Evolutionary Analysis 5th Edition Herron Freeman Test Bank

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Evolutionary Analysis 5th Edition Herron Freeman Test Bank

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Evolutionary Analysis 5th Edition Herron Freeman Test Bank

1
Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Evolutionary Analysis, 5e (Herron/Freeman)
Chapter 2 The Pattern of Evolution
1) In response to environmental conditions, the average beak size in a population of birds may
change between successive generations. This process of change is referred to as ________.
A) macroevolution
B) sequestration
C) speciation
D) coalescence
E) microevolution
Answer: E
Section: 2.1
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
2) After several generations of selectively breeding mice in a laboratory, Ted Garland and his
colleagues established populations of mice that voluntarily chose to run great distances on
exercise wheels. The process of establishing these populations of mice is termed ________.
A) natural selection
B) artificial selection
C) population selection
D) experimental selection
E) random selection
Answer: B
Section: 2.1
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
3) A useless or rudimentary body part that is thought to have been important in ancestral
populations but no longer has a known function is termed a(n) ________.
A) evolved structure
B) terminal structure
C) vestigial structure
D) residual structure
Answer: C
Section: 2.1
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
4) The coccyx, a tiny tailbone found in humans, is believed to be a ________ structure.
A) terminated
B) vestigial
C) rudimentary
D) redundant
Answer: B
Section: 2.1
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
2
Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
5) The biological species concept, formalized by Ernst Mayr in 1942, defined a species as a
________.
A) group of individuals that inhabit the same location
B) group of individuals with similar morphological characteristics
C) population within and among which individuals actually or potentially interbreed and outside
of which they do not interbreed
D) group of individuals who share similar allelic frequencies
E) population of individuals within and among which reproduction takes place frequently
Answer: C
Section: 2.2
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
6) Andrew Hendry and colleagues demonstrated that the process of speciation is gradual by
studying the distribution and variation in gill raker length in ________.
A) brook trout
B) aquatic copepods
C) salmonids
D) threespine sticklebacks
E) razorfish
Answer: D
Section: 2.2
Skill: Application/Analysis
7) The comparative anatomist Georges Cuvier confirmed the concept of extinction in 1812 when
he demonstrated that there were no extant species anatomically related to the fossilized remains
of the ________.
A) mastodon
B) Irish elk
C) pygmy armadillo
D) giant vampire bat
E) Arctic lemming
Answer: B
Section: 2.3
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
8) The transitional fossil Archaeopteryx shows a combination of traits consistent with the
hypothesis that it shared a common ancestor with ________.
A) dinosaurs and bats
B) hippos and whales
C) reptiles and birds
D) dinosaurs and birds
Answer: D
Section: 2.3
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
3
Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
9) Large evolutionary changes that result in the placement of related organisms into different
genera or higher-level taxa occur via the process of ________.
A) speciation
B) macroevolution
C) microevolution
D) independent evolution
E) evolutionary differentiation
Answer: B
Section: 2.3
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
10) Anatomical features that show an underlying structural similarity even though their
superficial structure is different are termed ________ structures.
A) homoplasic
B) homologous
C) symplasic
D) dependent
Answer: B
Section: 2.4
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
11) Nonfunctional copies of normal genes, which lack both introns and promoters, and are
important in estimating evolutionary ages of phylogenetic relationships, are ________.
A) transgenes
B) retrotransposons
C) processed retrogenes
D) processed pseudogenes
E) duplicated pseudogenes
Answer: D
Section: 2.4
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
12) Processed pseudogenes are useful for testing Darwins theory of descent with modification
because they ________.
A) can be utilized for examining phylogenetic relationships among asexually reproducing
organisms
B) demonstrate phylogenetic relationships of divergence because they do not accumulate
mutations
C) accumulate mutations at a constant rate, and thus older processed pseudogenes should be
shared by a greater variety of species
D) are distributed in organisms that are found in similar environments
Answer: C
Section: 2.4
Skill: Application/Analysis
4
Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
13) The concept of uniformitarianism, articulated by James Hutton in the late 1700s, states that
________.
A) the genetic code is similar among all living and extinct species
B) mutations accumulate at a constant rate in most organisms
C) current geological processes on Earth operate in the same manner as those that operated in the
past
D) the rate of extinction has been constant throughout the time life has existed on Earth
Answer: C
Section: 2.5
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
14) The amount of time it takes for a radioactive element to decay to 50% of its daughter isotope
is called ________.
