Ethical Legal Issues Canadian Nursing 3rd Edition by neial B.Smith-Test Bank

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Ethical Legal Issues Canadian Nursing 3rd Edition by neial B.Smith-Test Bank

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Ethical Legal Issues Canadian Nursing 3rd Edition by neial B.Smith-Test Bank

Keatings: Ethical and Legal Issues in Canadian Nursing, 3rd Edition

 

Chapter 2: Ethical Theoretical Perspectives

 

Test Bank

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. How may ethics best be described?
a. The philosophical study of morality
b. The study of right versus wrong
c. The beliefs and norms of a society
d. The application of ethical principles to moral issues

 

 

ANS:  A

Correct A: Ethics, the philosophical study of morality, is the systematic exploration of what is morally right and wrong.

 

Incorrect B: Ethics is the systematic exploration of what is morally right and wrong.

Incorrect C: The beliefs and norms of a society are known as values.

Incorrect D: Applying ethical principles to moral issues helps provide frameworks for ethical decision making; this is not a description of ethics.

 

DIF:    Cognitive level: Knowledge            REF:   p. 18

 

  1. Which of the following is the focus of normative ethics?
a. The analysis of morality without taking a moral position
b. The question of what is right or wrong
c. Explaining how moral attitudes and beliefs differ from person to person
d. Distinguishing between what is normal and what is not

 

 

ANS:  B

Correct B: Normative ethics focuses on the reasons or arguments that guide decisions about what is right and wrong. Basic principles and virtues are identified to guide morality and provide coherent, systematic, and justifiable answers to moral questions.

 

Incorrect A: Normative ethics seeks to guide a decision; it is not concerned with taking moral positions.

Incorrect C: A persons differing moral attitudes and beliefs help to shape his or her personal values; this is not a focus of normative ethics.

Incorrect D: A persons ideas of normal and abnormal would be considered values, but the ability to make this distinction is not in itself a form of ethics.

 

DIF:    Cognitive level: Comprehension     REF:   p. 19

 

  1. Which of the following fields of ethics applies ethical theories and principles to actual moral problems?
a. Philosophical ethics
b. Biomedical ethics
c. Nursing ethics
d. Applied ethics

 

 

ANS:  D

Correct D: Applied ethics is the field of ethics where theories and principles are applied to actual moral problems to assist in guiding decision making.

 

Incorrect A: Ethics in general is a philosophical study.

Incorrect B: Biomedical ethics explores moral issues and ethical questions associated with health care.

Incorrect C: Nursing ethics focuses on moral questions within all avenues of the nursing practice.

 

DIF:    Cognitive level: Knowledge            REF:   p. 19

 

  1. Which of the following exists when mutually exclusive alternatives can both be supported by strong moral reasons?
a. Moral distress
b. An ethical dilemma
c. A value conflict
d. A moral conflict

 

 

ANS:  B

Correct B: An ethical dilemma arises when the best course of action is unclear and there are strong moral reasons supporting each opposing position.

 

Incorrect A: Moral distress results when a person is faced with ethical issues or conflicting values and cannot deal effectively with them.

Incorrect C: A value conflict occurs when a nurse encounters another individual whose value system may be in conflict with the nurses own.

Incorrect D: A moral conflict is more accurately described as moral distress.

 

DIF:    Cognitive level: Comprehension     REF:   p. 19

 

  1. What is the result when a nurse believes that a course of action is correct, but is prevented (through a law or policy, for example) from carrying out that action or influencing the decision, resulting in feelings of guilt?
a. An ethical dilemma
b. Moral distress
c. Ethical reasoning
d. Moral irresponsibility

 

 

ANS:  B

Correct B: Moral distress results when a person is faced with ethical issues or conflicting values and cannot deal effectively with them.

 

Incorrect A: An ethical dilemma arises when the best course of action is unclear and there are strong moral reasons supporting each opposing position.

Incorrect C: Ethical reasoning is the process of ethical decision making, not the result of a situation.

Incorrect D: Moral irresponsibility is not relevant to ethical theory.

 

DIF:    Cognitive level: Comprehension     REF:   p. 19

 

  1. What is the correct terminology to describe a framework of principles and guidelines that helps to identify ethical issues and reconcile conflicts?
a. Ethical principles
b. Ethical theory
c. Ethical values
d. Descriptive ethics

 

 

ANS:  B

Correct B: Ethical theory is the study of the nature and justification of general ethical principles that can be applied to moral problems.

