Evolutionary Analysis 5th Edition By Herron Freeman Test Bank

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Evolutionary Analysis 5th Edition By Herron Freeman Test Bank

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COMPLETE TEST BANK WITH ANSWERS
 
Evolutionary Analysis 5th Edition By Herron Freeman Test Bank
SAMPLE QUESTIONS

 

Evolutionary Analysis, 5e (Herron/Freeman)

Chapter 1    A Case for Evolutionary Thinking: Understanding HIV

 

  • In which of the following regions has AIDS killed the largest number of individuals? A) India

 

  1. B) Sub-Saharan Africa C) United States

 

  1. D) China

 

  1. E) United Kingdom Answer: B Section: 1.1

 

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

  • The HIV virus contains all of the following components except
  1. integrase
  2. double-stranded RNA
  3. single-stranded RNA
  4. reverse transcriptase
  5. protease

Answer:  B

Section: 1.1

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

  • The acronym HIV stands for which of the following? A) human intercellular virus

 

  1. B) human immune virus

 

  1. C) human immunodeficiency virus D) human immunity virus

 

  1. E) human immunodeficiency vector Answer: C

 

Section: 1.1

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

  • Which of the following enzymes is responsible for transcribing viral RNA into DNA? A) RNA polymerase

 

  1. B) reverse transcriptase C) DNA polymerase D) reverse integrase E) RNA duplicase Answer: B

 

Section: 1.1

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • The proteins that enable the HIV virus to bind to cells are typically CD4 and CCR5. On what type of cells are these proteins typically observed?

 

  1. A) plasma cells B) dendritic cells

 

  1. C) effector helper T cells D) memory helper T cells E) both C and D Answer: E

 

Section: 1.1

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

  • The AIDS phase of HIV infection begins when the concentration of CD4 T cells in the blood drops below what concentration?

 

  1. A) 2,000 cells per cubic millimeter B) 1,000 cells per cubic millimeter C) 500 cells per cubic millimeter D) 200 cells per cubic millimeter E) No CD4 T cells are observed. Answer: D

 

Section: 1.1

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

  • Which of the following drug categories are used to treat HIV infections?
  1. integrase inhibitors
  2. protease inhibitors
  3. reverse transcriptase inhibitors
  4. DNAse inhibitors
  5. fusion inhibitors

Answer: D

Section: 1.2

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

  • Coreceptor inhibitors block HIV infection by preventing which of the following? A) binding of the HIV virion onto the plasma membrane

 

  1. B) binding of the HIV virion onto the CCR5 receptor C) binding of the HIV virion onto the gp120 protein D) degrading the coreceptor so the virion cannot attach E) binding of the HIV virion onto the CD4 receptor Answer: B

 

Section: 1.2

Skill:  Application/Analysis

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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9) What is the effect of the 32 allele of CCR5 on HIV binding?

  1. appears on the surface of CD4 T cells, but the HIV virion is unable to infect the host cell
  2. does not appear on the surface of CD4 T cells
  3. appears on the surface of the CD4 T cells and inactivates the virion upon binding
  4. interferes with binding of the virion to the CD4 receptor protein

 

  1. appears on the surface of the CD4 T cells and causes the virion to lyse upon binding Answer: B

 

Section: 1.3

Skill:  Application/Analysis

 

  • The 32 allele of CCR5 is found at the highest frequency in which of the following populations?

 

  1. A) Africans B) Japanese

 

  1. C) North Americans D) Europeans

 

  1. E) South Americans Answer: D Section: 1.3

 

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

  • HIV-1 is believed to have been transmitted to humans from which of the following organisms?

 

  1. A) gorillas
  2. B) sooty mangabeys

 

  1. C) African green monkeys D) chimpanzees

 

  1. E) baboons Answer: D Section: 1.4

 

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

  • HIV-1 Group M is responsible for 95% of human infections. When is it estimated that HIV-1 Group M was transferred to humans?

 

  1. A) 1980 B) 1960 C) 1930 D) 1995 E) 1900 Answer: C Section: 1.4

 

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • Antibodies and killer T cells recognize HIV or HIV-infected cells by binding to short pieces of viral proteins displayed on the virus or the infected host cell. These short pieces of viral proteins are called ________.

