Essentials of Sociology A Down to Earth Approach 10th Edition by James M. Henslin Test Bank

<< Essentials of Sociology 4th Edition Giddens Carr Test bank Essentials of Criminal Justice 10th Edition by Larry J. Siegel John L. Worrall test bank >>
Product Code: 222
Availability: In Stock
Price: $24.99
Qty:     - OR -   Add to Wish List
Add to Compare

Essentials of Sociology A Down to Earth Approach 10th Edition by James M. Henslin Test Bank

Description

Chapter 9 Race and Ethnicity
9.1 True/False Questions
1) Biologists and anthropologists generally agree on a five-member classification system to universally distinguish one race from another.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 240
Skill: Knowledge
2) The United States Census Bureau allows respondents to choose as many races as they wish in describing who they consider themselves to be.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 241
Skill: Knowledge
3) The way in which race is determined is a universal cultural constant.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 242
Skill: Comprehension
4) Jews are most accurately classified as an ethnic group because they share more cultural characteristics than biological ones.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 242
Skill: Application
5) Everyone who shares a respective ethnic identity expresses that identity through the same ethnic work.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 244
Skill: Application
6) A person may voluntarily become a minority.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 244
Skill: Comprehension
7) The term melting pot is the most appropriate analogy to classify Americans based on the fascination Americans have with their ethnic roots.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 245
Skill: Comprehension
8) Prejudice is an action; discrimination is an attitude.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 245
Skill: Application
9) People who are prejudiced against one racial or ethnic group tend to be prejudiced against other groups.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 247
Skill: Comprehension
10) Individual discrimination, rather than institutional discrimination, is the reason that minority group members are less likely to be given a mortgage.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 247
Skill: Application
11) Discrimination can occur without the awareness of both those doing the discriminating and those being discriminated against.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 248
Skill: Knowledge
12) Sociologists find psychological explanations of prejudice to be inadequate.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 251
Skill: Comprehension
13) Research has demonstrated that prejudice can have positive ramifications.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 251
Skill: Comprehension
14) The split labor market and reserve labor force are most aligned with the symbolic interactionist perspective.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 251
Skill: Application
15) The process of compartmentalization helps people who engage in genocide to maintain a sense of being good and moral.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 254
Skill: Comprehension
16) Slavery as it was practiced in the pre-Civil War South and apartheid as practiced in South Africa are two examples of internal colonialism.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 255
Skill: Application
17) Because the term Latino refers to an ethnic group, Latinos may identify themselves as being black, white, or Native American.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 258
Skill: Application
18) The Minutemen are a branch of the U.S. Border Patrol assigned to conduct covert operations to stop illegal immigration.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 258
Skill: Knowledge

19) Hatred of Chinese Americans in 1942, and further discrimination against Japanese immigrants, were historical examples of spillover bigotry.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 265
Skill: Application
20) Most Asian Americans trace their heritage to Japan.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 265
Skill: Knowledge

9.2 Multiple Choice Questions
1) Which phrase best describes Miss Rivers Lodge?
A) a health care experiment at Tuskegee University
B) a fishing retreat for African American men
C) a segregated vacation complex in Georgia
D) a brothel in the French Quarter of New Orleans
Answer: A
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 239
Skill: Knowledge
2) What is a group of people with inherited physical characteristics that distinguish it from another group?
A) a race
B) an ethnicity
C) a social group
D) a tribe
Answer: A
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 240
Skill: Knowledge
3) Ashley Montagu, a physical anthropologist, classified humans into ________ different racial groups.
A) 2
B) 40
C) 160
D) 2,000
Answer: B
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 240
Skill: Knowledge
4) As described in the text, what are two myths of race?
A) eventually there will only be one race; all races have the same origin
B) there is only one race; intelligence is based on race
C) one race is superior to another; pure races exist
D) all races have the same origin; race is a status that cannot be changed
Answer: C
Diff: 6 Page Ref: 240
Skill: Evaluation
5) How did the 2010 U.S. Census instruct Americans to classify themselves in relation to race?
A) Respondents must pick the single term that best describes their race.
B) Respondents may choose no more than two terms that describe their race.
C) Respondents can choose one or more races that they consider themselves to be.
D) Respondents must choose the race of their parents in declaring their own race.
Answer: C
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 241
Skill: Knowledge
6) Who devised the term Cablinasian to describe his racial heritage?
A) Tiger Woods
B) Al Sharpton
C) Barack Obama
D) Colin Powell
Answer: A
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 241
Skill: Application
7) The massacre of Native Americans in the 1800s, the extermination of the Jews in Nazi Germany, and the slaughter of the Tutsis in Rwanda are all examples of ________.
A) compurgation
B) genocide
C) primogeniture
D) sublimation
Answer: B
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 242
Skill: Application
8) The systematic annihilation or attempted annihilation of a people based on their presumed race or ethnicity is called ________.
A) homicide
B) genocide
C) population transfer
D) manslaughter
Answer: B
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 242
Skill: Knowledge
9) While race might reflect our biological heritage, ________ reflects our cultural heritage.
A) gender
B) age
C) ethnicity
D) social class
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 242
Skill: Comprehension
10) What term did Louis Wirth use to define groups of people who are singled out for unequal treatment and who regard themselves as objects of collective discrimination?
A) minority group
B) racial group
C) ethnic group
D) subcultural group
Answer: A
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 243
Skill: Knowledge
11) Which statement is most accurate regarding the meaning of race?
A) It is entirely dependent upon fixed biological characteristics.
B) Race varies, depending upon the society in which its meaning is constructed.
C) The concept of race tends to be quite similar in all cultures.
D) Race is a variable that changes, depending upon the age of people who use the term.
Answer: B
Diff: 6 Page Ref: 243
Skill: Evaluation
12) In society, which group has the greatest power, privileges, and social status?
A) the majority
B) the power elite
C) the capitalist class
D) the dominant group
Answer: D
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 244
Skill: Knowledge
13) Based on the textbook, what are two ways a group becomes a minority?
A) genocide and the expansion of political boundaries
B) migration and a change in the economy of a nation
C) genocide and a change in ethnic work by citizens
D) the expansion of political boundaries and migration
Answer: D
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 244
Skill: Application
14) Tony Pascalucci often wears a shirt that says, Kiss me, Im Italian. He flies the Italian flag at his U.S. home, greets people by saying, Buongiorno, and is known for making the best lasagna in the valley. In view of this, which phrase best describes Tonys behavior?
A) Tony is exercising the concept of ethnic work.
B) Tony is experiencing a racial identity crisis.
C) Tony is experiencing role diffusion.
D) Tony is confused over what his master status is.
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 244
Skill: Comprehension
15) For the last five years, Sarah has been trying to recover her ethnic heritage by tracing her family line. This attempt to trace her family line is an example of ________.
A) permissible assimilation
B) ethnic identification
C) ethnic work
D) ethnicity research
Answer: C
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 244
Skill: Application