 

Incorrect A: Ethical principles help to form ethical theory; they do not identify ethical issues or resolve conflicts.

Incorrect C: Ethical values are ideals and may vary across individuals, groups, or populations; they do not identify ethical issues or resolve conflicts.

Incorrect D: Descriptive ethics encompasses explanations and factual descriptions of moral behaviour and beliefs; it does not identify ethical issues or resolve conflicts.

 

DIF:    Cognitive level: Knowledge            REF:   p. 18

 

  1. Which of the following describes the concept of equality for all Canadians?
a. A belief
b. A value
c. A principle
d. A moral dilemma

 

 

ANS:  B

Correct B: Equality for all is a societal value; the majority of Canadians subscribe to this ideal. A value has significant meaning to an individual, group, or society.

 

Incorrect A: A belief is individual and is something felt to be true; the concept of equality is not simply an individual belief.

Incorrect C: Principles help to guide moral decisions; the concept of equality is not a principle.

Incorrect D: A moral dilemma occurs when values are in conflict.

 

DIF:    Cognitive level: Application           REF:   p. 20

 

  1. A nurses support of client autonomy is an example of which of the following?
a. A value system
b. A personal value
c. A professional value
d. A bioethical value

 

 

ANS:  C

Correct C: Professional values build and expand on personal values. The value of client autonomy is a professional (and possibly personal) value and is evident in codes of ethics and professional standards for nurses.

 

Incorrect A: A nurses support of client autonomy is not an example of a value system.

Incorrect B: A nurses support of client autonomy may be an example of a personal value, but not exclusively.

Incorrect D: A nurses support of client autonomy is not an example of a bioethical value.

 

DIF:    Cognitive level: Comprehension     REF:   p. 21

 

  1. Which of the following theories may guide nurses to choose actions that will lead to the best consequences, outcomes, or results?
a. Utilitarian
b. Deontological
c. Normative
d. Relative

 

 

ANS:  A

Correct A: Utilitarianism is a teleological theory in which the ethical choice is the one with the best consequences, outcomes, or results.

 

Incorrect B: Deontological theories make explicit the duties and principles that should guide peoples actions; they do not focus on the consequences of actions.

Incorrect C: Normative theories are intended to provide frameworks and rules to guide decisions about what is right or wrong, but they do not focus on the consequences of actions.

Incorrect D: Relativism states that there are no moral absolutes and that the concept of morality varies across cultures and among individuals; it does not provide a guide to choosing the best actions.

 

DIF:    Cognitive level: Knowledge            REF:   p. 23

 

  1. What is the main principle underlying a rule-based theory of utilitarianism?
a. The theory is always deontological.
b. The theory considers individual acts.
c. The theory considers general patterns of behaviour.
d. The theory is the foundation of nursing ethics.

 

 

ANS:  C

Correct C: Correct, general patterns of behaviour are the foundation of rule-based theory. Rule-based theories consider general patterns of behaviour, whereas act-based theories consider individual acts. Both rule- and act-based theories are utilitarian (in which the best choice is the one with the best outcomes).

 

Incorrect A: Deontological theory (which includes the belief that standards for moral behaviour exist independently of means or ends) includes both rule- and act-based theories but is not the main underlying principle.

Incorrect B: Rule-based theories consider general patterns of behaviour, whereas act-based theories consider individual acts.

Incorrect D: Ethical principles, not rule-based theory, are the foundation of nursing ethics.

 

DIF:    Cognitive level: Comprehension     REF:   pp. 2526

 

  1. Which of the following is the basis for ethical decision-making frameworks?
a. Ethical reasoning
b. Ethical values
c. Ethical dilemmas
d. Ethical principles

 

 

ANS:  D

Correct D: Ethical principles are generally universal; they serve as rules to guide moral conduct and provide a framework for ethical decision making.

 

Incorrect A: Ethical reasoning is a process of ethical decision making using a framework.

Incorrect B: Ethical values are beliefs held by an individual or a group and may evolve over time; they are not the basis for ethical decision-making frameworks.

Incorrect C: Ethical dilemmas arise when the best choice of action is unclear and when strong moral reasons support each position; they are not the basis for ethical decision-making frameworks.

