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Experiencing the Lifespan 3rd Edition by Belsky -Test Bank



Experiencing the Lifespan 3rd Edition by Belsky -Test Bank

Chapter 4- Essay


1. Describe the roots of attachment theorythat is, the studies that suggested to Bowlby that attachment was a vital human need.



2. Describe in sequence the development of the attachment response, giving examples of each stage.



3. Jeffrey, age 5 months, Marcus, age 14 months, and Jennifer, age 4, are on their weekly outing to the park. As they are all relaxing together, a park ranger stops by. Compare the likely responses of these three children to this persons efforts to pick them up.



4. List the four attachment patterns identified by Mary Ainsworth, give examples of each, and then name the attachment style that BEST predicts having long-term personality problems.



5. Your nephew is insecurely attached. List the forces which may have contributed to this situation and suggest remedies.



6. As a psychologist, devise some strategies to help lessen the risk factors that work to impair poverty level preschoolers social and cognitive development.




7. To an anxious friend who is putting her daughter in infant day care, offer tips for selecting a setting and having this child get the best possible experience.



8. A friend asks, What behaviors should I expect when my child is a toddler? Your response:



9. Flavio is a shy toddler; Gina is exuberant. If both children attend a mommy-and-me playgroup, how would their behavior be different? What can you do to BEST help each child?




Answer Key


  Babies in orphanages seemed depressed, apathetic, and emotionally disturbed.
  Ethologists found that other species, such as geese, would get attached to and follow an object that they saw at a particular time after birth.
  Harlow proved that contact comfort was more important to attachment than food, and, most important, showed that monkey babies who grew up without mothers were unable to socially relate as adults.


  First 3 months, preattachmentno signs of any attachment to a caregiver.
  4 to 7 months, attachment in the makingbabies show signs of preferring a primary caregiver, but still will go to anyone.
  7 months to 3 years, clear-cut attachmentinfants and toddlers need to be close to a primary attachment figure, and show separation anxiety and stranger anxiety.
  Over age 3, working modelchildren can be separated from a primary caregiver, but carry an internal representation of that person in mind. The attachment response is still evoked under conditions of threat, however, throughout life.
  Jeffrey will be slightly wary, but allow the ranger to pick him up; Marcus will start crying or resist the rangers attempts; Jennifer will allow the ranger to pick her up.
  Securebaby runs with love into caregivers arms after being separated.
  Avoidantbaby shows no response when caregiver leaves or returns.
  Ambivalent/anxiousbaby is too anxious to explore, and gets hysterical and cannot be comforted when the caregiver returns.
  Disorganizedbaby freezes/and responds with fear when caregiver returns.
  The disorganized style is MOST apt to foreshadow later personality problems.
  Caregiver is depressed and/or has emotional problems that prevent her from dancing well.
  Baby has a difficult temperament.
  Caregivers other relationships are making it difficult to dance with her baby.

Solutions: Work to eradicate parents emotional problems and try to teach her to respond in a more sensitive way. With temperamental issues, strive to tell the caregiver that the babys responses are not her fault and also teach strategies for providing the best temperamentenvironment fit. Work to eliminate the marital or external stresses that are impairing the dance.

  Get the child into a high-quality preschool.
  Give emotional support to parents and teach them ways of coping with stress (that dont involve yelling and screaming).
  See if you can help the childs family move to out of a dangerous, impoverished neighborhood.
  Encourage parents to read to their children and take advantage of free educational options (and offer a list of those options) in the community.
In choosing a setting, look for care providers that are committed to young children and the field, for a place that provides close to one-to-one care, and a setting where there is little staff turnover.
If everything else is equal, possibly select family day care.
Try not to put your child in full-time care orif you musttake your child out for regular vacations.
a passion for exploring the world
beginning language
focusing difficulties, angry outbursts, and problems sitting still and sharing
during later toddlerhood, self-conscious emotions such as embarrassment
not wanting to be separated from you.
intense love you may have never felt before from any person!
Favio will hang back and be frightened in the group.
Gina may be more difficult to control or discipline. To help reduce Flavios temperamental shyness, gently expose him to caring social situations. With Gina, the best route to socialization is to offer plenty of positive reinforcement and love.