A) decay rate
B) half-life
C) partial decay
D) conversion rate
E) quarter-life
Answer: B
Section: 2.5
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
15) Radioactive dating techniques have demonstrated that Earth was formed approximately
________ years ago.
A) 10 billion
B) 46 million
C) 4.6 million
D) 4.6 billion
Answer: D
Section: 2.5
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
16) The theory that species do not change over time, are created separately and independently,
and that the Earth and life on Earth are young is called the ________. [four words]
Answer: theory of special creation.
Section: 2.1
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
17) Explain how microevolution and artificial selection are demonstrated by the wide variety of
dog breeds currently in existence.
Answer: Artificial selection via breeding has led to considerable variation within dog
populations. However, all dogs are believed to be descended from wolves, and despite their
variation, all dogs are members of the same species.
Section: 2.1
Skill: Application/Analysis
5
Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
18) Vestigial structures are found in humans, and are thought to be useless or rudimentary body
parts that had an important function in ancestral species. Give two examples of vestigial
structures in humans.
Answer: Vestigial structures in humans are the coccyx (tailbone and arrector pili muscles at the
base of each hair follicle.
Section: 2.1
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
19) In Dianne Dodds experiments with Drosophila pseudoobscura, different populations were
established that were raised on diets of either maltose or starch. When flies from the different
populations were allowed to mate, some flies mated with flies fed on a different food source, but
there was a preference for mating with flies raised on the same food source. What does this
phenomenon illustrate about the timescale of speciation?
Answer: The process of speciation occurs over a long period of time, and this process can be
observed under defined conditions in the laboratory.
Section: 2.2
Skill: Application/Analysis
20) What is the biological species concept put forth by Ernst Mayr in 1942?
Answer: Species are populations, or groups of populations, within and among which individuals
actually or potentially interbreed and outside of which they do not interbreed.
Section: 2.2
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
21) What was the evolutionary significance of Georges Cuviers analysis of the fossilized Irish
elk, published in 1812?
Answer: Cuviers analysis demonstrated that extinction had a significant role in evolution, and
showed that the Irish elk belonged to a lineage that had become extinct, and was not related to
any other extant species such as moose or reindeer.
Section: 2.3
Skill: Application/Analysis
22) Explain the significance of Archaeopteryx as a transitional fossil in our understanding of
phylogenetic relationships.
Answer: Archaeopteryx shares a common ancestor with both dinosaurs and modern birds, and
indicates that birds were derived from dinosaurs. Its phylogenetic position demonstrates that
birds evolved feathers first, which was followed by muscular and skeletal modifications that
enabled flight in modern birds.
Section: 2.3
Skill: Application/Analysis
23) What are structural homologies?
Answer: Anatomical features that show an underlying structural similarity even though their
superficial structure is different, and that provide evidence of a shared common ancestry.
Section: 2.4
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
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Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
24) What are two features that characterize processed pseudogenes, and how do these arise?
Answer: Processed pseudogenes contain no introns or promoters, and arise when processed
mRNAs are accidentally reverse transcribed to DNA by reverse transcriptase, and then inserted
back in the genome at alternate locations.
Section: 2.4
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
25) On what basic physical principle does radiometric dating rely?
Answer: Unstable isotopes decay into either other elements or different isotopes of the same
element. Each isotope decays at a constant rate, and the resultant half-life can be used to estimate
the age of rocks and once-living materials.
Section: 2.5
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
26) The radioactive isotope ________ has a half-life of 5,730 years, and has an effective dating
range of 100 to 100,000 years.
Answer: Carbon-14
Section: 2.5
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
27) The age of the Earth is estimated at 4.6 billion years. When are the first unicellular
organisms thought to have evolved on Earth?
