Essentials of Sociology Eighth (8th) Edition Test bank

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Essentials of Sociology Eighth (8th) Edition Test bank

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CHAPTER 5: GROUPS, NETWORKS, AND ORGANIZATIONS

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. Exchange, cooperation, and competition are all examples of:
a.
norms of reciprocity.
c.
social processes.
b.
conflict resolution.
d.
voluntary associations.

ANS: C REF: 101 OBJ: 5.1

2. Which of these is NOT one of the social processes discussed in the text?
a.
collaboration
c.
conflict
b.
exchange
d.
competition

ANS: A REF: 101 OBJ: 5.1

3. The expectation that people will return favors and strive to maintain a balance of obligation in social relationships is called:
a.
the norm of reciprocity.
c.
tenure.
b.
the norm of unending service.
d.
cooperation.

ANS: A REF: 101 OBJ: 5.1

4. Which of the following is an example of the norm of reciprocity in action?
a.
Joe buys his new infant son a baseball glove.
b.
Penny gives Margaret a ride to school all semester, so Margaret types Pennys term paper.
c.
Joe buys himself an ice cream cone.
d.
Margot yells at Rob after he yells at her.

ANS: B REF: 101 OBJ: 5.1

5. One good way to sum up the concept of the norm of reciprocity might be the old saying:
a.
You cant teach an old dog new tricks.
b.
A stitch in time, saves nine.
c.
There is no such thing as a free lunch.
d.
A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush.

ANS: C REF: 101 OBJ: 5.1

6. Almost all voluntary relationships are entered into as situations of:
a.
exchange.
c.
conflict.
b.
competition.
d.
cooperation.

ANS: A REF: 101 OBJ: 5.1

7. An exchange relationship persists:
a.
only if the rewards to both are equal.
b.
only if each party to the interaction is getting something out of it.
c.
only if both parties believe they are getting more than the other.
d.
only between people with primary bonds.

ANS: B REF: 101 OBJ: 5.1

8. Interaction that occurs when people work together to achieve shared goals is called:
a.
exchange.
c.
conflict.
b.
competition.
d.
cooperation.

ANS: D REF: 102 OBJ: 5.1 KEY: WWW

9. A struggle over scarce resources that is regulated by shared rules is called:
a.
exchange.
c.
conflict.
b.
competition.
d.
cooperation.

ANS: B REF: 102 OBJ: 5.1

10. Which of the following is NOT a potential result from competition?
a.
It may stimulate achievement.
c.
It may reduce cooperation.
b.
It may increase personal stress.
d.
It may ensure equitable rewards.

ANS: D REF: 102 OBJ: 5.1

11. The factor that distinguishes competition from conflict is:
a.
the regulation of interaction by shared rules within competition.
b.
inequality between the two individuals/groups interacting.
c.
conflict is between individuals and competition between groups.
d.
conflict produces solidarity between the competing groups.

ANS: A REF: 102 OBJ: 5.1

12. A struggle over scarce resources that is not regulated by shared rules is called:
a.
exchange.
c.
conflict.
b.
competition.
d.
cooperation.

ANS: C REF: 102 OBJ: 5.1

13. When conflict takes place with outsiders:
a.
no one ever wins.
c.
it enhances solidarity within ones group.
b.
it creates divisiveness within ones group.
d.
it usually is replaced with competition.

ANS: C REF: 102 OBJ: 5.1

14. Don and James were both in line for a big promotion. The management decided to review all the projects on which each man had worked during the previous five years to determine who most deserved the promotion. During the night before the men were to turn in their files, James broke into Dons office and tampered with his files to make it appear that Don was irresponsible. This is an example of:
a.
exchange.
c.
conflict.
b.
competition.
d.
cooperation.

ANS: C REF: 102 OBJ: 5.1

15. Two or more people who interact on the basis of shared social structure and recognize mutual dependency are called:
a.
a group.
c.
a category.
b.
an aggregate.
d.
a bond.