Chapter 4- Fill-in-the-Blank

1. ________ is the powerful bond of love between a child and a primary caregiver.



2. Harry Harlow found that motherless baby monkeys preferred clinging to ________ mothers when distressed rather than the wire mothers from whom they were fed.



3. According to Bowlby, we show proximity-seeking behavior when we are faced with ________ or ________ life threats.



4. During the phase of ________ attachment, lasting from roughly ________, babies need to be physically near their caregivers.



5. The fact that a baby needs to repeatedly check back to see if his caregiver is pleased or upset is called ________.



6. The classic research strategy for determining infant attachment styles is called the ________.



7. Insecure attachment styles include ________, ________, and ________.



8. Attachment security in infancy depends on the ________, the ________, and the ________.



9. Our biologically based style of reacting to the world is called our ________.



10. A genetically vulnerable baby can sometimes become securely attached provided that the child has ________ caregiving.



11. Infants exposed to the severe deprivation of Eastern European orphanage life were MOST likely to become securely attached if they were adopted before ________.



12. In the United States, ________ have higher rates of poverty than any other age group.



13. Early childhood poverty has its MOST poisonous effect on ________ development.



14. ________ is a program for disadvantaged children under age 3 and their caregivers, designed to promote cognitive and social development.



15. In ________, a person looks after a small group of children in her home.



16. The NICHD study suggested there are small ________ effects of being sent to day care for long hours during the first 4 years of life.



17. The most important environmental force in a childs development is the ________.



18. The PRIMARY quality to look for in a good day-care provider is ________ young children.



19. Day-care providers earn ________ wages.



20. According to Erikson, a toddlers task is to develop a sense of ________.



21. Shame and other ________ emotions are a sign of first understanding that one is a real self.



22. If you have a shy toddler, the BEST approach is to ________.



23. The MOST effective strategy for dealing with a rambunctious toddler is to strive for an exceptionally strong ________.



24. ________ is the term for arranging a childs environment to suit his unique strengths and weaknesses.




Answer Key


1. Attachment
2. cloth
3. internal; external
4. clear-cut; 8 months to age 3
5. social referencing
6. Strange Situation
7. avoidant; anxious-ambivalent; disorganized
8. caregiver; child; caregivers other relationships
9. temperament
10. highly sensitive
11. age 2
12. young children
13. cognitive or academic
14. Early Head Start
15. family day care
16. negative
17. quality of the care giving at home
18. being committed to nurturing
19. very low
20. autonomy
21. self-conscious
22. gently expose that child to supportive social situations
23. loving attachment
24. Goodness of fit


Chapter 4- Multiple Choice

1. Dr. Out-of-Date is an old-style behaviorist. How would he explain 1-year-old Neds efforts to be close to his mother at all times?
  A) Ned shares a unique emotional bond with his mother.
  B) Neds behavior is being reinforced because his mother feeds him.
  C) Neds behavior is irrational.
  D) Neds behavior is genetically programmed.



2. How would an evolutionary psychologist describe 1-year-old Neds need to be close to his mom at all times?
  A) Its being reinforced by food.
  B) Its genetically programmed into our species.
  C) Its genetically programmed into certain kinds of kids.
  D) Its a sign of an emotional problem.



3. Too much mother love during infancy produces whiny, dependent adults. This statement would most likely be made by a(n):
  A) evolutionary psychologist.
  B) old-style behaviorist.
  C) Eriksonian.
  D) meanie.



4. All of these findings helped Bowlby formulate attachment theory EXCEPT:
  A) Monkeys raised without moms couldnt socially relate as adults.
  B) Orphanage babies were apathetic and mentally disturbed.
  C) Baby geese would follow forever an object that they saw at a specific time after birth.
  D) Babies love their moms.