16) Because so many Americans have become interested in their roots, which of the following food choices do some analysts use to illustrate the belief that America is a diverse nation?
A) a melting pot
B) an American pie
C) a tossed salad
D) an Oscar Mayer wiener
Answer: C
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 245
Skill: Application
17) What is the term used to describe an attitude that exaggerates the virtues of a group, such as all Asian Americans being brilliant or all African Americans being great athletes?
A) complacent superiority
B) positive prejudice
C) master status
D) superior discrimination
Answer: B
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 245
Skill: Knowledge
18) Prejudice describes ________ while discrimination describes ________.
A) values; attitudes
B) norms; beliefs
C) attitudes; actions
D) actions; attitudes
Answer: C
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 245
Skill: Application
19) Sam, a bartender who saw duty in Vietnam, refuses to serve Asians in his bar because he believes that Asians have no business living in the U.S.A. Sams actions describe ________.
A) prejudice and discrimination
B) prejudice but not discrimination
C) discrimination but not prejudice
D) neither prejudice nor discrimination
Answer: A
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 245
Skill: Application
20) The belief held by many African Americans that lighter skinned African American women are more attractive than those with darker skin is referred to as ________.
A) the reformulation of race at the micro-level
B) the internalization of the norms of the dominant group
C) reverse racism at the micro-level
D) race betrayal of the minority class
Answer: B
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 247
Skill: Comprehension

21) What is the Implicit Association Test?
A) It is a test of cultural intelligence.
B) It is a visual perception test that links race to desirable and undesirable words.
C) It measures the percentage of white blood in African Americans.
D) It is the instrument that differentiates between institutional and individual racism.
Answer: B
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 247
Skill: Application
22) Pedro, a legal immigrant from Mexico, and George, a white male whose family has been in America for several generations, have each applied for a car loan at the local bank. Pedros loan was turned down while George was granted a loan. In comparing their credit history, both men had good credit, and their debts and income were comparable. This is an example of ________ against Pedro.
A) individual prejudice
B) institutional prejudice
C) individual discrimination
D) institutional discrimination
Answer: D
Diff: 4 Page Ref: 247
Skill: Application
23) What did Ezekiel suggest as the reason why some people are attracted to racist hate groups?
A) They have too much leisure time on their hands.
B) They developed group polarization at an early age.
C) Hate groups provide some people with a type of meaning in their lives.
D) Some people are bored and are drawn to risk-taking behavior.
Answer: C
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 249
Skill: Application
24) Based on the most recent research, why are race and ethnicity often factors in medical decisions that favor treatment for white patients?
A) This is a matter of innate racism practiced by white physicians.
B) This is a factor transferred to all medical students as a part of their medical training.
C) White patients have a greater ability to pay for expensive tests.
D) Researchers do not know for sure why race and ethnicity are factors in medical decisions.
Answer: D
Diff: 4 Page Ref: 249
Skill: Analysis
25) John recently received his semester grades and found that he had failed two courses. He says the reason he failed the two courses is that they were taught by female professors. John believes that women are really not smart enough to teach at the college level. In this example, the female professors are most likely ________.
A) scapegoats and being blamed for Johns grades
B) being discriminatory toward John
C) not smart enough to teach in a college
D) prejudiced against John because he is male
Answer: A
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 250
Skill: Application

26) Who developed the theory of prejudice that addressed frustration levels and scapegoats?
A) Theodor Adorno
B) Talcott Parsons
C) John Dollard
D) Michael Burawoy
Answer: C
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 250
Skill: Knowledge
27) According to Adorno, a(n) ________ is a person who is prejudiced, has deep respect for authority and is submissive to authority figures.
A) antisocial personality
B) authoritarian personality
C) scapegoat
D) psychosocial personality
Answer: B
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 250
Skill: Comprehension
28) The group in society made up of the unemployed who can be put to work during times of high production and then laid off when they are no longer needed is called ________.
A) the reserve labor force
B) the underclass
C) the dual labor force
D) a back-up resource
Answer: A
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 252
Skill: Knowledge
29) ________ refers to seeing certain features of a situation while ignoring others, and the use of labels to group individual members as if they were all alike.
A) Blinded perception
B) Selective perception
C) Generalized vision
D) Discriminating vision
Answer: B
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 252
Skill: Knowledge
30) When an executioner wears a hood he is separating his true identity (the man without a hood) from the one carrying out the execution. Such behavior is part of an effort to separate ones feelings from ones acts, called ________.
A) primogeniture
B) compurgation
C) selective perception
D) compartmentalization
Answer: D
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 254
Skill: Application