 

DIF:    Cognitive level: Knowledge            REF:   p. 32

 

  1. What is the main difference between deontological and teleological theories?
a. Teleological theory focuses on choosing correct actions.
b. Deontological theory focuses on ends or outcomes and consequences of decisions.
c. Deontological theory suggests that standards for moral behaviour are independent of the ends or outcomes of actions.
d. Teleological theory is rule-based.

 

 

ANS:  C

Correct C: Deontological theory suggests that standards for moral behavior are independent of the ends or outcomes of actions, whereas teleological theory focuses on the outcomes and consequences of actions.

 

Incorrect A: Teleological theory is focused on the end results or outcomes of actions, not on choosing the correct actions.

Incorrect B: Deontological theory is focused on acts and rules that support principles or duties, not on the ends or outcomes of decisions.

Incorrect D: Teleological theory is focused on the end results or outcomes of actions; it is not focused on rules.

 

DIF:    Cognitive level: Comprehension     REF:   pp. 23, 27

 

  1. Which of the following ethical principles is the foundation of informed consent?
a. Beneficence
b. Justice
c. Nonmaleficence
d. Autonomy

 

 

ANS:  D

Correct D: Autonomy, or self-determination (including the right to choose ones own path), is the foundation of informed consent.

 

Incorrect A: Beneficence holds that one must make a positive move to produce some good or benefit for another; it is not the foundation of informed consent.

Incorrect B: Justice is based on the notions of fairness and equity; it is not the foundation of informed consent.

Incorrect C: Nonmaleficence obliges people to act in such a way as to prevent or remove harm; it is not the foundation of informed consent.

 

DIF:    Cognitive level: Analysis                REF:   p. 33

 

  1. Which of the following influenced the shift in ethical thinking away from abstract rules that reinforce a deductive reasoning process?
a. Patricia Benner
b. Maternalistic attitudes
c. Feminine ethics
d. The principle of nonmaleficence

 

 

ANS:  C

Correct C: Feminine ethics argues for an inductive process in which the starting point is the individuals circumstances or personal story. It has influenced the shift in ethical thinking away from abstract rules that reinforce a deductive reasoning process.

 

Incorrect A: Patricia Benner observed the value of a nurses intuition and proposed that emotions are central to perception and rationality; she did not influence this shift in ethical thinking.

Incorrect B: Maternalistic attitudes have not influenced shifts in ethical thinking.

Incorrect D: Nonmaleficence is an ethical principle meaning to do no harm. This long-standing principle was also present during periods in which abstract rules reinforced a deductive reasoning process.

 

DIF:    Cognitive level: Knowledge            REF:   pp. 4243

 

  1. Which of the following considers the influence of the nursepatient relationship on ethical decision making?
a. Caring ethics
b. Autonomous ethics
c. Feminine ethics
d. Relational ethics

 

 

ANS:  D

Correct D: Relational ethics considers the influence of the nursepatient relationship on ethical decision making. If the entire focus is on ethical principles, and the relationship between the nurse and the patient is ignored, then relational ethics is not present and the nurse may become disengaged.

 

Incorrect A: Although caring is inherent in many ethical approaches, caring ethics is not a distinct or recognized form of ethics.

Incorrect B: Autonomy is an ethical principle; however, autonomous ethics is not a recognized form of ethics.

Incorrect C: Feminine ethics emphasizes relational ethics, but relational ethics is not exclusive to feminine ethics.

 

DIF:    Cognitive level: Comprehension     REF:   p. 45

Keatings: Ethical and Legal Issues in Canadian Nursing, 3rd Edition

 

Chapter 6: Consent to Treatment  

 

Test Bank

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. Which of the following is a component of informed consent?
a. The consent must be voluntary
b. The consent must be specific to the proposed treatment or procedure
c. The patient must be legally capable
d. All of the above

 

 

ANS:  D

Correct D: All of the above apply. In addition, the patient must be told of the risks, benefits, and drawbacks of the proposed procedure; the risks of foregoing the treatment; the treatment options and benefits; and who will perform the procedure.

 

Incorrect A: All of the above apply. In addition, the patient must be told of the risks, benefits, and drawbacks of the proposed procedure; the risks of foregoing the treatment; the treatment options and benefits; and who will perform the procedure.

Incorrect B: All of the above apply. In addition, the patient must be told of the risks, benefits, and drawbacks of the proposed procedure; the risks of foregoing the treatment; the treatment options and benefits; and who will perform the procedure.

Incorrect C: All of the above apply. In addition, the patient must be told of the risks, benefits, and drawbacks of the proposed procedure; the risks of foregoing the treatment; the treatment options and benefits; and who will perform the procedure.