5. Pick the basic message of Harlows findings with motherless monkeys.
  A) Physical contact (or love) is a basic human need.
  B) Physical contact (or love) is an overrated human need.
  C) Physical contact (or love) is less important than food.
  D) Physical contact (or love) is important in other species, but not in our own.



6. Elmer, 1, is running ahead of his mom when some big kids race past on bicycles. Elmer turns around, runs back, and begs to be picked up. Elmer is showing:
  A) normal proximity-seeking behavior.
  B) abnormal proximity-seeking behavior.
  C) abnormal fear.
  D) abnormal attachment.



7. According to Bowlby, having a primary attachment figure is vital:
  A) mainly during infancy.
  B) at every age.
  C) if you are dependent.
  D) for humans but not for other species.



8. Which event is LEAST likely to evoke proximity-seeking behavior?
  A) learning you have a serious disease
  B) having your boss insult you
  C) leaving for a dangerous part of the world
  D) arriving at your job



9. The attachment response:
  A) disappears totally after infancy.
  B) is evoked at any time of life when we feel threatened.
  C) is a symptom of dependency after age 4.
  D) is reinforced by our parents.



10. In explaining the attachment response, Dr. Love is likely to make all of the following comments EXCEPT:
  A) Its genetically built into our species (and others).
  B) Its programmed to come out during infancy.
  C) It helps promote survival.
  D) It disappears when we reach old age.



11. According to Bowlby, a babys first social smile:
  A) shows intestinal gas.
  B) shows true attachment.
  C) shows love.
  D) is a reflexive response.



12. Maisie is 4 months old, so with regard to attachment you can predict she:
  A) happily smiles at every adult, and can be cuddled by anyone.
  B) is indifferent to adultsor acts sad.
  C) only goes to her primary caregiver.
  D) has two or three people she really likes.



13. Five-month-old Tara is more easily soothed by and smiles and looks more at Mom. Still, when Aunt Sally comes for a visit, Tara has no problem giving her a cuddle. Tara is in the:
  A) preattachment phase.
  B) attachment-in-the-making phase.
  C) clear-cut attachment phase.
  D) working model phase.



14. Attachment in the making coincides with the onset of:
  A) the primary circular reactions.
  B) separation anxiety.
  C) the secondary circular reactions
  D) the first social smile.



15. A friend asks, When should my child be in the phase of clear-cut attachment? What should you say?
  A) It begins at about 4 months of age and lasts through age 1
  B) It begins at about 7 or 8 months of age and lasts through toddlerhood (till about age 3).
  C) It begins at about age 1 and lasts through age 4.
  D) It begins at about 18 months of age and lasts till kindergarten.



16. Eight-month-old Nate suddenly begins to cry when he is left at the babysitters house, whereas before he never got upset. Pick the MOST reasonable cause.
  A) Nate is being abused by the sitter.
  B) Nate has entered the phase of clear-cut attachment.
  C) Nate is having abnormal trouble separating.
  D) Nates parents are having marital troubles.



17. Its Christmas, you are at the mall, and a mom places her 1-year-old on the store Santas lap. You might expect:
  A) fearand possibly hysterical crying.
  B) apathythe kid wont care.
  C) joyhe may be getting a toy!
  D) varying responsesdepending on how child-sensitive that particular Santa is.



18. You are visiting your 13-month-old nephew and he gets agitated when you pick him up. You should feel:
  A) insultedHe doesnt love me.
  B) not surprisedIts normal at this age.
  C) concerned for his mental health.
  D) angry, as he is not being raised correctly.



19. At the park, 20-month-old Ethan, crawls through tunnels, throws sand everywhere, and lets a dog lick his face. But as he moves from one activity to another, he looks over his shoulder to see whether Daddy is watching. The name for Ethans behavior is:
  A) excessive anxiety.
  B) social referencing.
  C) insecure attachment.
  D) stranger anxiety.