 

  1. A) coat proteins B) virosomes C) proteosomes D) epitopes

 

  1. E) episomes Answer: D Section: 1.5

 

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

  • Tetherin is an important protein produced by the host. What is the function of tetherin in protecting a host cell from HIV?

 

  1. A) ties maturing virions to the membrane of the host cell, thereby preventing the release of the mature virus

 

  1. B) binds the virus to the external host cell membrane, thereby preventing the virus from entering the host cell

 

  1. C) binds the viral RNA to reverse transcriptase, thus preventing synthesis of the viral DNA D) binds the two viral RNA strands together, thus preventing the transcription of viral DNA in the host cell

 

  1. E) causes the maturing virions to aggregate together, thus preventing their release from the host cell

 

Answer: A

Section: 1.5

Skill:  Application/Analysis

 

  • Early in the infection with HIV, most virions bind to the host cell using CCR5 as a coreceptor. As the infection progresses, the HIV population evolves to use an alternate coreceptor. What is the alternate coreceptor these X4 viruses utilize?

 

  1. A) Tetherin
  2. B) CCR5
  3. C) vpu
  4. D) TRIM5

 

  1. E) CXCR4 Answer: E Section: 1.5

 

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

  • In what region of the world is the incidence of infection with HIV highest?

Answer: Sub-Saharan Africa

Section: 1.1

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • Originally, HIV was thought to be restricted to transmission during homosexual contact between gay men. List other ways in which HIV is currently known to be transmitted.

 

Answer: HIV can be transmitted by heterosexual sex, oral sex, needle sharing, transfusion with contaminated blood products, other unsafe medical procedures, childbirth and breast-feeding. Section: 1.1

 

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

  • What does the acronym AIDS stand for?

Answer: Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome

Section: 1.1

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

  • What viral coat protein typically binds first to the CD4 receptor on helper T cells? Answer: gp120

 

Section: 1.1

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

  • When AZT is used to treat HIV infections, why does resistance to AZT usually develop? Answer: Mutations present in the viral population, due to the lack of proofreading and high error rate of the viral reverse transcriptase, enable mutant virions to discriminate against the incorporation of AZT during transcription.

 

Section: 1.2

Skill:  Application/Analysis

 

  • It has been observed that viral particles often revert (back mutate to non-AZT-resistant populations when treatment with AZT is discontinued. What is the most likely reason for this observation?

 

Answer: There is no more selective pressure applied to the viral population, and in the absence of AZT the viral particles that reproduce most efficiently have not evolved enough to have the ability to discriminate against AZT.

 

Section: 1.2

Skill:  Application/Analysis

 

  • What is the molecular mechanism by which reverse transcriptase inhibitors, such as AZT, prevent viral replication?

 

Answer: These molecules are analogues of the nucleotide building blocks of DNA, and typically prevent binding or elongation of the of the transcribed DNA molecule.

 

Section: 1.2

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

  • In what host cell protein is the 32 mutation found, and what type of mutation is this? Answer: The 32 mutation is found in the CCR5 coreceptor on CD4 helper T cells, and is a 32-base pair deletion.

 

Section: 1.3

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

 

 

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  • Explain the phylogenetic relationship between humans, chimpanzees, and monkeys in the transmission of the current predominant deadly strain in humans, HIV-1.

 

Answer: HIV-1 is believed to have originated in monkeys as an SIV (simian immunodeficiency virus); SIV was passed from monkeys to chimpanzees, and SIV was passed to and mutated into HIV-1 sometime around 1930.

 

Section: 1.4

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

  • Explain the mechanism HIV uses to avoid destruction by antibodies present in the human immune system.

 

Answer: The virus is constantly mutating its surface proteins, and these frequent changes in epitopes on the viral surface prevent the host cell from being able to recognize the virus over time.

 

Section: 1.5

Skill:  Application/Analysis

 

  • Following long periods of infection with HIV, an X4 strain often evolves. What evolutionary advantage does the X4 strain confer on the viral population, and what specific protein does this strain interact with?

 

Answer: The evolutionary advantage of this strain is that it can infect a different population of T cells. The alternate population of T cells contains the coreceptor CXCR4 instead of the CCR5 coreceptor.