ANS: A REF: 103 OBJ: 5.2

16. Which of the following is the best example of a group?
a.
bald-headed men
b.
people at a baseball game at Fenway Park
c.
people at the mall
d.
the sociology faculty at your school

ANS: D REF: 103 OBJ: 5.2

17. People who share a trait, such as being blonde, living in the dorm, or playing a sport, are termed a:
a.
crowd.
c.
category.
b.
group.
d.
aggregate

ANS: C REF: 103 OBJ: 5.2

18. William feels out of shape, but when he compares himself to other men his age he realizes he is in better shape than most. William is making use of a ________ in order to evaluate himself.
a.
secondary group
c.
primary group
b.
reference group
d.
category

ANS: B REF: 104 OBJ: 5.2

19. Even when a person has everything they need, if they compare themselves to others who have more they may still feel unhappy and dissatisfied. This situation is known as:
a.
reference overload
c.
relative deprivation
b.
invidious envy
d.
approach-avoidance

ANS: C REF: 104 OBJ: 5.2 KEY: WWW

20. Sociologist Jennifer Lundquist found that African and Latina women were more satisfied with military life than were white women. Lundquist concludes this is because their level of satisfaction is largely dependent on:
a.
comparing their situation relative to that of other women like themselves.
b.
how well the women are treated compared to each other.
c.
the difference between how the military treats men and women.
d.
the occupational training programs open to each group.

ANS: C REF: 104 OBJ: 5.2

21. Intimate, face-to-face interactions are typical of:
a.
primary groups.
c.
tertiary groups.
b.
secondary groups.
d.
bureaucracies.

ANS: A REF: 104 OBJ: 5.2

22. Which of the following is the best example of a primary group?
a.
this sociology classroom
b.
this university
c.
Joe, Bill, and Tomcollege roommates for the past 3 years
d.
the faculty at this university

ANS: C REF: 104 OBJ: 5.2

23. Expressive needs:
a.
are task oriented.
b.
are needs for integration and emotional support.
c.
are the result of comparisons to reference groups.
d.
occur only in secondary groups.

ANS: B REF: 105 OBJ: 5.3

24. Activities that provide integration and emotional support are fulfilling:
a.
instrumental needs.
c.
secondary needs.
b.
expressive needs.
d.
informal needs.

ANS: B REF: 105 OBJ: 5.3

25. Which of the following is the best example of fulfillment of an expressive need?
a.
a mother changing a babys diaper
b.
a mother comforting her teen daughter
c.
a group of friends building an airplane
d.
members of an organization collecting donations for the homeless

ANS: B REF: 105 OBJ: 5.3

26. From the individuals point of view, the main role of primary groups is to:
a.
act as agents of social control.
b.
accomplish specific tasks like building a house.
c.
provide emotional support and a sense of belonging.
d.
provide a point of comparison in terms of status and relative success.

ANS: C REF: 105 OBJ: 5.2

27. From the point of view of society, primary groups serve:
a.
as agents of social control.
b.
to accomplish specific tasks like building a house.
c.
to provide emotional support and a sense of belonging.
d.
as comparison groups for members of society.

ANS: A REF: 105 OBJ: 5.2

28. Groups that are formal, large, and impersonal are called:
a.
primary groups.
c.
tertiary groups.
b.
secondary groups.
d.
bureaucracies.

ANS: B REF: 105 OBJ: 5.2

29. Which of the following is the best example of a secondary group?
a.
your family
b.
a group of 3-4 close friends who live together
c.
an introductory sociology class with 300 students
d.
people with red hair

ANS: C REF: 105 OBJ: 5.2

30. From societys point of view, the major function of secondary groups is:
a.
to act as agents of social control.
b.
to provide us with a social network to call on for social activities.
c.
to accomplish instrumental tasks.
d.
to provide us with financial assistance.