Answer: 3.2 to 3.4 billion years ago
Section: 2.5
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
28) Compare and contrast the processes of microevolution and macroevolution.
Section: 2.0/2.1
Skill: Application/Analysis
29) Discuss how the proximal CMT1A repeat that appears near the gene coding for peripheral
myelin protein-22 (PMP-22) has been used to examine the phylogenetic relationships between
humans, chimpanzees, bonobos, gorillas, orangutans and several other primates, and why this
repeat provides evidence that supports the theory of descent with modification and against the
theory of special creation.
Section: 2.4
Skill: Application/Analysis
30) Explain and provide evidence to support uniformitarianism, and how this evidence refutes
the theory of special creation.
Section: 2.5
Skill: Synthesis/Evaluation

 

1
Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Evolutionary Analysis, 5e (Herron/Freeman)
Chapter 20 Human Evolution
1) Which of the following organisms is NOT considered a great ape?
A) human
B) baboon
C) orangutan
D) bonobo
E) gorilla
Answer: B
Section: 20.1
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
2) Vincent Sarich and Allan Wilson estimated that humans diverged from their closest living
primate relatives about 5 million years ago. What line of evidence did they use initially?
A) cladistic analysis of DNA sequences from living primates
B) chromosomal banding patterns, fusions, and fissions
C) radiometric dating of fossils
D) DNA denaturation and re-annealing temperatures
E) reactions between primate serum proteins and antibodies to human serum
Answer: E
Section: 20.1
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
3) Most DNA-based phylogenetic analyses place humans and chimpanzees (including bonobos)
as each others closest relatives, but a persistent minority of studies place gorillas and
chimpanzees as sharing a common ancestor that was not a human ancestor. The reason is
incomplete lineage sorting, which simply means that ________.
A) the ancestral species of all great apes was genetically variable at some loci, and each
descendant species lost different random combinations of ancestral alleles
B) the labs that sequenced great ape DNA made a simple procedural error
C) mitochondrial genes can become unlinked and be inherited by independent assortment
D) primate lineages are not completely reproductively isolated and can hybridize
E) coding regions of the primate genome are more likely to give false results than noncoding
regions such as SINEs
Answer: A
Section: 20.1
Skill: Application/Analysis
2
Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
4) Chimpanzees and gorillas share the trait of knuckle-walking, which humans do not generally
have. Why do most scientists NOT classify chimpanzees and gorillas as each others closest
relatives?
A) The majority of genetic evidence places chimpanzees closest to humans, not to gorillas.
B) Fossil evidence suggests that knuckle-walking was present in ape ancestors and is not a
uniquely derived trait for chimpanzees and gorillas.
C) Chimpanzees and humans share more unique features in common than either share with
gorillas.
D) Fossil apes that are thought to be closest to humans show adaptations for knuckle-walking,
implying that humans have secondarily lost the trait.
E) All of the above.
Answer: E
Section: 20.1
Skill: Application/Analysis
5) The accompanying figure shows how levels of a microRNA called miR-320b change with age
in the prefrontal cortex of the brains of humans, chimps, and macaques (African monkeys). This
may be important for understanding the genetic features that make us human, because
microRNAs ________.
A) are found only in primates
B) are translated into short polypeptides
C) influence gene expression by binding to messenger RNAs
D) are transcribed from selfish DNA sequences such as Alu elements
E) are known to increase neuronal connectivity and therefore intelligence
Answer: C
Section: 20.1
Skill: Application/Analysis
3
Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
6) Judging by the nature of modern humans, chimpanzees, and bonobos, which of these traits did
the last common ancestor of all three probably NOT show?
A) some form of culture
B) tool use to get and process food
C) a broad diet including plenty of fruit
D) strictly heterosexual mating patterns
E) some degree of hunting
Answer: D
Section: 20.2
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
7) The fossil Sahelanthropus tchadensis from the Djurab Desert of Chad, dated at 6 to 7 million
years ago, may be a hominin (i.e., share more recent common ancestry with humans than with
any other ape because of ________.