 

Section: 1.5

Skill:  Application/Analysis

 

  • What is the function of the product of the viral gene vpu in human infections of HIV? Answer: The viral gene vpu (in a similar manner to the viral protein nef) blocks the action of the host protein tetherin, which normally adheres to viral particles and attaches them to the host cell membrane and prevents their release.

 

Section: 1.5

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

  • What steps are involved in producing the HIV GP120 protein? List all processes and host

 

cellular structures involved from the point of initial infection with viral RNA to the production of the mature virion outside of the host cell.

 

Section: 1.1

Skill:  Application/Analysis

 

  • Highly active antiretroviral therapies (HAART) have become the treatment method of choice in treating human HIV infections. What is required for a treatment to be classified as HAART, and why have these treatments proven so effective in the treatment of HIV infections?

 

Section: 1.2

Skill: Synthesis/Evaluation

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • If an individual is infected with HIV that goes undetected and untreated, the infection follows a standard clinical course of progression. Explain the three sequential phases of untreated HIV infection, the approximate times over which these phases occur, and the corresponding levels of both HIV RNA and CD4 T cells circulating in the host bloodstream.

 

Section: 1.1

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

Evolutionary Analysis, 5e (Herron/Freeman)

Chapter 3    Evolution by Natural Selection

 

  • Evolution by natural selection was conceived and written about in the 1800s by ________. A) Alfred Russel Wallace

 

  1. B) Charles Darwin C) W. C. Wells D) Patrick Matthew E) All of the above Answer: E Section: 3.0

 

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

  • Natural selection ________.
  1. works on populations, but its long-term effect is rendered on individuals
  2. works on individuals, but its long-term effect is rendered on populations
  3. can work only on populations of genetically identical individuals

 

  1. works regardless of the amount of genetic variability in populations Answer: B

 

Section: 3.0/3.2

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

  • Darwin studied and wrote extensively about the mechanism known as artificial selection. Artificial selection is similar to natural selection, except that ________.

 

  1. A) natural selection works toward a specific goal

 

  1. B) artificial selection relies on preexisting variations in populations; natural selection does not C) artificial selection produces varieties that would be less likely be favored in nature

 

  1. D) artificial selection produces varieties of less interest to humans than natural selection Answer: C

 

Section: 3.1/3.2

Skill:  Application/Analysis

 

  • Varieties produced under domestication via artificial selection most generally have traits that

________.

 

  1. A) would continue to be perpetuated in the wild as well as, or better than, those produced by natural selection

 

  1. B) are based only on variations that already exist in populations

 

  1. C) are based only on new mutations that have arisen recently in domesticated varieties D) are not typically well adapted in a wild setting

 

Answer: D

Section: 3.1

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • Tomatoes carry a gene called fw2.2 that encodes a protein made during early fruit developmentthe job of which is to repress cell division. Additionally, researchers have identified a second gene called fas that controls the number of compartments in the mature fruit. Artificial selection leading to the production of very large tomatoes has apparently capitalized on

________.

 

  1. A) alleles associated with low production of the repressor protein and an increase in the number of fruit compartments

 

  1. B) alleles associated with high production of the repressor protein and an increase in the number of fruit compartments

 

  1. C) alleles associated with low production of the repressor protein and a decrease in the number of fruit compartments

 

  1. D) alleles associated with high production of the repressor protein and a decrease in the number of fruit compartments

 

Answer: A

Section: 3.1

Skill:  Application/Analysis

 

  • When the Darwin/Wallace theory of natural selection is summarized, four central postulates emerge. Which of the following is NOT one of these four natural selection postulates?

 

  1. A) Variations exist in any given generation of a species. B) Variations in traits are produced by mutations.
  2. C) Variations are, at least in part, heritable.

 

  1. D) Those individuals whose variations confer an advantage are more likely to survive and reproduce.

 

Answer:  B

Section: 3.2

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

  • Which of the following statements best summarizes natural selection?
  1. Organisms evolve in order to become better adapted to the environment.
  2. Individuals who are most fit will survive.

