia Yin notes that in many countries, industrial development is, more or less, nonexistent. She is taking note of the:
a. Appalachian Trail
b. McDonaldization of society
c. industrializing of countries
d. developing world
e. urban core

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 64          TOP:   Developing World (IV.B.ii)

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Although the majority of developing countries lag well behind societies of the West, some have now successfully embarked on a process of industrialization. These are sometimes referred to as:
a. newly industrializing economies
b. McDonaldizing societies
c. emergent cities
d. sustainable developments
e. Korean models

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Page 66

TOP:   The Newly Industrializing Economies (IV.D)                  MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Deric studies Singapore and the process through which it has begun developing a strong industrial base. It might be said that he is studying:
a. newly industrializing economies
b. the sequestration of human experience
c. micro-finance
d. core countries
e. agrarian economies

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 66

TOP:   The Newly Industrializing Economies (IV.D)                  MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Why might sociologists criticize the idea that the world is contemporarily made up of many different, isolated cultures?
a. The idea assumes that we can provide a reasonably coherent definition of culture.
b. Sociologists might note the rise of the Internet and globalization as features of different cultures being connected.
c. Sociologists would likely criticize the idea because of its underlying multiculturalism.
d. The idea suggests that human communities actually have different cul

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