Evolution Making Sense Of Life 2nd Edition by Carl Zimmer -Test Bank

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Evolution Making Sense Of Life 2nd Edition by Carl Zimmer -Test Bank

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Evolution Making Sense Of Life 2nd Edition by Carl Zimmer -Test Bank

Test Bank, Chapter 2

 

  1. Carlos Linnaeus:

 

  • devised a system of taxonomy that is still used today
  • accepted the idea that most of lifes diversity arose through the process of evolution
  • believed that lifes diversity reflected a divine plan
  • a and b are correct
  • a and c are correct

 

  1. On which point(s) would Charles Darwin and Georges Buffon have likely disagreed:

 

  • the idea that the earth was formed according to the laws of physics
  • the idea that all life shares a common ancestor
  • the idea that species change over time
  • they would have agreed on all of these points

 

  1. On which point(s) would Charles Darwin and Georges Buffon have likely agreed:

 

  • the idea that all of life shared a common ancestor
  • the idea that species change over time
  • both are correct
  • neither is correct

 

  1. Jean-Baptiste Lamarck proposed:

 

  • bacteria represent some of the youngest species on earth
  • organisms can adapt to their environment
  • life arises spontaneously
  • all of the above
  • none of the above

 

  1. Which of the following ideas was NOT accepted by Jean-Batiste Lamarck?

 

  • bacteria represent some of the youngest species on earth
  • life arises spontaneously
  • organisms go extinct
  • none of the above

 

 

 

 

 

  1. On what point(s) would Charles Darwin and Jean-Baptiste Lamarck have disagreed:

 

  • organisms change over time
  • adaptation occurs when individuals change to adapt to their environment
  • species give rise to new species
  • they would have disagreed on all of the points
  • they would have agreed on all of these points

 

  1. On what point(s) would Charles Darwin and Jean-Baptiste Lamarck have agreed:

 

  • adaptation occurs when individuals change to adapt to their environment
  • life is spontaneously generated all the time
  • species give rise to new species
  • simple organisms have existed for a shorter period of time than complex organisms
  • they would have disagreed on all of these points

 

  1. Which of the following is/are critical for Darwins idea of natural selection:
  • individuals vary in their traits
  • natural resources are limited
  • some individual variation is heritable
  • All are critical
  • None are critical

 

  1. Which of the following is/are NOT critical for Darwins idea for natural selection:
  • no two individuals are exactly the same
  • variable traits can influence reproductive success
  • features of individuals change during their lifetime
  • None of these are critical
  • All of these are critical

 

  1. Homologous traits:
  • always perform the same function in different species
  • always perform a different function in different species
  • are inherited from a common ancestor
  • a and c are correct
  • b and c are correct

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Homologous and analogous traits differ because:

 

  • analogous traits perform the same function in different species while homologous traits perform a different function
  • homologous traits arise through convergent evolution while analogous traits do not
  • analogous traits arise through convergent evolution while analogous traits do not
  • a and b are correct
  • a and c are correct

 

  1. Which of the following statements is central to the idea of uniformitarianism:

 

  • natural laws that are observable today also operated in the past
  • catastrophic events such as floods and volcanoes have played the primary role in shaping the earths existing features
  • geological change happens gradually for the most part
  • a and c are correct
  • all are correct

 

  1. Nicolaus Steno:

 

  • was one of the first to recognize that fossils were the remains of once living organisms
  • recognized the basic principles of stratigraphy
  • a and b are correct
  • none of the above

 

  1. William Smith:

 

  • created the first geological map
  • devised a system of taxonomy still in use today
  • was the first to establish the fact of extinction
  • first proposed the idea of natural selection

 

  1. Which of the following was NOT proposed by Darwin:

 

  • sexual selection
  • genetic drift
  • DNA is the hereditary material
  • a and c
  • b and c

 

 

 

 

  1. How did James Huttons ideas about geology differ from earlier views?

 

Before Hutton, most people thought that catastrophic processes such as floods and volcanoes shaped the major features of the earth.  Hutton proposed that most of the major features of the earth arose through processes that were imperceptibly slow and observable in present day.  For example, a stream causes erosion, which over long periods of time can create features such as deep canyons. 

 

  1. How would early geologists such as William Smith explain the observation that certain species were found only in small number of rock layers while others were found in many different layers?

 

Smith recognized the importance of extinction and understood that rock strata were deposited in layers, with younger layers being above older layers.  He therefore probably would have explained this observation by positing that species found in only of few layers existed for a shorter period before going extinct, while those species found in many layers existed for a longer period of time before going extinct.