31) Under czarist Russia, daily living conditions for Jews were made so intolerable that millions chose to leave Russia and migrate to other countries. This is an example of ________.
A) departmentalization
B) subhumanization
C) indirect transfer
D) direct transfer
Answer: C
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 254
Skill: Application
32) The relocation of Native Americans to reservations and the transfer of Americans of Japanese descent to internment camps during World War II are examples of ________.
A) direct transfer
B) compartmentalization
C) internal colonization
D) segregation
Answer: A
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 255
Skill: Application
33) Slavery and apartheid are both examples of the ways in which a countrys dominant group exploits minority groups for its economic advantage. What do sociologists call this policy?
A) colonization
B) segregation
C) internal colonialism
D) assimilation
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 255
Skill: Comprehension
34) When the Native Americans were pacified by the military in the late 1800s, they were forced to learn the English language, dress like the white man, renounce their religion, and give up their customs. This was a classic example of ________.
A) forced assimilation
B) internal colonialism
C) racial subjugation
D) population transfer
Answer: A
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 255
Skill: Application
35) Switzerland is made up of four separate ethnic groups that have kept their own languages but are peacefully united politically and economically. This pattern of intergroup relations is an example of ________.
A) permissible assimilation
B) multiculturalism
C) cultural adaptation
D) forced assimilation
Answer: B
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 255
Skill: Application
36) What is another name for multiculturalism?
A) compartmentalization
B) sublimation
C) pluralism
D) assimilation
Answer: C
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 255
Skill: Knowledge
37) What is the commonly-used definition of Chicano?
A) an illegal immigrant in the United States
B) an American from Mexico
C) an American citizen visiting Mexico
D) a Mexican who is part Native American and part Spanish
Answer: B
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 256
Skill: Application
38) To which ethnic heritage do more Caucasians in America trace their roots than any other?
A) English
B) French
C) German
D) Italian
Answer: C
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 256
Skill: Knowledge
39) What is the largest minority group in the United States today?
A) Latino American
B) African American
C) Asian American
D) Native American
Answer: A
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 256
Skill: Knowledge
40) In American history, who were the white ethnics?
A) They were immigrants from Europe whose language and other customs differed from the original White Anglo-Saxon Protestants.
B) They were colonists who settled in Canada.
C) They were colonists who left the original 13 colonies and moved westward prior to the establishment of the United States.
D) They were colonists loyal to England who did not support American independence.
Answer: A
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 257
Skill: Application
41) Which state has the highest percentage of minorities?
A) New York
B) Alaska
C) Hawaii
D) California
Answer: C
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 257
Skill: Knowledge
42) To understand the comparative conditions of Latinos, one must look at peoples ________.
A) immigration status
B) income levels
C) race and ancestry
D) countries of origin
Answer: D
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 260
Skill: Knowledge
43) The 1896 Supreme Court ruling that approved separate but equal accommodations for blacks and whites as a reasonable use of state power was ________.
A) Africa v. Hewitt
B) Furman v. Georgia
C) Plessy v. Ferguson
D) Garner v. Tennessee
Answer: C
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 262
Skill: Knowledge
44) The practice the South employed after the Civil War to segregate blacks from whites was called ________.
A) the Truman Amendment
B) Horatio Alger Law
C) the Baxter Principle
D) Jim Crow law
Answer: D
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 262
Skill: Knowledge
45) The sense that better conditions are soon to follow which, if unfulfilled, increases frustration, is called ________.
A) compartmentalization
B) self-fulfilling prophecy
C) rising expectations
D) the definition of the situation
Answer: C
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 262
Skill: Knowledge
46) The sociologist who argued that social class has become the most significant factor in determining life chances of African Americans in todays U.S. society was ________.
A) Barack Obama
B) William Julius Wilson
C) W. E. B. Du Bois
D) Douglas Wilder
Answer: B
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 263
Skill: Knowledge
47) Following the bombing of Pearl Harbor, any Asian was viewed as an enemy of America. This phenomenon that occurs when one ethnic group that resembles another is also discriminated against because of mere association is called ________.
A) spillover bigotry
B) the Thomas theorem
C) the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis
D) compartmentalization
Answer: A
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 265
Skill: Application
48) Of all ethnic groups, in which group are children most likely to grow up with two parents and least likely to be born to a single mother?
A) Native American
B) Asian American
C) Latino American
D) Caucasian European
Answer: B
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 266
Skill: Comprehension
49) ________ can be referred to as the invisible minority.
A) African Americans
B) Native Americans
C) Hispanic Americans
D) Asian Americans
Answer: B
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 267
Skill: Comprehension
50) What did Proposition 209, a 1996 amendment to the California state constitution, address?
A) It established English as the official language in California.
B) It prohibited illegal Mexicans from receiving medical care and other benefits under Medicaid.
C) It banned Mexican immigration into California for ten years.
D) It banned preference to minorities and women in hiring, promotion, and college admissions.
Answer: D
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 270
Skill: Knowledge
51) Which state did NOT pass the amendment to its state constitution that made it illegal for public institutions of any kind to consider race or sex in college admissions, hiring decisions, or awarding of contracts?
A) Michigan
B) Colorado
C) Nebraska
D) None of the above
Answer: B
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 271
Skill: Knowledge