 

DIF:    Cognitive level: Knowledge            REF:   pp. 160161

 

  1. Which of the following terms best describes a nurse who touches a client without the clients consent?
a. Abuse
b. Battery
c. Misconduct
d. Negligence

 

 

ANS:  B

Correct B: Legally, to touch another person without permission constitutes battery.

 

Incorrect A: Not enough details are known about this situation to determine if abuse of patient rights is definitely involved.

Incorrect C: Not enough details are known about this situation to determine if misconduct is definitely involved.

Incorrect D: Not enough details are known about this situation to determine if negligence is definitely involved.

 

DIF:    Cognitive level: Application           REF:   p. 156

 

  1. Which of the following ethical principles is the hallmark of informed consent?
a. Autonomy
b. Accountability
c. Fidelity
d. Beneficience

 

 

ANS:  A

Correct A: Autonomy, or the right to determine and act on a self-chosen plan, is the hallmark ethical principle of informed consent.

 

Incorrect B: Being accountable is a primary nursing value, not an ethical principle.

Incorrect C: Fidelity is an ethical principle involved in informed consent, but it is not the hallmark principle.

Incorrect D: Beneficience is an ethical principle involved in informed consent, but it is not the hallmark principle.

 

DIF:    Cognitive level: Knowledge            REF:   p. 159

 

  1. A patient in the nurses care is having surgery today and has signed only a general consent form. What other information must be documented?
a. Physician documentation of the patients consent
b. Physician documentation related to risks, consequences, and benefits of the procedure
c. Time and date the consent was received
d. All of the above

 

 

ANS:  D

Correct D: All of the above are required in this situation.

 

Incorrect A: All of the above are required in this situation.

Incorrect B: All of the above are required in this situation.

Incorrect C: All of the above are required in this situation.

 

DIF:    Cognitive level: Analysis                REF:   pp. 162163

 

  1. The nurse tells a patient, through speech and motions, that she will be giving an enema to the patient. The patient implies consent by nodding her head. The patient suffers rectal trauma and bleeding during the procedure. Is the nurse liable, and why?
a. The nurse is not liable because she explained the procedure and received the patients consent.
b. The nurse is liable because she did not have written, procedure-specific consent from the patient.
c. The nurse is liable because she did not note the date and time of the consent.
d. The nurse is liable because she did not obtain informed consent.

 

 

ANS:  D

Correct D: The nurse did not explain to the patient the possible risks of the procedure and is therefore liable because she did not obtain informed consent.

 

Incorrect A: Telling the patient that the procedure will be done is not the same as explaining the procedure.

Incorrect B: Written, procedure-specific consent is not usually required for the administration this type of procedure.

Incorrect C: Noting the date and time of the consent is important, but this does not relate to the nurses liability in this case.

 

DIF:    Cognitive level: Synthesis               REF:   p. 163

 

  1. The nurse administering an enema is concerned because the patient appears to be trying to stop the procedure. The nurse does not stop because the fluid is only partially inserted and continues until the task is completed. Is this nurse liable for battery?
a. This nurse is not liable for battery because once a procedure is started, it must be completed.
b. This nurse is liable for battery because there was too much fluid and this caused the patient discomfort.
c. This nurse is liable for battery because the patient withdrew consent.
d. This nurse is not liable for battery because consent was never obtained.

 

 

ANS:  C

Correct C: Patients have the right at any time to withdraw consent to treatment. Such withdrawal may occur in difficult circumstances, and it is important for the health care professional to ascertain whether the consent has been withdrawn. This may not always be clear.

 

Incorrect A: A procedure can be stopped at any time because the patient has the right at any time to withdraw consent to treatment.

Incorrect B: The amount of fluid inserted is not the deciding factor in this situation.

Incorrect D: Consent must always be obtained.

 

DIF:    Cognitive level: Analysis                REF:   p. 166

 

  1. Who is first considered to be a substitute decision maker if a married client cannot make decisions?
a. The clients spouse
b. The clients adult child
c. The physician
d. The clients parent

 

 

ANS:  A

Correct A: The clients spouse is considered to be a substitute decision maker before any others are considered.

 

Incorrect B: This clients adult child would not first be considered a substitute decision maker.

Incorrect C: The physician would not be considered the substitute decision maker.

Incorrect D: This clients parent would not first be considered the substitute decision maker.

