Ethics And Issues in Contemporary Nursing 4th Edition by Burkhardt, Margaret A. Test Bank

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Ethics And Issues in Contemporary Nursing 4th Edition by Burkhardt, Margaret A. Test Bank

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WITH ANSWERS
Ethics And Issues in Contemporary Nursing 4th Edition by Burkhardt, Margaret A. Test Bank

Chapter 2  Ethical Theory

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. Ethics is:
a. a formal process of making illogical and consistent decisions based upon ones beliefs.
b. a formal process of making logical and random decisions based upon moral beliefs.
c. a formal process of making logical and consistent decisions based upon moral beliefs.
d. a formal process of making logical and consistent decisions based upon religious beliefs.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

 

  1. The belief that people can figure out absolute moral rules that derive from the universe or a supreme being is the basis for which moral perspective?
a. Moral belief c. Deontology
b. Rationalism d. Naturalism

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1

 

  1. The nurse maintained confidentiality regarding a patients terminal illness even though family members would have provided emotional and financial support to the patient had they known of the diagnosis. Adhering to this principle regardless of outcome is an example of the application of which ethical theory?
a. Deontology c. Rationalism
b. Naturalism d. Utilitarianism

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1

 

  1. During a hurricane, there is no electricity in a hospital where floodwater is rapidly rising. An ICU nurse manually ventilates a patient with an ambu bag for 6 hours before she makes the difficult decision to leave her patient and help the solitary remaining nurse carry 12 newborns to safety. The nurses decision is most clearly supported by which of the following?
a. Deontology c. Rationalism
b. Virtue ethics d. Utilitarianism

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Abortion, even to save the life of the mother, would most likely be considered morally wrong by a person rigidly applying which type of moral theory?
a. Deontology c. Naturalism
b. Virtue ethics d. Utilitarianism

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1

 

  1. The Kantian maxim requiring that no action be judged as right, which cannot reasonably become a law by which every person should always abide, is known as:
a. the categorical imperative. c. deontology.
b. the practical imperative. d. utilitarianism.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1

 

  1. The Kantian maxim requiring that one treat others always as ends and never as a means is known as:
a. the categorical imperative. c. deontology.
b. the practical imperative. d. utilitarianism.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Aristotle developed the concept of:
a. virtue ethics. c. deontology.
b. utilitarianism. d. rationalism.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1

 

  1. ____ attributes differences in moral codes to social conditions, while proposing  that most people have underlying psychological tendencies that lead to similar moral judgments.
a. Rationalism c. Virtue ethics
b. Naturalism d. Deontology

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1

 

  1. What theory is based on the rationalist view that the rightness or wrongness of an act depends upon the nature of the act, rather than its consequence?
a. Deontology c. Kantianism
b. Formalism d. Act utilitarianism

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1

 

  1. The intense and critical examination of beliefs and assumptions is:
a. theory. c. philosophy.
b. ethics. d. religion.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Who is considered to be the father of modern utilitarianism?
a. Immaneul Kant c. Plato
b. Jeremy Bentham d. John Stuart Mill

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1

 

  1. A form of moral theory that embraces the uniqueness of cases, the culturally significant ethical features, and ethical judgement in each particular case is called:
a. virtue ethics. c. moral particularism.
b. naturalism. d. utilitarianism.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

 

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

 

  1. Which of the following statements accurately describes ethics? Select all that apply.
a. Ethics is concerned with the study of social morality and philosophical reflection about societys norms and practices.
b. Ethics furnishes us with the practical application of moral philosophy.
c. Ethics offers structured guidelines that tell us what we ought to do.
d. The study of ethics gives us a groundwork for making logical and consistent decisions.
e. Professional codes of ethics are tools that offer a formal process for applying moral philosophy.

 

 

ANS:  A, B, D, E      PTS:   1

 

  1. Beauchamp and Childress propose focal virtues that are more pivotal than others in characterizing a virtuous person.  These focal virtues include (select all that apply):
a. compassion. d. trustworthiness.
b. discernment. e. integrity.
c. temperance. f. devotion.

 

 

ANS:  A, B, D, E      PTS:   1

 

Chapter 10  Practice Issues Related to Technology

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. Which of the following can be both a benefit and challenge of technological advances in health care?
a. Supports healthy living c. Can prolong living
b. Availability and cost d. Alleviates suffering

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

 

  1. In assessing a patients quality of life (QOL), the nurse needs to understand that QOL:
a. is an objective measure of comfort and factors that make life worth living.
b. is only considered good if the patient feels fulfilled and can be independent.
c. generally means the same thing to most patients, families, and nurses.
d. includes subjective ideas about conditions of life and functional ability.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Since a prime nursing focus is to relieve suffering, nurses must understand that health care technologies:
a. are good because they always support a patients health and well-being.
b. may cause conflict between doing good and avoiding harm to patients.
c. are necessary interventions even if they cause patients to suffer.
d. may cause nurses to do harmful things to patients against their wishes.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Appropriate utilization of health care technology requires that health care providers, patients, and families understand its:
a. purpose, benefits, limitations. c. outcomes, benefits, cost.
b. cost, availability, usefulness. d. risks, availability, purpose.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Ethical dilemmas that arise from use of life-sustaining technologies may be associated with all of the following except:
a. attitudes and beliefs about when life begins.
b. attitudes about what constitutes death.
c. unreasonable expectations of medical interventions.
d. similar opinions regarding use of technology.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Ethical considerations related to situations of medical futility relate to which of the following?
a. Views about whether the intervention is prolonging living or prolonging dying
b. Values and views of involved parties regarding what is benefit or burden
c. Values of involved parties regarding availability and cost of the medical care
d. a and b
e. All of the above

 

 