 

  1. Traits that promote survival and reproduction become more frequent in species from one generation to the next.

 

  1. Organisms change in order to become adapted to new environments.

Answer: C

Section: 3.2

Skill:  Application/Analysis

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • A trait that confers a greater level of fitness, relative to those who lack it, is called a(n)

 

________. A) adaptation B) mutation C) variation D) allele

 

  1. E) None of the above. Answer: A Section: 3.2

 

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • In the accompanying figure of Jones and Reithels work with snapdragons, what is the most likely outcome if these plants were in a natural setting?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  1. A 2% change is too small to be significant, so yellow and white flowers will remain in roughly equal percentages in future generations.

 

  1. Yellow and white flowers will oscillate in frequencies, depending on environmental conditions such as rainfall.

 

  1. Yellow flowers will continue to increase in frequency, as compared to white flowers, over time.

 

  1. Because the yellow trait is recessive, yellow flowers will ultimately take over the population. Answer: C

 

Section: 3.3

Skill:  Application/Analysis

 

10) Evolution by natural selection ________.

 

  1. requires that multiple unverified assumptions are made before it can be considered a viable explanation

 

  1. is only a theory and therefore not testable
  2. can be tested experimentally
  3. can be tested observationally
  4. Both C and D.

Answer: E

Section: 3.3/3.4

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

  • Which of the following issues constitute a threat(s) to estimating the heritability of the Galapagos Island finches?

 

  1. A) bisidentified paternity

 

  1. B) conspecific nest parasitism C) shared environments

 

  1. D) maternal effects E) All of the above. Answer: E Section: 3.4

 

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • The accompanying figure shows data on composite values for beak size, beak shape, and body size for the medium ground finch (Geospiza fortis) inhabiting Daphne Major. Complete data sets were collected from 1973 onward.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

For each of the three graphs in the accompanying figure, the 95% confidence intervals are shown as vertical bars extending above and below each data point for each year. The fact that many of these 95% confidence intervals do not overlap with the data from 1973 (the original reference point for this study) do not overlap reveals that ________.

 

  1. no detectable change in these phenotypes was measured
  2. no evolution can be documented
  3. detectable change in phenotypes was observed, but the changes were not heritable
  4. detectable evolution by natural selection did occur
  5. None of these is an accurate statement.

Answer: D

Section: 3.4

Skill:  Application/Analysis

 

 

 

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  • The accompanying figure shows data on composite values for beak size, beak shape, and body size for the medium ground finch (Geospiza fortis) inhabiting Daphne Major. Complete data sets were collected from 1973 onward.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The figure shows that ________.

 

  1. the population of Geospiza fortis evolved a bigger beak in response to both droughts (1977 and 2003-04)

 

  1. the population of Geospiza fortis evolved a bigger beak in response to the 1977 drought and then evolved a smaller beak in response to the 2003-04 drought

 

  1. the population of Geospiza fortis evolved a smaller beak in response to both droughts (1977 and 2003-04)

 

  1. the population of Geospiza fortis did not evolve at all in response to either drought (1977 and 2003-04)

 

Answer:  B

Section: 3.4

Skill:  Application/Analysis

 

 

 

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  • Regarding the nature of natural selection, which of the following is NOT an accurate statement?

 

  1. A) Populations evolve traits by natural selection that will be useful for future environmental changes.

 

  1. B) Natural selection acts on the phenotypes of individuals, but evolution occurs with changes in allele frequencies in populations.

 

  1. C) Natural selection can and does produce features that are less than perfect adaptations. D) Natural selection operates as a systematic, nonprogressive mechanism.

 

Answer: A

Section: 3.5

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

  • Darwin developed his theory of natural selection despite having an incomplete and/or inaccurate knowledge base from which to work. Which of the following were problems for Darwin?

 

  1. A) the source of variations in populations
  2. B) an understanding of inheritance patterns from one generation to the next

 

  1. C) The accepted age of the Earth was far too young to allow for the gradual changes Darwin envisioned.

 

  1. D) All of the above. Answer: D Section: 3.6

 

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

  • Which of the following U.S. Supreme Court decisions struck down laws prohibiting the teaching of evolution?