 

DIF:    Cognitive level: Analysis                REF:   p. 168

 

  1. In provinces where children have the right to make decisions about their own health care, at which of the following ages or stages must a child be in order to consent to treatment?
a. The child must be at least 12 years old.
b. The child must be capable of understanding the treatment.
c. The child must be living away from home.
d. The child must be at least 16 years old.

 

 

ANS:  B

Correct B: In such provinces, the child must be old enough and mature enough to understand the nature and risks inherent in a medical procedure; there is no specific age requirement.

 

Incorrect A: A child younger than 12 years of age may be able to make a decision about his own health care.

Incorrect C: Whether a child is living at or away from home is not the criteria used to determine if he can make decisions regarding his own health care.

Incorrect D: Being 16 years of age or older is not a requirement for a child to make decisions regarding his own health care.

 

DIF:    Cognitive level: Application           REF:   p. 169

 

  1. The nurse is working in a busy ER, and an unconscious patient needs timely intervention to avoid rapid deterioration. Should treatment be withheld until consent can be obtained from a substitute decision maker?
a. Yes, because treatment without consent in this situation would be considered battery.
b. No, because this is an emergency situation and the nurse cannot be found negligent.
c. Yes, because in emergency situations the nurse is not protected against liability.
d. No, because in emergency situations the nurse is protected against liability.

 

 

ANS:  D

Correct D: Provincial laws protect health care professionals providing emergency care. If there is an imminent risk of further deterioration and finding a substitute decision maker would cause further delays, consent is not required and the health care professional may administer treatment without it.

 

Incorrect A: This statement is incorrect.

Incorrect B: Negligence is not the issue in this situation.

Incorrect C: This statement is incorrect.

 

DIF:    Cognitive level: Synthesis               REF:   pp. 171, 175

 

  1. Which of the following types of law regulates consent to treatment?
a. Custom
b. Common law
c. Regulations
d. Statute law

 

 

ANS:  D

Correct D: The existing common law requirements for an informed consent to treatment are enshrined into provincial statute law.

 

Incorrect A: Custom has no relevance regarding consent.

Incorrect B: Common law does not directly regulate consent.

Incorrect C: Regulations do not regulate consent, though they may describe procedural aspects related to consent.

 

DIF:    Cognitive level: Knowledge            REF:   p. 171

 

TRUE/FALSE

 

  1. Consent must be expressed either verbally or in writing and be based on relevant information.

 

ANS:  F

Correct: In addition to verbal and written consent, consent may also be implied. For any consent to be valid, it must be based on the relevant information required by the patient or client to make that choice.

 

Incorrect: This statement is only partially true; one type of consent is missing.

 

DIF:    Cognitive level: Synthesis               REF:   p. 157

 

  1. It is ethically appropriate for a nurse to withhold explaining all the risks of a procedure to a client in order to decrease the clients anxiety.

 

ANS:  F

Correct: It is unethical for a nurse to withhold explaining the risks of a procedure to a client. The client must also be told all of the risks of a procedure, including the risks of foregoing the treatment, in order for the clients consent to be informed.

 

Incorrect: It is unethical for a nurse to withhold explaining the risks of a procedure to a client.

 

DIF:    Cognitive level: Analysis                REF:   p. 160

 

  1. It is the nurses responsibility to determine if anyone else may be present to help the patient interpret or clarify the information being given.

 

ANS:  F

Correct: It is the patients choice whether to have a friend or family member present, not only to provide support but to interpret or clarify the information being given.

 

Incorrect: This decision is the patients to make; it is not the nurses choice.

 

DIF:    Cognitive level: Knowledge            REF:   p. 161

 

  1. An older adult patients initial and seemingly irrational refusal to give consent indicates mental incompetence.

 

ANS:  F

Correct: There may be any number of reasons that an older adult patient may refuse to give consent; this refusal does not necessarily indicate mental incompetence. The patient may be fearful of impending illness and may be in a state of denial.

 

Incorrect: There may be any number of reasons that an older adult patient may refuse to give consent; this refusal does not necessarily indicate mental incompetence.