 

  1. Describe Jean-Baptiste Lamarcks ideas about evolution.

 

Lamarck argued that life was spontaneously generated all the time.  Initially, new life forms were simple, like bacteria, but over time changed to become more complex.  Thus, the simplest life forms on earth today were generated recently, while complex forms have been around for longer.  Lamarck also proposed that organisms adapted to their environment through a transformational processe.g. a giraffe might stretch its neck to reach for leaves, causing its neck to lengthen.  The offspring would inherit this acquired characteristic. 

 

  1. Charles Darwin and Jean-Baptiste Lamarck both argued that organisms could adapt to their environment. How did their ideas about how this occurred differ?

 

Lamarcks viewed adaptation as a transformational processindividuals themselves change to adapt to their environment, and these acquired changes are passed to offspring.  Darwin argued that adaptation occurred through the process of natural selection, which is a variational process.  Variation allows some individuals to reproduce more than othersthese variations are passed to offspring with the result that the population adapts to the environment over time.  Thus, one of the main differences between the ideas of Lamarck and Darwin is that Darwin thought that adaptation resulted at the level of the population, while Lamarck argued that individuals themselves can change to adapt to their environment. 

 

 

  1. Explain how the following individuals influenced Darwin:

 

George Lyell: Lyell was a proponent of uniformitariansmthe idea that the features of the earth are explained by observable processes that result in small, imperceptible changes over long periods of time.  The idea of gradual change of long periods of time is central to Darwins ideas about evolution.  Darwins ideas also require an old earth, which is suggested by uniformitarianism.

 

Thomas Malthus: Malthus described how human populations that grew too quickly would eventually outstrip resources.  This would create unequal survival and reproductive success, with only those able to adapt to societys needs would be successful.  Darwin recognized that this sort of struggle for existence existed for all living organisms.  Organisms compete to survive and reproduce and only those best adapted to their environment will be successful.  These ideas helped form the basis for natural selection.

 

  1. How can the wings of bats and birds be considered both homologous and analogous structures?

 

The fact that both have evolved wings for flight is an example of analogy because bats and birds did not inherit wings from their most recent common ancestor.  However, the bones that make up the forelimb are homologous as this bone structure was inherited from the ancestor of all tetrapods.

 

  1. How did the work of geologists such as James Hutton and Charles Lyell influence Darwin?

 

Hutton and Lyell both argued that slow, gradual, observable processes accumulate over time to produce large changes to features of the earth (e.g. rivers carving canyons).  This influenced Darwin in at least two important ways.  First, the ideas of Hutton and Lyell require an old earth, which was critical to Darwins arguments because lifes diversity would have taken a long time to evolve through descent with modification.  Second, Darwins idea that evolutionary diversity arises through slow, gradual, observable processes that accumulate over time has obvious roots in the arguments of Hutton and Lyell.

 

  1. Organisms are similar in many ways. Considering Darwins idea of descent with modification, what are two possible explanations for shared similarities between species?

 

  1. Common descent: organisms often share similarities because they inherited the same trait(s) from their common ancestor.
  2. Convergent evolution: organisms sometimes share similarities because natural selection has selected for similar traits in response to the same environmental selective pressures.

 

 

  1. Please describe at least one scientific contribution made by each of the following individuals.

 

Charles Darwin: proposed and described exhaustive evidence for the idea of descent with modification, which forms the foundation of modern evolutionary biology. 

 

Charles Lyell: popularized the idea of uniformitarianism, which posits that observable natural processes working over long periods of time have shaped features of the earth.

 

Alfred Russel Wallace: posited a mechanism for evolutionary change that was essentially the same as Darwins theory of natural selection.

 

Jean-Baptiste Lamarck: argued that life had evolved with species giving rise to new species.

 

Georges Cuvier: established that extinction occurs.

 

Carl Linnaeus: devised a system of taxonomy still being used today.

 

Georges Buffon: proposed that life is old and the earth has changed gradually.

 

  1. How did Charles Darwin draw on embryology to support the idea of common descent?

 

Darwin argued that the study of embryology can reveal that some structures that are highly dissimilar in adults may actually result from modification of underlying homologous structures/tissues present early in development. 

 

 

Test bank, Chapter 4

 

 

  1. According to the tree above:

 

  • Species B is more closely related to species G than species A
  • Species B is equally related to species G and species A
  • Species B is more closely related to species A than to species G
  • Species B is the common ancestor of species A, H, F, and G
  • A and d are correct

 

 

 

  1. Given the tree above, the similar body shape of Icthyosaurs and dolphins is best described as:
  • an example of convergent evolution
  • a homoplasious trait
  • an analogous trait
  • all of the above
  • none of the above

 

  1. Only a few species of garter snakes (Th. atratus, Th. couchii, and Th. sirtalis) have evolved the ability to tolerate a toxin produced by newts called tetrodotoxin (TTX). The phylogeny above shows how these three species are related. Referring specifically to Th. couchii and Th. sirtalis, tolerance to TTX is an example of a ______ caused by _______.