9.3 Short Answer Questions
1) What was Miss Rivers Lodge?
Answer: Miss Rivers Lodge was the name used by doctors to describe the medical unit of Tuskegee University where a callous medical experiment was conducted to track African Americans with syphilis.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 239
Skill: Comprehension
2) What are the most prevalent myths regarding race?
Answer: (1) the idea that any one race is superior to any other;
(2) the notion of the existence of a pure race
(3) the notion that there are a fixed number of races
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 240
Skill: Knowledge
3) What are the similarities and differences between a quadroon and an octoroon?
Answer: Both were classified as being black on the U.S. Census in 1890; the quadroon was one-quarter African American parentage and the octoroon was one-eighth.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 241
Skill: Comprehension
4) Why is using Hindu as a classification of race on the U.S. Census incorrect?
Answer: Hindu is a religion, not a race.
Diff: 4 Page Ref: 241
Skill: Analysis
5) Provide at least one example of a society in which the numerical majority was a sociological minority and a much smaller racial group served as the dominant group.
Answer: In India prior to 1947, a small number of British rulers controlled tens of millions of Indians.
During the Apartheid in South Africa, fewer Dutch and English South Africans ruled a much larger population of black Africans. In the pre-Civil War South, white plantation owners ruled over thousands of slaves.
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 243
Skill: Application
6) What is a scapegoat?
Answer: often a racial, ethnic, or religious minority that becomes a target on which members of the dominant group vent their frustration
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 250
Skill: Knowledge
7) How does prejudice qualify as being functional for society?
Answer: It creates in-group solidarity, which increases the strength, pride, and abilities of the members of that group.
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 251
Skill: Application
8) What is selective perception?
Answer: the act of seeing certain features of an object or situation, but being blind to others
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 252
Skill: Knowledge
9) How is direct population transfer different from indirect population transfer?
Answer: Indirect population transfer is achieved by making life so miserable for members of a minority group that they leave voluntarily. Direct population transfer occurs when a dominant group expels a minority from a territory.
Diff: 6 Page Ref: 254
Skill: Evaluation
10) How can someone practicing genocide maintain an image of being a good and moral person?
Answer: They separate their acts from a sense of self through a process called compartmentalization. This includes considering the group being exterminated as unworthy and inferior.
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 254
Skill: Application
11) What accounted for the majority of Native American deaths in the nineteenth century?
Answer: diseases brought by white men, rather than bullets
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 254
Skill: Knowledge
12) What is pluralism?
Answer: Pluralism absorbs minority groups into the mainstream culture, but also encourages minorities to maintain their separate identities while freely participating in the host countrys social institutions.
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 255
Skill: Knowledge
13) Who were the white ethnics?
Answer: immigrants from Europe who followed the original Protestant wave, and whose languages and customs were different from the American citizens already established
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 257
Skill: Knowledge
14) Who are the Minutemen?
Answer: unauthorized volunteers who patrol the Arizona-Mexico border in an effort to stop illegal immigrants from crossing the U.S. border
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 258
Skill: Knowledge
15) What is one reason many Latinos have a hard time getting good jobs in the United States?
Answer: About half of Latinos are unable to speak English, or can do so only with difficulty, which means that many millions face a major obstacle to getting good jobs.
Diff: 4 Page Ref: 260
Skill: Application
16) How did the Cuban refugees who fled Cuba in 1959 and the early 60s differ from the boat people who fled Cuba in the 1980s?
Answer: The earlier immigrants were skilled, more educated, and from the Cuban upper classes. The boat people were lower-class Cubans without technical skills.
Diff: 4 Page Ref: 260
Skill: Analysis

17) With 15.4 percent of the U.S. population, why do Latinos have such a small amount of representation in American politics?
Answer: One reason mentioned in the text is that they have come face to face with African Americans who fear that Latino gains in employment and at the ballot box come at their expense.
Diff: 4 Page Ref:260
Skill: Analysis
18) Who, or what, was Jim Crow?
Answer: the name of the practice in the post-Civil War South that was enacted to segregate blacks and whites by passing laws to subjugate the freed slaves to white rule
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 262
Skill: Knowledge
19) Why are Native Americans called the invisible minority?
Answer: Many Americans seldom come into contact with a Native American. About one-half of all Native Americans live in rural areas and one-third live in just three states: Oklahoma, Arizona, and California. There are less than 3 million Native Americans left in the U.S., representing less than 1 percent of the overall population. This leaves only 1.5 million Native Americans spread over 47 states.
Diff: 4 Page Ref: 267
Skill: Analysis
20) What is pan-Indianism?
Answer: a movement that focuses on common elements within the cultures of diverse Native Americans in order to develop a cross-tribal self-identity and work toward the welfare of all Native Americans
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 268
Skill: Knowledge