ANS: C REF: 106 OBJ: 5.2

31. Which of the following is the best example of fulfilling an instrumental need?
a.
building a house
b.
comforting a child who has fallen down and scraped her knee
c.
listening to a friend and giving advice
d.
listening to your favorite CD

ANS: A REF: 105 OBJ: 5.3 KEY: WWW

32. In preindustrial societies:
a.
there were few secondary groups.
b.
there were few primary groups.
c.
the number of secondary and primary groups were about equal.
d.
there were no groups.

ANS: A REF: 106 OBJ: 5.2

33. As society has become more industrialized:
a.
we have fewer instrumental needs.
b.
more of our instrumental needs are the obligation of primary groups.
c.
we have fewer expressive needs.
d.
more of our instrumental needs are the obligation of secondary groups.

ANS: D REF: 106 OBJ: 5.2

34. Some sociologists fear that the shift from primary groups to more secondary groups in society is having the affect of weakening:
a.
social institutions.
c.
social control.
b.
bureaucracies.
d.
efficiency.

ANS: C REF: 106 OBJ: 5.2

35. Social interaction within groups is primarily affected by:
a.
the size of the group.
b.
the proximity of group members.
c.
communication patterns.
d.
All of these affect social interaction within groups.

ANS: D REF: 107 OBJ: 5.4

36. How big is the smallest possible group?
a.
one person
b.
two people
c.
three people
d.
There is no real answer to this because it is based upon how the people interact with one another.

ANS: B REF: 107 OBJ: 5.4

37. With each increase in the size of a group:
a.
people feel more comfortable with voicing their opinion.
b.
the group has fewer options for problem solving.
c.
membership in the group may become less satisfying personally.
d.
there is very little impact on the interaction and experiences of the members.

ANS: C REF: 107 OBJ: 5.4

38. In any of your classes you are most likely to interact with:
a.
students who earn the same grades you do.
b.
students who seem to have physical characteristics similar to yours.
c.
students seated closest to you.
d.
students of the opposite sex.

ANS: C REF: 108 OBJ: 5.4 KEY: WWW

39. Which of the following communication structures allows the greatest equality of participation?
a.
the circle pattern
c.
the wheel pattern
b.
the all-channel network
d.
the free-for-all pattern

ANS: B REF: 108 OBJ: 5.4

40. In the _____ type of communication structure, each participant in the interaction has equal access to the others and an equal ability to become the focus of attention.
a.
circle pattern
c.
wheel pattern
b.
all-channel network
d.
free-for-all pattern

ANS: B REF: 108 OBJ: 5.4

41. In the _____ type of communication structure, interaction is reduced as a single individual gains the greatest power in the group.
a.
circle pattern
c.
wheel pattern
b.
all-channel network
d.
free-for-all pattern

ANS: C REF: 108 OBJ: 5.4

42. Which of the following is the best example of the wheel pattern of communication?
a.
sitting in a circle with other students for a class discussion
b.
you talking with your friends at a picnic lunch
c.
a classroom where the teacher stands at the front of the room and directs the classroom interaction
d.
a chat group over the web

ANS: C REF: 108 OBJ: 5.4

43. The _____ pattern of communication reduces interaction but doesnt concentrate power over the group into any one persons hands.
a.
all-channel network
c.
the wheel
b.
the circle
d.
the pivotal

ANS: B REF: 108 OBJ: 5.4

44. The degree of attachment and dependency that members feel to the group is referred to as:
a.
social control.
c.
the circle pattern.
b.
cohesion.
d.
cooperation.

ANS: B REF: 108 OBJ: 5.4

45. Which of the following has been found to contribute to cohesion among groups?
a.
larger size which creates greater stability
b.
infrequent interaction because people are less likely to get into disagreements
c.
a clear distinction between insiders and outsiders
d.
members with different characteristics that complement each other

ANS: C REF: 108 OBJ: 5.4

46. Groups may make extensive claims and demands on individual members because:
a.
individuals are generally uncomfortable making decisions on their own.
b.
group members feel coerced to conform.
c.
individuals feel that their happiness or welfare is dependent upon the group.
d.
social control is usually completely absent in small groups.