A) its relatively large brain
B) the shape of its thighbones
C) its sophisticated use of stone tools
D) fossil footprints showing bipedal locomotion
E) its relatively flat face
Answer: E
Section: 20.2
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
8) Which genus or genera of hominin is/are most consistently associated with stone tools?
A) Homo
B) Paranthropus
C) Australopithecus
D) Sahelanthropus
E) All of the above.
Answer: A
Section: 20.4
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
9) All of the following traits are shared by all great apes, except ________.
A) increased flexibility of the wrist and thumb
B) spoken language
C) absence of a tail
D) increased flexibility of hips and ankles
E) relatively large brains
Answer: B
Section: 20.1
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
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Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
10) Although attempts to date the divergence between humans and chimpanzees using molecular
sequence data do not perfectly agree, a rough consensus from multiple analyses would place the
divergence date at ________.
A) 175,000 years ago
B) 6,000 years ago
C) 5 to 7 million years ago
D) 3.14 million years ago
E) 65 million years ago
Answer: C
Section: 20.1
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
11) Robust australopithecines, now classified in the genus Paranthropus, are distinctive as
compared to other hominins because of their ________.
A) great height
B) unusually large brains
C) knuckle-walking ability
D) cave paintings and other artwork
E) huge teeth, faces, jaws, and jaw muscles
Answer: E
Section: 10.2
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
12) Which piece of evidence BEST supports the multiregional evolution model of the
evolution of modern humans?
A) Molecular clocks date the last common ancestor of modern humans to about 171,500 years
ago.
B) Present-day human populations from Africa have greater genetic diversity than non-African
populations.
C) African Homo ergaster/erectus appear almost simultaneously with Asian Homo erectus, 1.6
to 1.9 million years ago.
D) Both Asian fossil Homo erectus and modern Asian human populations show a high frequency
of shovel-shaped incisors.
E) There is no solid evidence supporting the multiregional hypothesis.
Answer: D
Section: 20.3
Skill: Application/Analysis
5
Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
13) Which piece of evidence BEST supports the out of Africa model of the evolution of
modern humans?
A) African populations show the greatest diversity in numbers at a short tandem repeat (STR)
locus on chromosome 12.
B) African Homo ergaster/erectus appear almost simultaneously with Asian Homo erectus, 1.6
to 1.9 million years ago.
C) Both Indonesian fossil Homo erectus and modern Australian aboriginal populations (which
probably reached Australia by way of Indonesia) have unusually prominent and straight brow
ridges.
D) In most regions, there does not seem to be a rapid replacement of earlier hominins by Homo
sapiens.
E) There is no solid evidence supporting the out of Africa hypothesis.
Answer: A
Section: 20.3
Skill: Application/Analysis
14) The accompanying figure shows the percentage of pairwise genetic comparisons within
sample populations of living hominids, graphed against the percentage of sequence divergence
for each pair. We can conclude from the figure that ________.
A) any randomly selected pair of humans in the world should differ in their mitochondrial DNA
sequences by less than 6%
B) humans are more genetically diverse than Western chimpanzees
C) hominid species do not differ significantly in levels of genetic diversity
D) humans share a more recent common ancestor with bonobos than gorillas
E) All of the above.
Answer: A
Section: 20.3
Skill: Application/Analysis
6
Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
15) All non-African humans today show evidence of a limited amount of past interbreeding with
________.
A) Denisovans
B) Paranthropus boisei
C) Homo ergaster
D) Neandertals
E) Australopithecus sediba
Answer: D
Section: 20.3
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
16) The accompanying figure shows that humans have thicker thumb metacarpals than
chimpanzees or bonobos, with broader heads. This is directly correlated with humans ________.
A) bar-shaped central portion of the hyoid bone
B) increasing dependence on meat in the diet
C) more elaborate thumb musculature and better precision grip
D) loss of the ability to knuckle-walk
E) loss of an arboreal (tree-based) lifestyle
Answer: C
Section: 20.4
Skill: Application/Analysis
7
Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
17) Modern humans have lost the system of air sacs that other great apes have. Whatever the
reason for this loss, one resulting effect on human behavior was ________.