9.4 Essay Questions
1) Briefly explain how race is both a reality and a myth.
Answer: Race is a reality in the sense that different groups do inherit distinctive physical characteristics. But race is also a myth because racial categories are not universal, but are social classifications that vary from society to society. Thus, a distinctive biological category of race is a myth.
Diff: 4 Page Ref: 240
Skill: Analysis
2) What does Cablinasian mean? What are some of the unique racial classifications that have officially been used by the U.S. Census Bureau? Why have some of these terms been abandoned? What will be the likely future of the Cablinasians?
Answer: Cablinasian is a term Tiger Woods invented to recognize his racial heritage as being a combination of Caucasian, Black, Indian, and Asian. Other unique terms used by the U.S. Census have included mulatto, quadroon, octoroon, Negro, Black Mexican, and Hindu. Some of these terms were inaccurate as a description of race (such as Hindu). Others have been deemed politically incorrect (Negro). There has also been a shift in how Americans view African Americans, which explains the loss of octoroon and quadroon. Some analysts feel that Cablinasian will probably be forgotten as soon as Tiger Woods is no longer a major player in the professional golf circuit.
Diff: 5 Page Ref: 241
Skill: Synthesis
3) According to anthropologists and biologists, how many distinct races exist among humans? What are the racial classifications discussed in the textbook? Why are the racial categories chosen by the author inadequate to provide a full picture of race?
Answer: Neither anthropologists nor biologists can agree on the number of races that exist. The number ranges from two to two thousand. The author discusses European Americans, Latinos, African Americans, Asian Americans, and Native Americans. These classifications are inadequate for a number of reasons. European Americans share their whiteness but have numerous ethnic differences. Latinos are a diverse group with little unity except for the Spanish language. Referring to a Spaniard as being a Puerto Rican is a tremendous insult. Everyone who is black is not necessarily African American, and white South Africans who immigrate to America are rarely called African Americans. Japanese have little in common with the Chinese or Vietnamese. There are more than 150 different Indian tribes in America, each with a different language and different customs.
Diff: 4 Page Ref: 242
Skill: Analysis
4) Distinguish the difference between race and ethnicity, and give an example of each.
Answer: Race refers to the biological characteristics that distinguish one group from another. Ethnicity refers to cultural characteristics. Members of ethnic groups identify with one another on the basis of common ancestry and cultural heritage. Their sense of belonging to the group focuses on their country of origin, distinctive foods, dress, family names and relationships, language, music, religion and other customs. Examples will vary among students.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 242
Skill: Comprehension
5) Identify the ways a group becomes a minority group. Give an example of each.
Answer: Someone may be born into minority status by virtue of his or her physical or cultural characteristics or by being a female. In America, someone born of African American parents or into an uncommon religion would be a minority. Groups of people can also become minorities when political boundaries are expanded. After the Mexican War, the United States annexed much of what was formerly Mexican territory. The people living in these territories were transformed from being considered Mexicans to being considered Mexican-Americans. Another way a group becomes a minority is through migration. When thousands of Southern and Eastern Europeans immigrated to the United States in the early 1900s, they became minorities upon arrival in America.
Diff: 4 Page Ref: 244
Skill: Analysis
6) What is ethnic work and how do people construct ethnic work?
Answer: Ethnic work is the way people conduct their ethnicity. It includes how a group maintains its distinction from other groups through clothing, food, language, religion, the celebration of holidays, and the efforts people make to recover their ethnic heritage.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 244
Skill: Comprehension
7) Explain the difference between prejudice and discrimination. Is it possible to be prejudiced but not to discriminate? Or, to discriminate without being prejudiced?
Answer: Prejudice is an attitude, usually a negative prejudgment that some groups are inferior. Positive prejudice exaggerates the virtues of a group, such as the idea that one group is superior to other groups. Discrimination is an action, the unfair treatment against someone based on some characteristic of the person. A person could hold negative feelings toward a group, but because of laws or social pressure, he or she would be unwilling to act on such feelings. Conversely, it is possible that a nonprejudiced person might behave in a discriminatory manner for fear of being ostracized by his or her social group.
Diff: 4 Page Ref: 245
Skill: Analysis
8) Illustrate how and why people learn prejudice.
Answer: People learn prejudice through socialization and imitating others. In some societies, discrimination is a part of the cultural values expressed. Although people are not born with prejudice, they learn it through association with people around them. A study by Kathleen Blee showed that many women who were members of the Ku Klux Klan and Aryan Nation had been recruited by someone who was already a member of the group. The new recruits were not prejudiced prior to joining these white supremacy groups, but developed prejudicial and racist beliefs after joining.
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 245
Skill: Application
9) Discuss the two psychological theories to explain the cause of prejudice and discrimination.
Answer: The psychological perspective includes frustration/scapegoat theory and the authoritarian personality theory. Frustration/scapegoat theory was developed by John Dollard. It applies to people who cannot strike out at the real source of their frustration and therefore look for someone to blame for their troubles (a scapegoat). These scapegoats are often racial, ethnic, or religious minorities; that is, members of groups that are vulnerable because of their lack of power. The authoritarian personality theory was developed by Theodor Adorno. It is supported by research that demonstrates that people in authority see issues, as well as individuals, in extreme terms with no gray areas (white or black). Authoritarian personalities are also confused by ambiguity and are anxious when they must confront norms and values different from their own.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 250
Skill: Comprehension
10) Discuss how the sociological perspectives explain the causes of prejudice and discrimination.
Answer: The sociological perspectives include a breakdown of how prejudice and discrimination follow the functionalist, conflict, and symbolic interactionist perspectives. Prejudice and discrimination can be functional for society. They can build social solidarity, group loyalty, and make it possible to carry out difficult responsibilities (such as fighting an enemy). Conflict theory explains prejudice and discrimination as means by which those in the privileged class maintain their power and wealth. They do so by creating reserve labor forces and split labor markets that take advantage of the least powerful members of society (minorities). In symbolic interactionism, labels or derogatory names can act as self-fulfilling prophecies that justify prejudice and discrimination.
Diff: 5 Page Ref: 251
Skill: Synthesis
11) According to conflict theory, how can prejudice be used to create a split-labor market? What advantage does this give to dominant groups in society?
Answer: Conflict theorists stress that the dominant classes use competition between groups in society to create prejudice, which results in fear and distrust between the groups. The ruling classes, by exploiting this racial struggle, create a split-labor market divided along racial, ethnic, and gender lines that reduces group solidarity among the workers. Unemployment helps to maintain this split-labor market as unemployment provides a reserve labor force. This reserve force can be hired when the economy is expanding and released when the economy contracts. Minority workers are perfect for the reserve labor force, for their presence is a constant threat to the white workers.
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 251
Skill: Application
12) Identify and describe the six major patterns of minority and dominant group relations.
Answer: (1) Genocide is the practice or policy by the dominant group of systematically destroying the minority group members.
(2) Population transfer is the expulsion, either directly or indirectly, of the minority group from a given area.
(3) Internal colonialism occurs when the dominant group exploits the minority groups in the society by using social institutions to deny them the full benefits of the society.
(4) Segregation is the formal separation of racial and ethnic groups in order to ensure that the groups have minimal contact with each other.
(5) Assimilation is the process, either forced or permissible, by which a minority is absorbed into the mainstream culture.
(6) Multiculturalism is a policy that permits or encourages minority groups to maintain their separate identities, yet participate fully in the societys social institutions.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 254
Skill: Comprehension