20. When Jos, age 1, social references his mom, he is reacting to:
  A) expressions of fear.
  B) expressions of encouragement.
  C) expressions of happiness.
  D) He is reacting to all of these.



21. Juanita, age 5, goes to kindergarten happily, without any distress. The MOST likely reason is that Juanita is:
  A) insecurely attached.
  B) securely attached.
  C) in the working-model phase of attachment.
  D) in the phase of attachment-in-the making.



22. One-year-old Joshua needs to be near his main caregiver, his dad, all of the time. He gets uncomfortable when he is picked up by other adults: What should you be thinking?
  A) Its normal.
  B) Its a symptom of excessive dependency.
  C) Its a sign of male bonding.
  D) Its a problemas kids this age are always primarily attached to their moms.



23. Pick the BEST sign that your 1-year-old nephew is securely attached.
  A) He can separate easily from his primary caregiver.
  B) He is thrilled when he sees his primary caregiver after being separated.
  C) He is incredibly distressed when separated from his primary caregiver.
  D) He is very calm when he sees his primary caregiver after being separated.



24. If 1-year-old Erik doesnt seem to care when his mother leaves the room, and shows no reaction when she returns, how might you categorize Eriks attachment style?
  A) secure
  B) disorganized
  C) avoidant
  D) anxious-ambivalent



25. One-year-old Anthony is terribly clingy even when his mom is in the same room. If she leaves, he cries frantically and cannot be comforted by her when she returns. How might you classify Anthonys attachment status?
  A) secure
  B) anxious-ambivalent
  C) avoidant
  D) disorganized



26. Link the correct attachment style to the following descriptions: (1) thrilled when reunited with a caregiver, (2) confused, erratic response when reunited with a caregiver, and (3) doesnt care when reunited with a caregiver.
  A) secure; avoidant; disorganized
  B) secure; disorganized; avoidant
  C) secure; anxious-ambivalent; avoidant
  D) secure; avoidant; anxious-ambivalent



27. At what time of life can we see the dance of attachment in action?
  A) during a babys first few months of life
  B) at age 1
  C) during the phase of clear-cut attachment
  D) at any age



28. Baby Clara and her Mom are totally in tune. They know when to come on strong and when to back off. This blissful sense of connection is called:
  A) synchrony.
  B) pure love.
  C) engrossment.
  D) organization.



29. Baby Claras mom is distant when she relates to her baby. Her mom cant respond with love. According to the research, baby Clara may be:
  A) more likely to develop an avoidant attachment.
  B) more likely to develop an anxious-ambivalent attachment.
  C) more likely to be securely attached.
  D) No predictions are possible.



30. To use the attachment metaphor, if a caregiver and baby arent dancing well together:
  A) Its the caregivers fault.
  B) The baby has a difficult temperament.
  C) Could be either that the baby has a difficult temperament and/or its the caregivers fault.
  D) The problem will persist throughout life.



31. A temperamentally difficult baby:
  A) will always end up having an insecure attachment.
  B) will always end up having a secure attachment.
  C) may end up having a secure attachment with exceptionally sensitive caregiver.
  D) needs a good deal of structure to become securely attached.



32. If 1month-old Eric has a difficult temperament, pick the likely cause.
  A) Its biological or genetic.
  B) Its due to poor mothering.
  C) Its due to poor feeding.
  D) Its either due to genetics or to poor mothering.



33. These four babies have difficult temperaments. Which child is MOST likely to develop a secure attachment?
  A) Martin, whose mother keeps him on a strict schedule
  B) Nadia, whose parents work varying shifts at the factory, so Nadias care arrangements change frequently
  C) Olaf, whose mother is highly sensitive to his needs
  D) Paul, whose mother is frequently upset because nothing she does pleases her baby. She is determined to make Paul love her as much as she loves him.