A) restriction of modern humans to low altitudes
B) loss of the ability to make loud calls
C) improved ability to swallow
D) increase in the sizes of Brocas and Werneckes areas
E) the ability to pronounce sounds more clearly
Answer: E
Section: 20.4
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
18) Your textbook, and many (but not all) paleoanthropologists, refer to a species more closely
related to humans than to chimps as a(n) ________.
Answer: hominin
Section: 20.2
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
19) The first close human relative known to have dispersed out of Africa was ________. [two
words]
Answer: Homo erectus/ergaster
Section: 20.2
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
20) Short sequences of nucleotides (typically 4 to 8 bases) that are repeated a variable number of
times at a locus are known as ________. [three words]
Answer: short tandem repeats (STRs)
Section: 20.3
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
21) Human populations vary genetically, but the variation is subtle and not easy to find without
large data sets. Most of the genetic variation in the human species exists between ________.
Answer: individuals
Section: 20.3
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
22) ________ are fragmentary hominids 30,000 to 50,000 years old, found in a Siberian cave,
who astonishingly appear to have interbred with the ancestors of modern Melanesian human
populations.
Answer: Denisovans
Section: 20.3
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
8
Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
23) Green and colleagues assessed the degree of past interbreeding between modern Homo
sapiens populations and extinct premodern populations by looking at an aspect of genetic
diversity known as ________. [three words]
Answer: single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)
Section: 20.3
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
24) In humans and possibly even in chimpanzees, there seems to be a neurological correlation
between ________ and ________.
Answer: language; tool use
Section: 20.4
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
25) The only hominid skeletal feature that is fairly clearly correlated with the ability to speak is
the shape of the ________.
Answer: hyoid
Section: 20.4
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
26) The earliest style of stone tools, dating as far back as 2.6 million years, is called ________.
Answer: Oldowan
Section: 20.4
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
27) Both the out of Africa hypothesis and the multiregional evolution hypothesis agree that
the last common ancestor of all modern humans lived in Africa. Overwhelming fossil and
genetic evidence confirms an African origin for modern humansbut that isnt enough, by itself,
to decide between the two hypotheses. Explain one of the lines of evidence that does tend to
support one or the other of these hypotheses.
28) In 2003, fairly complete remains of what was claimed to be a new species of hominin were
described from the Indonesian island of Flores. The species, Homo floresiensis, may have lived
between 100,000 and perhaps as recently as 12,000 years ago; because of its small stature, about
three feet (1 meter), it was perhaps unfortunately nicknamed hobbit (it didnt help that film The
Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King came out the same year). If Homo floresiensis is a real
species, it lived at the same time and general area as fully modern humans. However, some
scientists are convinced that the bones belonged to a fully modern human who suffered from a
growth disorder of some kind. Devise a detailed hypothesis for the origins and relationships of
Homo floresiensis, and come up with the best test that you can, given that it has not yet been
possible to extract DNA from the fossils.
29) The peoples of Africa have often been negatively stereotyped by Europeans and Americans
as primitive and less advanced than other peoples. Recent genetic analyses show that
Africans make up the earliest branches of the human family tree. But do these two statements
mean the same thing? Does genetic research imply anything about the relative advancement (or
lack thereof) of different human groups?
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Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
30) In 1912, parts of a skull and jawbone were found in a gravel pit near the English town of
Piltdown, about 40 miles south of London. These were claimed to belong to a human ancestor
with a brain about two-thirds the size of a modern human brain, and a large, protruding jaw.
Piltdown Man, or Eoanthropus dawsoni as it was named, was conclusively shown to be a hoax
in 1953pieces of a human skull braincase and an orangutan jaw, stained to look old and to
have the same color. (The perpetrators identity is still not certain.) However, almost from the
start, a growing number of scientists were skeptical of Piltdown Man. Discuss two facts about
Piltdown Man that would have been increasingly difficult to reconcile with the emerging picture
of human evolution in the first half of the twentieth century.

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