13) Why does William Julius Wilson believe that class, and not race, is the determining characteristic for African Americans being accepted by the dominant culture?
Answer: African Americans who have been able to enter the middle and upper classes are more accepted by the dominant class because they have achieved and adopted middle class standards and have been assimilated into housing, occupations, and educational pursuits of the dominant classes. There is evidence that within the African American community there is less support for lower class, inner city African Americans who succumb to the culture of poverty and ideologies to justify their perpetual poverty.
Diff: 4 Page Ref: 263
Skill: Analysis
14) How valid are fears that immigration from countries other than Europe will change American culture? Is this pattern of immigration likely to be functional or dysfunctional for America? Provide some examples of the increase in Latino and Asian culture.
Answer: American culture is highly likely to change in response to immigration from countries other than Europe, just as it has changed in the past when new sources of immigrants dominated immigration patterns. The new immigrants will meet opposition and provoke disorder, as have all immigrant groups before them, but they will also enrich American culture with new ideas, languages, cultural traditions, and a strong work ethic that is often more common among immigrants than among native-born Americans. Evidence of this change can be seen in the growth of the Latino population, the increase in Latino restaurants and stores, and the expansion of Latino festivals, the widespread publication of directions in Spanish and English, and the Spanish announcements at the local WalMart. Asians have had a similar but not as diverse effect on American culture. Chinese restaurants were once confined to an urban Chinatown, but today they dot every medium-sized town in America and are common across larger cities. Along with Chinese food, Thai, Japanese, and Korean restaurants can be found in many cities.
Diff: 6 Page Ref: 268
Skill: Evaluation
15) Discuss the arguments presented by liberals and conservatives regarding affirmative action. Is there a trend towards eliminating affirmative action? Why or why not?
Answer: Liberals tend to defend affirmative action as being the most direct way to provide equal economic opportunity for everyone in society. It is also a way to protect minorities from the ongoing discrimination that exists in the United States. Conservatives tend to agree that equal opportunity should exist for everyone, but consider that putting race or sex ahead of a persons ability to do the work is reverse discrimination. Also, conservatives usually maintain that affirmative action stigmatizes the people who benefit from it because it suggests that race or sex, rather than merit, are responsible for their position.
It appears there is a trend towards eliminating or greatly curtailing affirmative action based on the growing conservative view, especially as more African Americans improve their class status. This is also supported by the passage of legislation by voters in California (Proposition 209) and Michigan.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 270
Skill: Comprehension
9.5 Open Book Questions
1) In the opening passage introducing the chapter, the author provides a synopsis of Miss Rivers Lodge. How could professional people, especially doctors, justify the experiment in which they were engaged?
Answer: Some justifications included feelings of superiority by the dominant race, a belief that what they were doing was actually going to be beneficial for mankind as a whole, a devaluation of minorities, and the belief that those affected by the disease would have died anyway since they could not have afforded private care. The doctors may have seen themselves as observers because they did not cause the syphilis and therefore, were neither morally nor professionally responsible.
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 239
Skill: Application
2) After reading about the myth and reality of the concept of race, have you abandoned your own prejudices regarding members of groups that look different from you or whose ancestors came from countries different from yours? Explain.
Answer: Students who are honest with themselves will acknowledge the difficulty of abandoning prejudices that they learned from an early age, and which are reasserted throughout their lives, often by members of their primary and reference groups. Some students may cite personal experiences that confirmed their prejudices and make it especially difficult for them to abandon those prejudices.
Diff: 4 Page Ref: 240
Skill: Analysis
3) After reading Cultural Diversity in the United States, Tiger Woods: Mapping the Changing Ethnic Terrain, discuss how race is likely to be treated in future censuses of the U.S. population.
Answer: It seems unlikely that the number of official classifications will continue to expand, as the variety of groups of people who have different races continues to grow. At some future time, the classification of people into racial groups will seem uninformative and outdated, and will probably be abandoned. But this is likely to occur only when race ceases to be an important factor in the way Americans think about themselves and others. Evidence shows that only a small percentage of Americans classify themselves as more than one race and even a much smaller percentage classify themselves as more than two races.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 241