ANS: C REF: 108 OBJ: 5.4

47. Which of the following marriages is likely to be the most cohesive?
a.
Bob and Mary (married 28 years) who both grew up in small, rural towns in the south and are both Baptist.
b.
Tom and June who are a dual career couple. Tom lives in Los Angeles and Mary lives in Boston so they only see each other once every 2-3 months.
c.
Mark and Lilly who have been married for only 3 months. Mark is Jewish and grew up in New York City. Lilly is Catholic and grew up in a small west Texas town.
d.
It is impossible to say because there really hasnt been any research on the subject of cohesiveness.

ANS: A REF: 108 OBJ: 5.4

48. The Asch experiment:
a.
demonstrated the power of group influence on an individuals action.
b.
illustrated the degree to which a group will go in order to get members to conform.
c.
found that when confederates were of the same age as the research subject conformity in decision making was less likely.
d.
made no significant contribution to our understanding of conformity.

ANS: A REF: 109 OBJ: 5.5

49. One sociological conclusion from the Asch experiment is that:
a.
people have difficulty with size perception at great distances.
b.
we all have a strong tendency to conform to the norms and expectations of the group.
c.
most people are actually pretty assertive when they know they are right.
d.
women are more likely to be able to distinguish size differences than men.

ANS: B REF: 109 OBJ: 5.5

50. The experiments conducted by Stanley Milgram investigated the degree to which people will follow orders, even if they believe they are causing harm to someone. Milgram found that:
a.
as many as two-thirds of the subjects following instructions administered what were marked as dangerous electrical shocks.
b.
when the electrical shocks were noted as potentially dangerous, the majority of the subjects refused to administer them.
c.
there was complete conformity to the directions to administer potentially harmful shocks to others.
d.
when the student in the experiment screamed in pain, the subjects refused to administer any more shocks.

ANS: A REF: 109 OBJ: 5.5 KEY: WWW

51. Milgram found that conformity with directions to administer harmful shocks to other people was greatest when:
a.
an authority figure was in the room observing.
b.
the research subject had to hold the hand of the person receiving the shock.
c.
the subject could see the person they were administering the shock to.
d.
None of these; there were no variables that influenced the degree of conformity.

ANS: A REF: 109 OBJ: 5.5

52. In a small group, members go along with the norms and expectations of the group because:
a.
they are in agreement with them.
b.
they are uncertain of their own knowledge or views.
c.
they fear rejection or ridicule.
d.
All of these are reasons that members of small groups conform to the group norms.

ANS: A REF: 110 OBJ: 5.5

53. The most power method a group has to ensure that individuals go along with the groups opinions, even if they dont agree, is:
a.
ridicule.
c.
fear of embarrassment.
b.
expulsion from the group.
d.
lack of certainty about ones position.

ANS: B REF: 110 OBJ: 5.5

54. In general, it appears that when most small groups make decisions, the members:
a.
each try to exert their own influence over the decision making process.
b.
prefer to have the majority rule.
c.
strive to reach a consensus.
d.
prefer the quickest route to a decision.

ANS: C REF: 111 OBJ: 5.6

55. What effect does the adoption of the majority rule policy typically have on groups?
a.
It generally makes people happier and increases cohesiveness.
b.
It reduces cohesiveness.
c.
It reduces conflict between the members.
d.
It usually doesnt have any effect on the group.

ANS: B REF: 111 OBJ: 5.6

56. A risky shift occurs when:
a.
a group reaches consensus on a conservative position.
b.
pressures within a group are so strong that they stifle critical thinking.
c.
a group reaches consensus on an extreme position.
d.
a persistent minority group forces the majority to consider their objections.

ANS: C REF: 111 OBJ: 5.6

57. The text uses the term _____ for the phenomenon in small groups whereby the members opinions/positions tend to gravitate toward one option.
a.
severance
c.
convergence
b.
apportionment stereotype
d.
persistent nemesis

ANS: C REF: 111 OBJ: 5.6 KEY: WWW

58. When the group reaches a consensus on an extreme position, it is referred to as:
a.
tame shift.
c.
groupthink.
b.
risky shift.
d.
minority group shift.