34. Which statement about child-caregiver attachment is FALSE?
  A) Attachments to a single caregiver still occur in societies where infants are cared for by many people.
  B) Babies can only be attached to their moms.
  C) If a preschooler is insecurely attached, sometimes a sensitive teacher can make that child secure.
  D) When caregivers are not that sensitive, if a child is biologically or genetically hardy, that baby can still be securely attached.



35. Bella is pointing up flaws in Bowlby and Ainsworths ideas about infant attachment. She can make all of the following statements EXCEPT:
  A) Attachment security in infancy can change over time.
  B) Attachment security in infancy depends on many forces, not just the caregiver.
  C) Attachment security in infancy may not necessarily predict long-term mental health.
  D) Attachment security in infancy is not important at all.



36. As a mental health professional, you are concerned because your client and her baby dont seem to be dancing well. What might be the problem?
  A) Your client is depressed.
  B) Your clients baby has a difficult temperament.
  C) Your client is having marital troubles.
  D) It could be due to any or several of these factors.



37. A friend asks, Who does a baby get attached to at age 1? Your answer:
  A) equally to several caring people.
  B) always the mom.
  C) the person who spends the most time with a baby or is most sensitive to his needs.
  D) the person who feeds the child.



38. Predict which insecurely attached baby is MOST at risk for later problems.
  A) a 1-year-old who reacts in an erratic confused way when reunited with a primary caregiver
  B) a 1-year-old who doesnt seem to care when reunited with his primary caregiver
  C) a 1-year-old who isnt able to be soothed when reunited with his primary caregiver
  D) a 1-year-old who doesnt care at all when his primary caregiver leaves



39. Milo has a secure attachment at age 1. You can predict at age 21:
  A) Milo will probably be securely attached, if his caregiving and life situation remains stable.
  B) Milo will be securely attached, no matter how his life situation changes.
  C) Milos attachment status may shift to insecure if he is subjected to traumas during childhood.
  D) both answers a and c are correct



40. Your friend wants to adopt a 1-year-old who has been abused. Generalizing from the text, what you say about her chances of changing the childs attachment from insecure to secure?
  A) Its hopeless, as infant attachments rarely change.
  B) You have a challenge, but go for it, as infant attachments can change with special care.
  C) No problem, as infant attachment has no relationship to later attachment.
  D) I cant give you any advice, as we have no long-term studies of infant attachment.



41. Clara and her husband have adopted a child who was warehoused in an Eastern European orphanage. According to the research, you can say all of the following EXCEPT:
  A) If you adopt the child at or after age 2, the damage will be far harder to overcome.
  B) If you adopt the child in his first months of life, there should be few or no negative effects on development.
  C) If you adopt a boy, it will be harder for that baby to get securely attached.
  D) Secure attachments never occur after being subjected to this sort of trauma.



42. Clara and her husband have adopted a 2-year-old child who was warehoused in an Eastern European orphanage. Which problem are they LEAST apt to find?
  A) Child has deficits in attention.
  B) Child has problems getting attached to any person.
  C) Child is too friendly, even going to strangers when its inappropriate.
  D) Child is unable to walk or speak.



43. The bottom line message of the attachment research is:
  A) Profound attachment deprivation is more difficult to overcome.
  B) Enduring attachment deprivation is more difficult to overcome
  C) Attachment security can change over time for the better or for the worse.
  D) All of these are bottom-line messages.



44. One vital message of the research following Eastern European orphanage infants is:
  A) Babies can recover if they are adopted prior to age 1 1/2 to 2.
  B) Babies can never recover.
  C) Babies can recover if they are adopted before age 6.
  D) Babies can recover easily if adopted before their teens.



45. In the United States, who is MOST likely to live in poverty today?
  A) a young child
  B) an adolescent
  C) an emerging adult
  D) an elderly person



46. If you start a family in your twenties today, statistically speaking you are probably (pick the BEST answer):
  A) fairly economically secure.
  B) going to struggle economically.
  C) going to struggle economically, but only if you are a single mother.
  D) unemployed.