 

  • reversal; homology
  • homology; convergent evolution
  • homoplasious trait; convergent evolution
  • homplasious trait; homology
  • ancestral homology; natural selection

 

  1. If species A and B are more closely related to each other than either is to species C, then species A and B must:

 

  • share a more recent common ancestor
  • be more similar physically overall
  • share more derived homologies (synapomorphies)
  • both a and c are correct
  • a, b, and c are all correct

 

 

  1. Given the tree above, which statement(s) is/are correct?

 

  • The lineage leading to modern day lemurs is older than the lineage leading to modern day humans
  • The monkeys form a monophyletic group
  • a and b are correct
  • none are correct

 

  1. In the tree above, assume that the ancestor was an herb (not a tree) without leaves or seeds. Given this, the evolution of a tree habit in Lepidodendron, oak and yew is:

 

(a) is an example of convergent evolution between Lepidodendron and the oak-yew clade

(b) is an example of convergent evolution between oak and yew

(c) is a homologous trait for oak and yew

(d) a and c are correct

(e) b and c are correct

 

 

  1. In the tree above, assume that the ancestor was an herb (not a tree) without leaves or seeds. Which currently existing species has/have this same combination of traits?

 

(a) fern

(b) Psilotum

(c) clubmoss

(d) a and c are correct

(e) b and c are correct

 

  1. Which of the following is true of the most recent common ancestor of two currently living species?

 

  • it may still be alive
  • one of the two species can be more closely related to the common ancestor
  • one of the two species may morphologically resemble the common ancestor more than the other
  • all are true

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. The phylogeny above shows relationships between birds and four different dinosaur genera. Based on the logic of phylogenetic systematics, which of the following statement(s) is/are accurate?

 

  • Dinosaurs and birds form a monophyletic group
  • In order for dinosaurs to be a valid taxon, birds must also be called dinosaurs
  • Dinosaurs are a paraphyletic group
  • All of the above
  • None of the above

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Given the tree above, which tree below is incorrect? Answer: c

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Referring to the phylogenetic trees below which statement(s) is/are correct?

 

  • Tree A proposes that the camera eye of mollusks and vertebrates is homologous; Tree B proposes that the camera eye of mollusks and vertebrates arose through convergent evolution
  • Tree B proposes that the camera eye of mollusks and vertebrates is homologous; Tree A proposes that the camera eye of mollusks and vertebrates arose through convergent evolution
  • Tree B is more parsimonious
  • A and c are correct

(e) B and c are correct

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Referring to the tree below, which is an accurate statement about relationships?

 

 

  • a gorilla is more closely related to a human than it is to an orangutan

(b) gorilla is more closely related to an orangutan than a human

  • a gorilla is equally related to a human and an orangutan
  • an orangutan is related to chimps and orangutans but not humans

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Trap jaw ants have modified mandibles that function like a bear trapwhen a potential prey item triggers the jaw it snaps shut with amazing speed (up to 145 mph!). The groups highlighted in the phylogeny below include species that have evolved trap jaws. With reference to this tree it appears that:

 

  • the trap jaw could be a homologous trait for Formicinae and Ponerinae
  • the trap jaw is homoplasious (analogous) for Myrmicinae and Ponerinae
  • the trap jaw is homoplasious (analogous) for Odontomachus and Myrmoteras
  • a and c are correct
  • b and c are correct

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Given the tree above, which tree below is incorrect? Answer: A

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Given the tree above which of the following statements is correct?

 

  • A fish is more closely related to a frog than it is to a bird
  • The dog evolved before the turtle
  • A frog is the most recent ancestor of a dog
  • All of the above
  • None of the above

 

 

 

  1. Considering the logic of phylogenetic systematics, which of the following statements is/are true?

 

  • As depicted above the tree, the term Anthropoids is a valid taxonomical group
  • Monkeys are not a valid taxonomical group
  • Monkeys would be a valid taxonomical group if it also included tarsiers
  • a and b are correct
  • a and c are correct

 

 

 

 

 

  1. You are constructing a phylogeny of a hypothetical group of insects. Several of the species have a pattern of four veins on the forewing while another group of species has a pattern of six veins. The three outgroups in your analysis all have a pattern of six veins. From this you can conclude:

 

  • the trait of having six veins is a synapomorphy
  • the group of species with six veins are more closely related to each other than they are to the any of the species with four veins
  • the trait of having four veins is a synapomorphy
  • a and b are correct

(e) b and c are correct

 

 

 

 

 

  1. According to the tree above, which of the following statement(s) is/are accurate?

 

  • species D, F, I, and A form a monophyletic group
  • species E, D, F form a paraphyletic group
  • Species C is equally related to species A and E
  • All of the above

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Based on information provided in the tree above, which of the following statement(s) is/are accurate?