ANS: B REF: 111 OBJ: 5.6

59. When a group reaches a consensus on a conservative position, it is referred to as:
a.
tame shift.
c.
groupthink.
b.
risky shift.
d.
minority group shift.

ANS: A REF: 111 OBJ: 5.6

60. When pressures to agree within a group are so strong that they stifle critical thinking and group members simply hide their real opinions, the group has experienced:
a.
groupthink.
c.
choice shift.
b.
convergence.
d.
minority objection.

ANS: A REF: 111 OBJ: 5.6

61. Sociologist Diane Vaughan investigated the tragedy of the 1986 Challenger explosion and found that engineers suspected damage to the O rings, but convinced each other the O rings would not fail. This is an example of:
a.
groupthink.
c.
the minority report.
b.
tame shift.
d.
risky shift.

ANS: A REF: 111 OBJ: 5.6

62. An individuals total set of relationships is called his/her:
a.
social bond.
c.
primary group.
b.
social network.
d.
secondary group.

ANS: B REF: 111 OBJ: 5.7

63. A social network includes:
a.
only primary groups that provide social support, like our family and friends.
b.
only secondary groups like our co-workers, etc.
c.
all the relationships we have.
d.
only relationships that are important to the individual.

ANS: C REF: 111 OBJ: 5.7

64. Within a social network strong ties are the:
a.
relationships with people we have the most in common with.
b.
relationships characterized by intimacy, emotional intensity, and sharing.
c.
relationships with the longest duration.
d.
relationships between people that resulted from other relationships.

ANS: B REF: 112 OBJ: 5.7

65. When researchers defined a strong tie as a relationship with someone an individual could discuss important matters with, from 1985 to 2004 the number of strong ties reported by the average individual:
a.
increased.
c.
did not change.
b.
declined slightly.
d.
went from three to none.

ANS: D REF: 114 OBJ: 5.7

66. The most important factor associated with the number and composition of strong ties a person has is:
a.
having children.
c.
income.
b.
gender.
d.
education.

ANS: D REF: 114 OBJ: 5.7

67. How does gender affect the strong ties that people have?
a.
Women have fewer strong ties than men.
b.
Women have more strong ties than men.
c.
Men are more likely to draw from their kin group to establish strong ties.
d.
Gender does not affect the number of strong ties reported.

ANS: D REF: 115 OBJ: 5.7

68. In the United States, research indicates that many people hear first hear about a job:
a.
from their relatives.
c.
through their weak ties.
b.
through their strong ties.
d.
through reference groups.

ANS: C REF: 116 OBJ: 5.7

69. What is the difference between ties and groups?
a.
Strong and weak ties apply to the group while primary and secondary apply to the relationships themselves.
b.
Strong and weak ties apply to one-to-one relationships while primary and secondary apply to the group itself.
c.
There really is no difference between the concepts of ties and groups.
d.
None of the above explains the difference.

ANS: B REF: 116 OBJ: 5.7 KEY: WWW

70. Voluntary associations are:
a.
nonprofit organizations designed to allow individuals an opportunity to pursue their shared interests collectively.
b.
one-on-one relationships that a person chooses to have (like a friend).
c.
organizations that provide volunteers who provide help to others.
d.
no longer in existence.

ANS: A REF: 117 OBJ: 5.8

71. Which of the following is the best example of a voluntary association?
a.
Joe and Bob are friends
c.
the PTA
b.
Patricia is a volunteer at the hospital
d.
your family

ANS: C REF: 117 OBJ: 5.8

72. Nonprofit organizations designed to allow individuals an opportunity to pursue their shared interests collectively are known as:
a.
bureaucracies.
c.
voluntary associations.
b.
primary groups.
d.
social networks.

ANS: C REF: 117 OBJ: 5.8

73. Studies have documented that people who participate in voluntary associations:
a.
report that they are more stressed out than those who do not.
b.
report greater life satisfaction than those who do not.
c.
tend to have lower life expectancies.
d.
tend to have low self esteem than those who do not.