ANS:  E                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Withholding or removing treatments where the burden or harm to the person is determined to outweigh benefits is:
a. allowing the person to die as a result of the natural progression of the disease process.
b. causing the painless death of the person in order to end or prevent more suffering.
c. providing the person the means to end his or her own life when they are ready to die.
d. following the directives to avoid suffering included in do not resuscitate orders.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Do not resuscitate (DNR) orders indicate that:
a. medical therapies and interventions are to be avoided.
b. life-sustaining interventions are to be discontinued.
c. cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is to be avoided.
d. palliative care is to be discontinued or avoided.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Palliative care includes all of the following except:
a. comprehensive, interdisciplinary, and total care.
b. aggressive treatment of chronic health problems.
c. comfort and support of patients and families.
d. delivery of coordinated and continuous services.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Ethical and legal obligation to protect the confidentiality of patient information directs nurses to do which of the following regarding electronic storing and transfer of personal health information?
a. Avoid using fax machines to transfer personal health information.
b. Share personal secure passwords with immediate co-workers only.
c. Rely on HIPAA regulations to assure the security of electronic devices.
d. Use password-protected screen savers and data encryption technology.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Instructions indicating a clients wishes regarding health care interventions or designating someone to act as a surrogate in making such decisions are called:
a. healthcare provider orders c. advance directives
b. palliative care d. nursing care plan

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

 

  1. _________ refers to situations in which interventions are judged to have very little or no medical benefit, or in which the chance for success is low.
a. Euthanasia c. Do not resuscitate (DNR)
b. Medical futility d. Palliative care

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1

 

  1. The ability to alter organisms genetically for a variety of purposes is:
a. eugenics c. genetic diagnosis
b. genetic screening d. genetic engineering

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1

 

  1. The process of creating a cell or an entire organism that is identical in every way to another is called:
a. stem cell research c. genetic screening
b. cloning d. eugenics

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1

 

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

 

  1. Which of the following disciplines generally make up an ethics committee? Select all that apply.
a. Nursing d. Chaplains
b. Medicine e. Clients family
c. Social work  

 

 

ANS:  A, B, C, D      PTS:   1

 

Chapter 20  Facilitating Patient Enpowerment

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. To enable patient empowerment, nurses need to recognize that:
a. health professionals know what is best for patients.
b. patients need help in making health care decisions.
c. patients are responsible for their own health.
d. health professionals give power to patients.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Patient empowerment flows from nursings focus on:
a. advocacy. c. paternalism.
b. patient care. d. locus of control.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Nursing attitudes that enable patient empowerment include all of the following except:
a. viewing nurse as partner, facilitator, resource for patients.
b. directing patients to decisions that support good health outcomes.
c. maintaining mutual trust and respect regardless of decisions.
d. being aware of personal values and beliefs related to power.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1

 

  1. When Rosalie is passing medications to one of her elderly patients, the patient tells Rosalie that she does not want to take the new medicine because she does not know what it is for and it makes her feel funny. Rosalie tells her that the doctor thinks it will make her feel better so it is best that she take it. Rosalies response is an example of:
a. patient empowerment. c. paternalistic behavior.
b. holistic caring. d. patient teaching.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Nursing knowledge that is needed in order to enable empowerment includes:
a. ethical principles and decision-making process.
b. values development and their impact on choices.
c. scientific principles and evidence-based practice.
d. a and b.
e. all of the above.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Nurses can enhance patient decision-making capacity by supporting all of the following except:
a. opportunities for choice. c. experiences of connection.
b. reliance on authority. d. deepening self-awareness.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1

 

  1. A patient who tells you that he cannot lose weight because his job keeps him on the road so he cannot exercise and his wife fixes too many high-calorie meals demonstrates:
a. internal locus of control. c. negative locus of control.
b. external locus of control. d. positive locus of control.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Which of the following are potential barriers to empowerment?
a. Comfort with change c. Limited skills
b. Sufficient knowledge d. Available resources

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Nursing skills needed for enabling empowerment include:
a. active listening and communication.
b. collaboration and negotiation.
c. intuitive and intellectual knowing.
d. a and b.
e. all of the above.

 

 

ANS:  E                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Nurses foster patient empowerment when they:
a. design and set appropriate health goals for patients.
b. guide patients in selecting appropriate health options.
c. design strategies within the patients sociocultural context.
d. tell patients what they believe would be most empowering.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

 

  1. The concept of empowerment relates to the ethical principle of:
a. beneficence. c. autonomy.
b. justice. d. nonmaleficence.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

 

  1. Individuals who believe that they are able to influence or control things that happen to them are considered to have a/an:
a. negative locus of control. c. internal locus of control.
b. external locus of control. d. positive locus of control.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

 

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

 

  1. Barriers to empowerment can include which of the following? Select all that apply.
a. Patients sufficient knowledge of resources
b. Paternalistic attitudes
c. Anxiety and fear
d. Willingness of the nurse to share decision-making power
e. Dependency
f. Mistrust

 

 

ANS:  B, C, E, F       PTS:   1

 

  1. Nurses can foster empowerment in patients in various ways that may include which of the following? Select all that apply.
a. Being a role model of self-empowerment
b. Giving patients opportunities to make choices
c. Providing support to patients
d. Helping patients discover how to access resources
e. Not becoming politically active regarding health care issues that involve vulnerable populations

 

 

ANS:  A, B, C, D      PTS:   1

 

  1. Empowerment is fostered through which of the following?  Select all that apply.
a. Self-discovery
b. Sense of connectedness
c. Support
d. Opportunities for choice
e. Decreased self-esteem
f. Having needed resources, knowledge, and skills

 

 

ANS:  A, B, C, D, F                                  PTS:   1

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