 

  1. A) The State of Tennessee v. John Thomas Scopes, 1925 B) Epperson v. Arkansas, 1968

 

  1. C) Edwards v. Aguillard, 1987

 

  1. D) Tammy Kitzmiller, et al. v. Dover Area School District, et al., 2005 Answer: B

 

Section: 3.7

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

  • Darwin confirmed the concept of evolution under domestication himself by experimenting with pigeons. This mechanism is more commonly known as ________. [two words] Answer: artificial selection

 

Section:  3.1

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

  • An attribute that increases an organisms fitness, as compared to individuals lacking it, is called a(n) ________.

 

Answer: adaptation

Section: 3.2

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

 

 

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  • ________, in general terms, is an individuals ability to survive and reproduce. Answer: Fitness

 

Section: 3.2

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

  • ________ can be defined as the fraction of the variation in a population that is due to differences in genes.

 

Answer: Heritability

Section: 3.4

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

  • Occasional traits, such as the insect-capturing features of carnivorous plants, emerge because existing traits become used in novel ways. Such traits are known as ________.

 

Answer: exaptations

Section: 3.5

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

  • Before Mendels work was rediscovered, some argued that natural selection would not work because favorable traits would merge into existing traits over time and become lost. This hypothesis is known as ________. [two words]

 

Answer: blending inheritance

Section: 3.6

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

  • Beginning around 1930, the ________ [two words] developed as a reformulation of Darwinian natural selection based on the ways in which knowledge in genetics has informed us about heredity.

 

Answer: modern synthesis

Section: 3.6

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

  • Social, political, and legal controversy surrounding acceptance of evolution goes back to the decade of the ________, when teacher John Scopes was tried for teaching evolution.

 

Answer: 1920s

Section: 3.7

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

  • Proponents of ________ [two words] argue that the complexities of living systems can only be accounted for by the creative acts of a conscious entity.

 

Answer:  Intelligent Design (ID)

Section: 3.7

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

  • Identify and describe Darwin/Wallaces four tenets of natural selection.

 

  • Rewrite Darwin/Wallaces four tenets of natural selection by incorporating what weve learned from the field of genetics (i.e., The Modern Synthesis).

 

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  • Compare and contrast the experimental work of Jones and Reithel on snapdragons with Peter and Rosemary Grants research with the medium ground finch (Geospiza fortis).

 

  • Darwins calculations on elephant reproduction under ideal conditions reveal that far more elephants could be produced than actually are. Explain why this supporting fact is important to the theory of natural selection.

 

  • Suppose you were a dog breeder who wished to reduce the incidence of barking in an otherwise popular breed of dog. Design a strategy that would allow you to do this. What assumptions would you need to make, and what key elements would need to be in place to be successful?

 

 

Evolutionary Analysis, 5e (Herron/Freeman)

Chapter 13    Aging and Other Life-History Characters

 

  • In an ideal world, organisms that are fine-tuned for reproduction would ________. A) mature at birth

 

  1. B) produce high-quality offspring continuously and in high numbers C) live forever

 

  1. D) All of the above, taken together. Answer: D

 

Section:  Introduction

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

  • At the most fundamental of levels, differences in life histories (that is, reproductive strategies) are trade-offs that are based on differences in the ________.

 

  1. A) onset of reproductive maturity
  2. B) reproductive sizes of the individuals
  3. C) allocation of energy between individuals

 

  1. D) average number of offspring produced over the life span of individuals Answer: C

 

Section:  13.1

Skill:  Application/Analysis

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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3) What does the accompanying figure represent?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. the average energy budget values between male and female sand crickets in low v. medium v. high food environments

 

  1. the average energy budget values between long-winged and short-winged crickets in low v. medium v. high food environments

 

  1. the average energy budget values for low v. medium v. high food environments in two different species of sand crickets

 

  1. the average energy budget values in low v. medium v. high temperature environments for long-winged v. short-winged sand crickets

 

Answer:  B

Section: 13.1

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

  • Female sand crickets are known to produce two phenotypic variants: long-winged and short-winged. Moreover, these two variants have been shown to allocate different amounts of their energy budget to flight or ovary development, respectively. The development of female crickets into one or the other of these variants is due to ________.

 

  1. A) genetic mechanisms

 

  1. B) developmental mechanisms C) physiological mechanisms D) All of the above.

Answer: D

Section: 13.1

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • The theory of aging that posits that aging is caused by irreparable damage to the cells, tissues, and organs of an organism brought about by such things as errors in protein synthesis and the accumulation of toxic metabolites is the ________.