ANS: B REF: 117 OBJ: 5.8

74. Membership in voluntary associations is greatest among people who are:
a.
under age thirty.
c.
upper-income.
b.
well-educated.
d.
single.

ANS: B REF: 117 OBJ: 5.8

75. According to sociologists a strong community is characterized by:
a.
an extensive infrastructure.
b.
a large tax base.
c.
few, but strong ties between the residents.
d.
dense, cross-cutting social networks.

ANS: D REF: 118 OBJ: 5.8 KEY: WWW

76. Online networks can generally be thought of as:
a.
generating weak ties.
b.
generating strong ties.
c.
decreasing social networks.
d.
generating weak ties that may develop into strong ties.

ANS: D REF: 119 OBJ: 5.7

77. A national survey found that _____ college students regularly or occasionally play video games.
a.
10 percent
c.
65 percent
b.
20 percent
d.
90 percent

ANS: C REF: 120 OBJ: 5.7

78. What does civic engagement mean?
a.
being engaged to be married and planning a non-religious ceremony
b.
running for public office
c.
being involved in the broader society
d.
having a lot of friends in the community

ANS: C REF: 120 OBJ: 5.7|5.8

79. Large, formal organizations with complex status networks are called:
a.
complex organizations.
c.
primary group networks.
b.
voluntary associations.
d.
communities.

ANS: A REF: 120 OBJ: 5.9

80. A special type of complex organization characterized by explicit rules and a hierarchical authority structure designed to maximize efficiency is called a:
a.
voluntary association.
c.
community.
b.
bureaucracy.
d.
culture.

ANS: B REF: 120 OBJ: 5.9

81. The sociologists most closely associated with the study of bureaucracies is:
a.
Karl Marx.
c.
Emile Durkheim.
b.
Georg Simmel.
d.
Max Weber.

ANS: D REF: 121 OBJ: 5.9 KEY: WWW

82. Which of the following would NOT be included in a list of the major characteristics of bureaucracies?
a.
a hierarchy of authority
b.
a complex division of labor and specialization
c.
organization based on primary groups
d.
the goal of maximum efficiency

ANS: C REF: 121 OBJ: 5.10

83. Ideally, how are candidates for positions in bureaucratic organizations selected for their jobs?
a.
on the basis of technical qualifications
c.
through union participation
b.
on the basis of personal connections
d.
by seniority

ANS: A REF: 121 OBJ: 5.10

84. The impersonality of relationships within a bureaucracy is intended to:
a.
eliminate favoritism.
c.
create a friendly environment.
b.
regulate the size of the organization.
d.
improve efficiency.

ANS: A REF: 121 OBJ: 5.10

85. _____ are designed to maximize efficiency through the implementation of a hierarchical authority structure and explicit rules.
a.
Voluntary associations
c.
Communities
b.
Bureaucracies
d.
Corporate cultures

ANS: B REF: 121 OBJ: 5.9

86. To refer to the pattern of norms and values that affects how business is actually carried out in an organization, sociologists use the term:
a.
bureaucracy.
c.
union.
b.
organizational culture.
d.
ritualism.

ANS: B REF: 122 OBJ: 5.10

87. Today, most bureaucratic organizations:
a.
try to follow the rules and regulations exactly so that efficiency can be maximized.
b.
try to create an atmosphere of good-will and common purpose, and are not totally bureaucratic.
c.
rarely use rules and regulations as guidelines because they tend to stifle creativity.
d.
encourage employees to work to the rule.

ANS: B REF: 122 OBJ: 5.10

88. The key to a successful organizational culture is:
a.
cohesion.
b.
having a union.
c.
having a well-defined hierarchy of authority.
d.
promoting an atmosphere with few personal relationships between the individuals within the organization.

ANS: A REF: 122 OBJ: 5.10

89. A major factor affecting the degree of bureaucratization in an organization is:
a.
the age of the top level executive.
b.
the degree of uncertainty in the organizations activities.
c.
how long the organization has been in existence.
d.
the proportion of women in the organization.