Skill: Comprehension
4) How do students engage in ethnic work based on their ethnic or racial heritage?
Answer: Students from respective backgrounds celebrate different holidays. Jews celebrate Yom Kippur and Rosh Hashanah; African Americans pay special attention to Martin Luther King Day and Kwanzaa; other students pay special attention to Columbus Day (Italian), St. Patricks Day (Irish), or other celebrations. On many campuses one can find a Black Student Union, a Latino Student Union, a Newman Center for Catholics, and other many ethnic- and religious-based support organizations. Students may also construct their ethnic identity through articles of dress, artifacts, foods, readings, rituals, and certain types of behavior.
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 244
Skill: Application
5) In what ways do the lies promoted by racist leaders, as described in Down-to-Earth Sociology, The Racist Mind, undermine constructive responses to social problems? Should there be laws passed to make such groups illegal?
Answer: Blaming the Establishment for peoples problems reduces the likelihood that people with problems will work with government to find solutions to those problems. The arbitrary and absolute classification of people into discrete racial categories reduces, even prohibits intergroup cooperation. Applying negative characteristics to all categories other than ones own also discourages cooperation with most other people in society. Defining life as war creates a mindset of harsh competition, rather than openness to cooperation as a strategy to solve problems. The assumption that events have secret causes leads to inaction, because a person who shares that assumption cannot determine the causes of problems or the ways in which to address them. Making a group or organization illegal because of intent that is associated with its creed, by-laws, or constitution can be a violation of the First and Fourteen Amendments (right to free speech and freedom of assembly and equal protection under the law). Individuals must be held accountable for their behaviors more so than organizations. This is not meant to lend support for organizations that profess hate. The problem is deciding who makes the decisions of which organizations are worthy or unworthy and where to draw the line, as well as determining who will enforce these decisions.
Diff: 4 Page Ref: 249
Skill: Analysis
6) After reading Down-to-Earth Sociology, The Man in the Zoo, why was the abuse of Ota Benga permitted as long as it was? What were some alternatives to placing him in a zoo? If the same scenario that led to his captivity happened today, how would it be handled?
Answer: Ota Benga was considered as a savage, more animal than man, by a society that did not understand his cultural background or personal plight. He had nowhere to go when the anthropologist who brought him to America could no longer care for him. In the early 1900s, Americans were impressed with their advances in science and technology and theories popular at the time (Darwinism, atavism, social Darwinism) supported the treatment Ota Benga received. Besides that, he was a star attraction for the owners of the zoo a golden fleece. Alternatives to placing him in the zoo could have included a university adopting him to provide input as a part of an anthropology program. The university could have set him up in a dormitory, aided in his socialization, and assigned students to work with him. An African American religious group could have done the same thing. If this scenario occurred today, the ACLU would not permit the treatment that Ota Benga received. If he were a minor, he would probably be assigned to a foster home with efforts made for his adoption.
Diff: 4 Page Ref: 253
Skill: Analysis
7) What should the American government do about the Minutemen who patrol the Arizona-Mexican border? What are some of the worst-case scenarios of the Minuteman movement?
Answer: The government is behind the classic rock and hard place. If it comes down too hard on the Minutemen, it will be accused of being soft on illegal immigration and not protecting American citizens. This may even provoke a revolt of the Minutemen against the border patrol leading to violence and death. To ignore them gives tacit approval of their actions, which could lead to the murder of illegal immigrants crossing the border. The government cannot arrest someone for patrolling the border, even if armed. The individual can simply say that he or she is hunting. One of the worst-case scenarios is a shootout between the border patrol and Minutemen or between the coyotes who smuggle immigrants into America and the Minutemen. One way to attempt to control the Minutemen is to monitor them (which pulls agents away from their watch for illegal aliens). Another way may be to make the Minuteman a legal organization that includes strict rules and accountability (no firearms while patrolling the border), training, and establishes communication links with the border patrol via radio.
Diff: 5 Page Ref: 258
Skill: Synthesis
8) The controversy over illegal Mexican laborers arriving and working in the United States is portrayed in Cultural Diversity in the United States, The Illegal Travel Guide. In what ways are illegal Mexican laborers living and working in the U.S., both supported and unsupported by native-born citizens?
Answer: It is estimated that more than 9 million Latinos live in the U.S. illegally. Having these types of laborers working in the U.S. is supported because they will work for compensation far below what native-born Americans would demand. Also, the cultural diversity of these immigrants living in the U.S. would enrich the local culture with their own food, music, and traditions. This phenomenon has become a national issue because of fear that illegal immigrants could take away jobs or receive government benefits destined for native-born citizens. Also, there may be concern in communities that illegal immigrant neighborhood residency could cause a decline in property values or change the local culture.
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 259
Skill: Application
9) Which social forces might influence changes in the cultural diversity of America, to invalidate the predictions made in Cultural Diversity in the United States, Glimpsing the Future: The Shifting U.S. Racial-Ethnic Mix?
Answer: As the members of various ethnic groups assimilate and enter the middle class, they are likely to take on many of the characteristics of the white middle class, including a lower birthrate. This lower birthrate would reduce the proportion of some ethnic groups in the population. Relationships between the United States and other countries, and internal economic conditions in other countries that currently provide many immigrants to the United States, will influence immigration rates and the resulting proportion of immigrants in the population. The immigration debate that continues year after year will also have a bearing on the changing face of America. If the nation closes its borders to all immigration, or greatly curtails it in other ways, the projected shifts in Figure 9.10 on the racial-ethnic makeup of the U.S. population will change.
Diff: 4 Page Ref: 269
Skill: Analysis