 

  1. A) theory of senescence

 

  1. B) rate of living theory of aging C) evolutionary theory of aging D) particulate theory of aging Answer: B

 

Section: 13.2

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

  • The theory of aging that posits that aging is caused either by the accumulation of deleterious mutations later in life or by a trade-off between repair to damaged tissues and reproduction is called the ________.

 

  1. A) theory of senescence

 

  1. B) rate-of-living theory of aging C) evolutionary theory of aging D) particulate theory of aging Answer: C

 

Section: 13.2

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • According to the data shown in the accompanying figure, the reduction in reproduction rates most closely correlates with a corresponding reduction in survival in ________.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. female collared flycatchers
  2. male red deer
  3. female red deer
  4. fruit flies

Answer:  B

Section: 13.2

 

Skill:  Application/Analysis

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • Telomeres, tandem repeat sequences at the ends of chromosomes, generally get shorter after every cell division. The resulting mechanism involves a protein called p53, which ________. A) puts the cell into a permanently nondividing state

 

  1. B) causes the cell to enter cell senescence

 

  1. C) may induce the cell to undergo programmed cell death D) All of the above.

 

Answer: D

Section: 13.2

Skill:  Application/Analysis

 

  • Some researchers argue that short telomeres actually facilitate a longer life span in mammals. The reasoning for this argument includes the idea that ________.

 

  1. A) the activity of telomerase expressionthe enzyme that can restore lost bits of telomeresis repressed

 

  1. B) a reduction in the telomere size for every DNA replication event can serve as an accurate counting mechanism for the number of times a cell has divided

 

  1. C) reducing the number of divisions a cell will go through will also reduce the likelihood of mutation events occurring in the cells DNA

 

  1. D) All of the above are included in this idea. Answer: D

 

Section: 13.2

Skill:  Application/Analysis

 

  • The conclusion, Mutation hypothesis notes that mutations causing premature senescence are selected against weakly, makes more sense if we consider that ________.

 

  1. A) many mutations that cause cell death are, in fact, highly deleterious

 

  1. B) individuals carrying a mutation causing death before reproductive maturity would have a lifetime reproductive success rate of zero

 

  1. C) mutations causing death after reproduction has begun are selected against less strongly D) mutations in individual cells may cause cell death, but this does not affect the rest of the organism

 

Answer: C

Section: 13.2

Skill:  Application/Analysis

 

  • Positive correlations have been found between ________.
  1. telomere lengths and longevity among individuals within populations
  2. telomere lengths and longevity across many species of mammals

 

  1. telomere lengths and longevity among individuals within populations and across many species of mammals

 

  1. neither telomere lengths and longevity among individuals within populations nor telomere lengths and longevity across many species of mammals

 

Answer: A

Section: 13.2

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

 

 

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  • The accompanying figure represents Lacks hypothesis on clutch size. According to this hypothetical data, ________.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. the probability of survival for individual nestlings decreases linearly with each successive increase in the clutch size

 

  1. the probability of survival for individual nestlings increases, then decreases with each successive increase in the clutch size

 

  1. the optimal clutch size in terms of survival rates is intermediate
  2. A and C are both true.
  3. All of the above are true.

Answer: D

Section: 13.3

Skill:  Application/Analysis

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

 

 

  • Researchers have tested Lacks hypothesis on clutch sizes, and the results are shown in the accompanying figure. In this graph, the histogram shows actual clutch sizes over 22 years for the Great Tit (Parus major), whereas the individual data points reflect results of manipulation of clutch size. According to this data, ________.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Lacks hypothesis is supported

 

  1. there is an ideal clutch size in terms of survival; however, this species of bird is not producing as many offspring as could survive, therefore Lacks hypothesis is not supported

 

  1. there is an ideal clutch size in terms of survivalwhich is more than the number of offspring that are being produced; however, the results still support Lacks hypothesis

 

  1. there is no apparent ideal clutch size because of discrepancies in these data

Answer:  B

Section: 13.3

Skill:  Application/Analysis

 

14) Which of the following is NOT one of the assumptions of Lacks hypothesis?

 

  1. There is no trade-off between a parents reproductive effort in one year and its survival or reproductive performance in future years.