ANS: B REF: 123 OBJ: 5.10

90. Which of these is NOT generally viewed as a drawback of bureaucratic organization?
a.
ritualism
c.
structured inequality
b.
alienation
d.
impersonality

ANS: D REF: 123 OBJ: 5.11 KEY: WWW

91. When rules are followed so rigidly that they interfere with the purpose of the organization, or have nothing to do with the mission of the organization, this is termed:
a.
ritualism
c.
structured inequality
b.
alienation
d.
impersonality

ANS: D REF: 123 OBJ: 5.11

92. The stress on rules, hierarchies, and impersonal relationships within a bureaucracy:
a.
can sharply reduce cohesion within an organization.
b.
increases cohesion within an organization.
c.
decreases worker turnover rates.
d.
increases member satisfaction because everyone knows what is expected of them.

ANS: A REF: 123 OBJ: 5.11

93. When an emphasis on the rules in the workplace sharply reduces cohesion it can lead to:
a.
alienation
c.
McDonaldization
b.
ritualism
d.
structured inequality

ANS: A REF: 123 OBJ: 5.11

94. Colleen is an excellent employee who is not a morning person. She arrives to work about 15 minutes late everyday, but stays even longer than that at the end of the day. Her boss continually disciplines her and eventually Colleen loses her enthusiasm and is not working as hard. This is an example of which problem with bureaucracy?
a.
alienation
c.
McDonaldization
b.
ritualism
d.
structured inequality

ANS: B REF: 123 OBJ: 5.11

95. Critics of bureaucracy believe that the multiple layers of authority make the organization:
a.
impersonal.
c.
antidemocratic
b.
irrational.
d.
overly efficient

ANS: C REF: 123 OBJ: 5.11

96. Because of all of the levels of authority, Devin doesnt ever feel that his opinion reaches any of the decision-makers. He is losing morale, is absent more often, and thinking of changing jobs. This is an example of the problem of _____ in bureaucracies.
a.
alienation
c.
McDonaldization
b.
ritualism
d.
structured inequality

ANS: A REF: 123 OBJ: 5.11

97. The process by which the principles of the fast-food industry are coming to dominate more sectors of American society is called:
a.
bureaucratization.
c.
Fordism.
b.
standardization.
d.
McDonaldization.

ANS: D REF: 123 OBJ: 5.12

98. Which of these is NOT one of the principles of McDonaldization?
a.
efficiency
c.
calculability
b.
creativity
d.
predictability

ANS: B REF: 123 OBJ: 5.12

99. The principles of McDonaldization may actually result in less efficiency, drive customers away, and damage to the environment in the long run. Ironically, these are examples of the _____ consequences of the rational process of McDonaldization.
a.
bureaucratic
c.
inconsequential
b.
irrational
d.
latent

ANS: B REF: 124 OBJ: 5.12

100. McDonaldization leads to decision-making based upon:
a.
what is best for the customer.
c.
what is best for the manager.
b.
what is best for the employee.
d.
what makes the most profit.

ANS: D REF: 124 OBJ: 5.12

TRUE/FALSE

1. If you do not want a relationship with someone it is wisest not to accept any favors from them.

ANS: T REF: 101 OBJ: 5.1

2. Almost all voluntary relationships involve the expectation of exchange.

ANS: T REF: 101 OBJ: 5.1

3. Individuals are most likely to cooperate when faced with a common threat and cooperation seems in their self-interest.

ANS: T REF: 102 OBJ: 5.1

4. Sociologists consider any collection of two or more people to be a group.

ANS: F REF: 103 OBJ: 5.2

5. Most peoples happiness is unaffected by how well anyone else is doing.

ANS: F REF: 104 OBJ: 5.2

6. The smaller the group the easier it is for people to stick to their opinions, regardless of the feelings of the group.