9.6 Line Art Questions

1) Based on Figure 9.1, A Sense of Ethnicity, why do minorities have a heightened sense of their ethnic or racial identity compared to members of the dominant group?
Answer: Because minorities lack power, they are more apt to face discrimination and abuse by the more powerful dominant group. Their heightened sense of ethnicity is a mechanism that brings them together in a greater social bond. In addition, the minority group is usually rejected by the dominant group, and by necessity, the minority group must carve out its own place in society.
Diff: 6 Page Ref: 245
Skill: Evaluation

2) Based on Figure 9.2, Buying a House: Institutional Discrimination and Predatory Lending, how do the percentage of mortgage loan denials change as the applicants median incomes increase? How do the denials remain the same?
Answer: As the applicants median incomes increase, the percentage of white applicants who are denied a mortgage decreases. The proportion of African American and Latinos who are denied loans remains approximately the same as median incomes rise.
Diff: 6 Page Ref: 248
Skill: Evaluation

3) Figure 9.3 Global Patterns of Intergroup Relations: A Continuum uses a directional arrow to measure the level of humanity, with the patterns of intergroup relations on the far left being inhumane and those on the far right humane. Why is this line misleading?
Answer: One could assume that segregation and internal colonialism are at least somewhat humane because they are in the middle of the continuum. But it would be difficult to justify either as humane. Assimilation is next to the highest humane intergroup relation but forced assimilation can be anything except humane.
Diff: 4 Page Ref: 254
Skill: Analysis

4) Figure 9.5 U.S. RacialEthnic Groups shows that Americans of Asian, African, and Latino descent comprise 31.5 percent of the United States population, while the largest single group of Americans of European descent is the Germans, at 16.5 percent. Since these minorities comprise such a high percentage of the population, explain why an equal distribution of these minorities is not seen in politics.
Answer: The percentage of German Americans as a political force is misleading. It would be more accurate to identify all Americans of European heritage (Caucasian Europeans) rather than to single out one specific national identity. When looking at all Americans of European descent, they comprise 66.3 percent of the population. And although not all Caucasian Europeans are unified, it is more likely they will share a more common heritage with one another as opposed to having common ties to African, Asian, Native, or Latino Americans. In addition, the four minority groups identified have little in common and are often at odds with one another, which further diminishes their voting power and lobbying power.
Diff: 6 Page Ref: 256
Skill: Evaluation

5) Figure 9.7 Geographical Origins of U.S. Latinos shows that 66 percent of U.S. Latinos trace their heritage to Mexico. Provide at least two reasons why Mexico has such a dominant influence on Latino heritage, outnumbering all other Latino nations of origin.
Answer: (1) close proximity to the U.S. at its southern border;
(2) the ability to walk to America;
(3) the annexing of lands in 1847 that were once part of Mexico
Diff: 6 Page Ref: 258
Skill: Evaluation

6) Figure 9.8 Where U.S. Latinos Live shows the states with the highest Latino populations. Geographic location can explain why California, Texas, and Arizona have such a high percentage of Latinos, since they are states that border Mexico. Florida has been influenced by Cuban and Puerto Rican migration. But how does one explain the high percentages of Latinos in New Jersey, New York, and Illinois?
Answer: Large cities, such as New York and Chicago, draw Latinos from the Caribbean to work in their textile industries, manufacturing plants, and factories, and to hold various unskilled jobs.
Diff: 4 Page Ref: 258
Skill: Analysis

9.7 Matching Questions
Skill: Knowledge
Match the term with the definition.
1) genocide
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 242
2) ethnicity
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 242
3) minority group
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 243
4) dominant group
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 244
5) ethnic work
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 244
6) melting pot
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 244
5) discrimination
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 245
6) prejudice
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 245
7) individual discrimination.
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 247
8) institutional discrimination
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 247
9) authoritarian personality
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 250
10) reserve labor force
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 252
11) selective perception
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 252
12) internal colonialism
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 255
13) segregation
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 255 A) an act of unfair treatment directed against an individual or a group
B) people who are singled out for unequal treatment and who regard themselves as objects of collective discrimination
C) the negative treatment of a minority group that is built into the fabric of society
D) the view that Americans of various backgrounds would blend into a sort of ethnic stew
E) having distinctive cultural characteristics
F) the negative treatment of one person by another on the basis of that persons perceived characteristics
G) activities designed to discover, enhance, or maintain ethnic and racial identity
H) unemployed workers being held in that status pending periods of economic boom who will be laid off when the boom is over
I) Theodor Adornos term for people who are highly prejudiced, have deep respect for authority, and are submissive to authority figures
J) a policy of economically exploiting minority groups
K) the group with the most power, greatest privileges, and highest social status
L) the policy of keeping racial-ethnic groups apart
M) the act of seeing certain features of an object or situation, but remaining blind to others
N) the systematic annihilation or attempted annihilation of people because of their presumed race or ethnic group
O) an attitude usually expressed in a negative way
1) N; 2) E; 3) B; 4) K; 5) G; 6) D; 7) A; 8) O; 9) F; 10) C; 11) I; 12) H; 13) M; 14) J; 15) L

Write a review

Your Name:


Your Review: Note: HTML is not translated!

Rating: Bad           Good

Enter the code in the box below:



 

Once the order is placed, the order will be delivered to your email less than 24 hours, mostly within 4 hours. 

If you have questions, you can contact us here