 

  1. The only effect on clutch size of offspring is in determining whether the offspring survive.

 

  1. The discrepancy between Lacks hypothesis and the behavior of individual birds may sometimes be more apparent than real.

 

  1. All of these are assumptions of Lacks hypothesis.

Answer: D

Section: 13.3

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • In terms of the size of offspring, data from different (a) fish families and (b) fruit fly species are represented in the accompanying figure. Evaluation of this data reveals that ________.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. no relationship between these two variables has been found
  2. the larger the number of offspring, the larger the eggs that are produced
  3. the larger the number of offspring, the smaller the eggs that are produced
  4. there is an apparent trade-off between egg size and number of offspring
  5. Both C and D are accurate statements.

Answer: E

Section: 13.4

Skill:  Application/Analysis

 

  • Traits which by logic should show less genetic variation because of their close association with reproduction fall into which category?

 

  1. A) life-history traits B) behavioral traits C) physiological traits D) morphological traits Answer: A

 

Section: 13.6

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

 

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Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

 

 

  • Living things show a wide range of diversity where reproductive strategies are concerned. The branch of evolution devoted to the analysis of this diversity is known as ________ analysis. Answer: life-history

 

Section:  Introduction

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

  • At the most fundamental of levels, differences among life histories are due to differences in the allocation of ________.

 

Answer: energy

Section: 13.1

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

  • The decline in an individuals fertility, with a corresponding decrease in the likelihood of survival, is known as ________.

 

Answer: senescence

Section: 13.2

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

  • Tandem repeat sequences found at the ends of chromosomes, such as TTAGGG as found in vertebrates, are known as ________.

 

Answer: telomeres

Section: 13.2

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

  • Alleles that influence more than one trait are referred to as ________.

Answer: pleiotropic

Section: 13.2

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

  • The hypothesis that predicts that parents will attempt to rear the number of offspring that maximizes the survival rates of offspring is known as ________. [two words]

 

Answer:  Lacks hypothesis

Section: 13.3

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

 

  • Studies by Elgar and Berrigan (shown in the accompanying figure show a ________

[positive/negative] correlation between the number of ________ and the size of ________.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Answer: negative; eggs; eggs

Section: 13.4

Skill:  Application/Analysis

 

  • When reproductive interests between males and females of the same species differ, as in the case of fruit flies, sexual selection may actually favor adaptations arising in one sex but that are detrimental in the other sex. This, in turn, leads to subsequent counter-measure adaptations in the sex that are subject to harm or detriment. This kind of antagonistic sexual adaptation has been termed ________ sexual selection.

 

Answer: chase-away

Section: 13.5

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

  • The maintenance of genetic variation in sea-squirts (Botryllus scholosseri) has been studied by Richard Grosberg. Interestingly, these sea-squirts have two genetically determined life history forms. In one, called ________ the modules in a colony reproduce once and then die. In the other morph, called ________ colonies reproduce sexually at least three times before they die. Answer: semelparous; iteroparous

 

Section: 13.6

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

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Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

 

 

  • In reading the accompanying figure from left to right, the data reveal that as herbivorous mammals get ________, their litter sizes get ________.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Answer: larger; smaller

Section:  13.6

Skill:  Application/Analysis

 

  • Female sand crickets are known to develop either long- or short-winged forms. The short-winged forms devote more of their energy budget to ovary development, whereas the long-winged forms allocate more to flight. Explain how natural selection could have produced these two phenotypic variants, given that the essential measure of fitness is reproductive success.

 

  • Two theories have been proposed regarding the aging process: the rate-of-living theory and the evolutionary theory of aging. Compare and contrast these two theories. Are there any similarities? What are their differences? Which elements are supported by research, and which elements have been refuted?

 

  • Life-history analysis may provide us with clues to human female menopausemore specifically, the way in which your text describes it, Why should womens reproductive systems shut down by age 50, while the rest of their organs and tissues are still in good repair? Two hypotheses were discussed; describe, compare, and contrast them. Which one do you think is more likely, and why?

 

  • Lacks hypothesis was first proposed by David Lack in 1947. Describe and explain the essence of this hypothesis, along with the major assumptions that go along with it. Are the assumptions warranted? Do research data support Lacks hypothesis?

 

 

 

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