ANS: F REF: 110 OBJ: 5.6

7. In terms of decision making, all groups move toward convergence.

ANS: T REF: 111 OBJ: 5.6

8. Strong networks have been linked to better health and longer life expectancy.

ANS: T REF: 112 OBJ: 5.7

9. Women have more strong ties than do men.

ANS: F REF: 114 OBJ: 5.7

10. Weak ties between people are of little social value.

ANS: F REF: 116 OBJ: 5.7

11. Most people in the U.S. maintain continuous membership in at least one voluntary association.

ANS: T REF: 117 OBJ: 5.8

12. Ties created via the internet are necessarily weak.

ANS: F REF: 118 OBJ: 5.7

13. Most large, complex organizations are bureaucracies.

ANS: T REF: 121 OBJ: 5.9

14. When workers in a bureaucracy follow every single rule, exactly as written, this causes the organization to break down.

ANS: T REF: 122 OBJ: 5.11

15. The rationalized business practices of McDonaldization lead to irrational consequences.

ANS: T REF: 124 OBJ: 5.12

SHORT ANSWER

1. Name the four types of processes that occur regularly in human relationships.

ANS:
exchange, cooperation, competition, conflict

REF: 101

2. What is the difference between competition and conflict?

ANS:
Competition is governed by shared rules; in conflict anything goes.

REF: 102

3. What are three characteristics of primary groups?

ANS:
personal and intimate relationships, face-to-face communication, permanence, a strong sense of loyalty or we-feeling, small size, informality, basic source of identity, strengthen integration into society

REF: 105

4. What is the difference between expressive and instrumental activities?

ANS:
Expressive activities provide integration and emotional support whereas instrumental activities are task-oriented.

REF: 105

5. What, according to scholars, might be the result of the growth in secondary groups and decline in primary groups?

ANS:
This may lead to the weakening of social control, weaker ties to neighbors and kin, and less pressure to conform.

REF: 106

6. What is the difference between a risky shift and a tame shift?

ANS:
A risky shift involves the groups convergence towards an adventurous option while a tame shift involves the groups convergence towards a conservative option.

REF: 111

7. What are the benefits of social networks?

ANS:
Strong social networks reduce the risks of suicide and depression, and promote health and longer life expectancy. For the community, social networks increase the likelihood of participation in political and civic issues.

REF: 112

8. What is a voluntary association?

ANS:
A voluntary association is a non-profit organization designed to allow individuals an opportunity to pursue their interests collectively.

REF: 117

9. List three characteristics of bureaucracies outlined by Weber.

ANS:
Division of labor and specialization; hierarchy of authority; rules and regulations; impersonal relationships; careers, tenure, and technical qualifications; and efficiency.

REF: 121

10. What is meant by the term organizational culture?

ANS:
It is the pattern of norms and values that affects how business is actually carried out in an organization.

REF: 122

ESSAY

1. What is meant by the term social processes? Define four types of social processes.

ANS:
Not provided

REF: 101

2. What is a group? How does group membership affect the individual?

ANS:
Not provided

REF: 103-105

3. What are some of the factors that affect the kind of interaction we experience in small groups? What effects do these factors have on social interaction?

ANS:
Not provided

REF: 107-108

4. Discuss the experiments by Asch and Milgram and what they contributed to our understanding of conformity. How do their findings relate to events today?

ANS:
Not provided

REF: 109

5. Define strong ties and weak ties and describe the importance of each from the standpoint of a) the individual, and b) society.

ANS:
Not provided

REF: 112-116

6. Evaluate the statement Nobody has a sense of community anymore.

ANS:
Not provided

REF: 117-119

7. Discuss some of the correlates of voluntary association membership. What are some of the consequences of participating in voluntary association?

ANS:
Not provided

REF: 117

8. What is a bureaucracy? What are the major characteristics of a bureaucracy, as outlined by Max Weber?

ANS:
Not provided

REF: 121

9. Discuss the criticisms of bureaucracies.

ANS:
Not provided

REF: 123

10. What are the four principles of McDonaldization? How has it created irrational consequences for society as a whole?

ANS:
Not provided

REF: 123-124

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