 

DIF:    Cognitive level: Application           REF:   p. 167

Keatings: Ethical and Legal Issues in Canadian Nursing, 3rd Edition

 

Chapter 12: Ethical Issues in Leadership, the Organization, and Care

 

Test Bank

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. Which of the following organizational activities should be guided by ethical standards?
a. Recruitment practices
b. Leadership practices
c. Resource allocation
d. All of the above

 

 

ANS:  D

Correct D: All of the above should be guided by ethical standards. Organizational and clinical systems and processes must meet the same ethical standards as does practice. These systems include human resource policies such as recruitment and retention, leadership practices that involve support and mentorship for staff as well as succession planning, and ethical resource allocation.

 

Incorrect A: All of the above should be guided by ethical standards. Organizational and clinical systems and processes must meet the same ethical standards as does practice. These systems include human resource policies such as recruitment and retention, leadership practices that involve support and mentorship for staff as well as succession planning, and ethical resource allocation.

Incorrect B: All of the above should be guided by ethical standards. Organizational and clinical systems and processes must meet the same ethical standards as does practice. These systems include human resource policies such as recruitment and retention, leadership practices that involve support and mentorship for staff as well as succession planning, and ethical resource allocation.

Incorrect C: All of the above should be guided by ethical standards. Organizational and clinical systems and processes must meet the same ethical standards as does practice. These systems include human resource policies such as recruitment and retention, leadership practices that involve support and mentorship for staff as well as succession planning, and ethical resource allocation.

 

DIF:    Cognitive level: Synthesis               REF:   p. 385

 

  1. During night-shift report, the nurse notes that one of his colleagues cannot seem to stay awake. Despite prompting and tea, she remains drowsy, and the nurse suspects substance abuse. The nurse reports this to the charge nurse. Which of the following describes the charge nurses responsibility?
a. The charge nurse should fire the employee immediately.
b. The charge nurse should send the employee home immediately.
c. The charge nurse should send the employee for drug testing immediately.
d. The charge nurse should suspend the employee with pay immediately.

 

 

ANS:  B

Correct B: The employee should be sent home immediately after being told the reason for being sent home (that she is unfit for work at this time). The charge nurse notifies the manager, who then has the responsibility to follow up with this nurse prior to her return to work, express concern, and offer support, counselling, or medical treatment.

 

Incorrect A: Firing the employee immediately would be premature and not supportive. Firing is the role of the manager, not the charge nurse.

Incorrect C: Discussion with the employee must take place prior to drug testing, as the employee may admit to the substance misuse. If necessary, the manager would arrange for drug testing, not the charge nurse.

Incorrect D: Discussion with the employee must take place prior to any discipline. If necessary, the manager would be involved with the disciplinary actions, not the charge nurse.

 

DIF:    Cognitive level: Synthesis               REF:   pp. 388389

 

  1. Which of the following factors is having an impact on the current nursing shortage?
a. An aging population creates a growing demand on health resources.
b. An aging population means more young people are contemplating entering the nursing profession.
c. Advances in technology call for increased generalization of practice for new nurses.
d. All of the above

 

 

ANS:  A

Correct A: As the population ages, its health care needs increase. An aging population results in a growing demand on health resources.

 

Incorrect B: An aging population means fewer young people are available to potentially enter the nursing profession.

Incorrect C: Advances in technology call for increased specialization of practice for new nurses.

Incorrect D: All of the above are not correct.

 

DIF:    Cognitive level: Knowledge            REF:   p. 391

 

  1. Which of the following is the most ethical method for recruiting internationally educated nurses?
a. Recruiting nurses from developing countries and offering them a better way of life in Canada
b. Booking a table at an international job fair for nurses and discussing opportunities with nurses who attend the fair
c. Offering large financial and transition incentives for internationally educated nurses to come to Canada
d. Hiring internationally educated nurses through international recruitment agencies

 

 

ANS:  B

Correct B: Booking a table at a job fair is the most ethical method of attracting internationally educated nurses. Recruits are then voluntary, there are no incentives necessary, and the recruiters are not perceived as poaching.

 

Incorrect A: This is unethical, as developing countries can little afford to lose what resources they have.

Incorrect C: Incentives for internationally educated nurses may result in abuse from local nurses who may perceive reverse discrimination.

Incorrect D: International recruitment agencies often use aggressive strategies to lure internationally educated nurses away from developing countries with nursing shortages or promise financial or transition incentives that never materialize.

 

DIF:    Cognitive level: Synthesis               REF:   p. 393

 

  1. Which of the following best describes the expectations of a nurse caring for a patient with a different cultural background?
a. The nurse should ask another nurse with the same cultural background as the patient to care for the patient.
b. Nurses must be knowledgeable about all cultures and customs.
c. The nurse can identify the patients unique cultural practices during assessment and then plan the implementation of care and interventions accordingly.
d. Nurses should avoid discussion of unusual customs.