 

  • the frog, dog, turtle and lizard form a monophyletic group
  • the fish is the ancestor of the rest of the species in the tree
  • frogs are older than birds
  • all of the above
  • none of the above

 

  1. Male pipefish have a brood pouch in which they carry and protect developing embryos. The gene patristacin plays a major role in the formation and function of the pouch. An evolutionary analysis revealed that patristacin is involved in liver and kidney function in all other fish (other male fish do not produce a brood pouch).  This provides an example of:

 

  • co-option
  • irreducible complexity
  • group selection
  • tradeoffs

 

  1. The hominin fossil record suggests:

 

  • bipedality evolved before larger brain size
  • larger brain size evolved before bipedality
  • bipedality and larger brain size both appear in the fossil record at about the same time
  • it is clear that bipedality evolved early, but we have little information regarding the increase in brain size

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. You are using maximum parsimony to determine the relationships among six species (A, B, C, D, E, and F). You examine 8 different traits for the six species and an outgroup. Below you will find the data matrix.

 

        Trait          
    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Species A 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 1
  B 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 1
  C 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 1
  D 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 1
  E 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
  F 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 1
  Out 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

 

(a) Which traits are not useful for distinguishing relationships among species A, B, C, D, E and F?

 

Trait 4: ancestral homologies are not useful for distinguishing relationships because all species in the ingroup have the trait.

Trait 6: only one species has this trait, thus it is not a synapomorphy for any group

 

(b) Given below are two possible tree topologies for these species.  Based on the principle of maximum parsimony, circle the tree that most likely represents the true relationships among these species.  Please show your work (i.e. map the traits with tick marks onto each tree.  Beside each tick mark give the number of the trait).  Please include all traits, even those you determined were not useful in part A.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Here is another data matrix to give a different answer:
 

 

       

Trait

         
    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Species A 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0
  B 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 1
  C 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0
  D 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
  E 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
  F 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0
  Out 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

 

 

 

  1. You are having coffee with a couple of friends. One says, I saw a beautiful dinosaur in my yard this morning. The other one says, Youre crazy, you couldnt have seen a dinosaur!  Use the phylogeny above, which includes birds and four different dinosaur genera, and the logic of phylogenetic systematics, to argue that maybe the first friend isnt so crazy after all.

 

The logic of phylogenetic systematics is that formal names should only be given to groups that are monophyletic.  Dinosaurs, without birds, form a paraphyletic group, while the grouping is monophyletic if birds are included.  If we are going to use the term dinosaur at all, we would need to call birds dinosaurs.  Otherwise it doesnt make sense because some dinosaurs would be more closely related to birds than they are to other dinosaurs.

 

  1. How does the fossil record provide evidence that the use of feathers for flight by birds is an exaptation?

 

The fossil record clearly shows that many dinosaurs closely related to modern birds had feathers.  Anatomically there is no way these dinosaurs could have taken flight.  Hence, it appears that feathers evolved for something other than flight and were later co-opted for flight when birds took to the air. 

 

  1. Considering human evolution, please describe how the relationship between humans and other great apes can be used to make predictions about the types of transitional fossils we expect to find.

 

In comparing humans with their closest living relatives, several traits appear to be derived in the human lineage including bipedalism, larger brain, reduced canines, reduce brow ridge, etc.  We expect that these traits arose gradually over evolutionary time in our lineage.  Thus, we can predict that we should find fossils of extinct organisms with forms of these traits that are intermediate between humans and other great apes.  For example, we would expect to find hominins with brains that are larger than modern-day chimpanzees, but smaller than humans. 

 

  1. Scientists have long been interested in the question of whether the evolution of bipedalism and increased brain size in the human lineage were in some way intertwinedi.e. the evolution of the one of the traits facilitated the evolution of the other. Using information from the fossil record, discuss the plausibility of the following two hypotheses:

 

  1. Big brains appear to have facilitated the evolution of bipedality. Having a larger brain enabled early hominins to forage in large social groups.  The collective advantage of having larger groups allowed hominins to scavenge more efficiently.  The larger brain also facilitated hunting live organisms.  In this context, bipedality was favored because it allowed hominins to move faster.

 

  1. Bipedality appears to have facilitated the evolution of larger brain size. Bipedalism frees the hands, which allowed for the production of advanced stone tools.  This enabled efficient hunting of animals that provided a high protein diet that may have led to an increase in brain size.

 

Based on the fossil record, hypothesis B seems more plausible.  Early hominins such as Ardipithecus, were already on their way to becoming bipedal but retained small brain sizes.  In general, current evidence from the fossil record suggests that larger brain size did not evolve until much later.  Thus, hypothesis A does not seem plausible in light of current evidence, while hypothesis B is at least plausible.

 

 

 

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