 

 

ANS:  C

Correct C: Nurses should undertake a comprehensive cultural assessment of their patients in an effort to understand their unique values in order to design a care strategy consistent with their values and beliefs.

 

Incorrect A: The nurse should be able to care for this patient without involving another nurse. It is impossible for nurses to be knowledgeable about the cultural backgrounds and values of all the patients they care for.

Incorrect B: It is impossible for nurses to be knowledgeable about the cultural backgrounds and values of all the patients they care for.

Incorrect D: Nurses should encourage discussion of customs that are important to the patient.

 

DIF:    Cognitive level: Application           REF:   p. 395

 

  1. Why are patients and clients from diverse cultural backgrounds at risk?
a. Language barriers always interfere with care.
b. Patients food preferences result in less than optimum nutrition.
c. Patients reluctance to disclose their feelings is an issue.
d. There may not be a shared understanding of what is meaningful to these patients and their families.

 

 

ANS:  D

Correct D: Nurses should engage in actions that respect and empower cultural identity and make attempts to understand the values of patients and clients with different cultural backgrounds.

 

Incorrect A: Language barriers can sometimes be an issue, but not always.

Incorrect B: Family members may bring outside food to patients, and in most situations the care is short-term, so diet is not a major issue.

Incorrect C: This is a generalization and is not appropriate.

 

DIF:    Cognitive level: Analysis                REF:   p. 398

 

  1. What does the term multidisciplinarity mean, with respect to the levels of team functioning?
a. Feeling competent and confident in ones own discipline
b. Being willing and able to work with others in the joint evaluation, planning, and care of the patient
c. Believing that oneself and fellow professionals in ones discipline can make an important contribution to care
d. Recognizing that other disciplines also have important contributions to make

 

 

ANS:  D

Correct D: This is the correct definition of multidisciplinarity.

 

Incorrect A: This phrase describes unidisciplinarity.

Incorrect B: This phrase describes interdisciplinarity.

Incorrect C: This phrase describes intradisciplinarity.

 

DIF:    Cognitive level: Knowledge            REF:   p. 400

 

  1. Patients family members are an important aspect of care, and family-centred care is an important model of care. Which of the following is an example of inappropriate family involvement in the care of a patient involving a language barrier?
a. Translation by family members during decisions about cancer treatment
b. Translation by family members to assist the patient to eat
c. Translation by family members when culturally appropriate comfort measures are being provided
d. Translation by family members to help identify subtle signs of discomfort in the patient

 

 

ANS:  A

Correct A: Family translation during important treatment decisions should be a last resort. Translation for significant care issues, where possible, should be performed by professional translators to avoid coercion and to ensure that any consent or refusal of treatment by the patient is informed.

 

Incorrect B: Family translation to assist with the patients mealtime is appropriate.

Incorrect C: Family translation during the provision of comfort measures is appropriate.

Incorrect D: Family translation to help identify subtle signs of discomfort in the patient is appropriate.

 

DIF:    Cognitive level: Synthesis               REF:   p. 407

 

TRUE/FALSE

 

  1. Organizational ethics deals with those values that establish standards and influence how the organization is perceived both internally and externally.

 

ANS:  T

Correct: The ethical culture of the organization influences its image and reputation, establishes the legitimacy of its role in society, and clarifies what the organization stands for.

 

Incorrect: This statement is true.

 

DIF:    Cognitive level: Knowledge            REF:   p. 386

 

  1. Distributive justice refers to the perception that processes have been fair and inclusive regardless of the outcome.

 

ANS:  F

Correct: Distributive justice relates to outcomes such as allocation of resources, salaries, benefits, and work conditions, whereas procedural justice refers to the perception that processes have been fair and inclusive regardless of the outcome.

 

Incorrect: This statement is false.

 

DIF:    Cognitive level: Knowledge            REF:   p. 387

 

  1. Nursing leaders are solely responsible for ensuring sound ethical practice and a healthy work environment.

 

ANS:  F

Correct: Nurses share accountability with leaders in ensuring sound ethical practice, a healthy work environment, and staff satisfaction in order to create a culture and climate conducive to positive patient care outcomes.

 

Incorrect: This statement is false.

 

DIF:    Cognitive level: Comprehension     REF:   p. 388

 

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