47. Generalizing from the text, ________ is the WORST time to live in poverty.
  A) early childhood
  B) adolescence
  C) emerging adulthood
  D) old age



48. Who is MOST likely to be living in poverty in the United States?
  A) Sara, age 2, whose mom is in her early twenties
  B) Latisha, age 20, who is a college student
  C) Hernando, age 40, who has six kids
  D) Jose, age 65, who just retired



49. All things being equal, which student is MOST at risk of NOT graduating from high school?
  A) Bella, who lived in poverty during her first four years of life
  B) Sam, who lived in poverty during elementary school
  C) Clarissa, who has been living in poverty since her dad was laid off last year
  D) Sara, whose family has just experienced a decline in income



50. Early childhood poverty:
  A) impairs the quality of the attachment dance.
  B) leaves kids behind academically in kindergarten (because they dont have access to cognition enriching activities).
  C) promotes poor health.
  D) All of the answers are correct.



51. Pick the MAIN message of the section on early childhood poverty.
  A) Early childhood poverty always has a serious negative impact on development.
  B) Early childhood poverty can have a serious negative impact on development, unless caregivers are upbeat, sensitive, and loving.
  C) Early childhood poverty has little impact on development if, during elementary school, that family is no longer poor.
  D) Early childhood poverty is rare in the United States.



52. Your friend wants to move to a better neighborhood for her childrens sake. Your advice?
  A) Go for it if you live in a neighborhood blighted by poverty.
  B) Go for iteven if you now live in a middle-class neighborhood.
  C) Go for itbut only if your children are over age 6.
  D) Forget itbecause if you give your children a loving, intellectually stimulating environment, the neighborhood wont matter.



53. Dr. Caring is offering reasons why early childhood poverty has negative academic outcomes. He can make all of the following points EXCEPT:
  A) Low-income children have less stimulating experiences at home.
  B) Low-income children are more apt to move frequently and live in more dangerous neighborhoods.
  C) Low-income children are more likely to have health problems.
  D) Low-income children are less likely to attend Head Start.



54. Living in poverty:
  A) has no impact on the quality of care-giving.
  B) puts caregivers at risk of not responding sensitively.
  C) means caregivers will definitely not respond sensitively.
  D) only matters if a person is a single mom.



55. The Head Start Program provides high quality:
  A) preschool to low-income children aged 3 to 5.
  B) day care to low-income children aged 1 to 5.
  C) preschool to any child aged 3 to 5.
  D) day care to any child aged 1 to 5.



56. Who is eligible for Early Head Start?
  A) low-income infants and toddlers
  B) low-income preschoolers
  C) any infant or toddler
  D) any preschooler



57. All of these forces work against academic success in poor children EXCEPT:
  A) having more stressed out parents.
  B) living in dangerous neighborhoods.
  C) going to family day care.
  D) living in crowded, substandard housing.



58. What is the long-term impact of attending preschool on low-income children?
  A) If the program is high quality, preschool can make an enduring difference.
  B) Every preschool makes an enduring difference.
  C) No preschool program has an enduring impact.
  D) Most preschools have a negative impact.



59. Give the MAIN reason why attending an excellent preschool cant have a GREAT impact on low-income childrens later academic achievement.
  A) Poor childrens parents work long hours.
  B) Poor children go to substandard elementary schools and high schools.
  C) Poor children dont have enough to eat.
  D) Poor children have parents who rarely care.



60. A more teaching-oriented setting that enrolls children age 3 and above is called:
  A) day care.
  B) preschool.
  C) afterschool.
  D) family care.



61. Sonia wants to know if she should send her 3-year-old to preschool. Your answer:
  A) Go for it, as high-quality preschool gives children a cognitive boost.
  B) Go for it, but only because preschool helps with social skills.
  C) Be careful, as staying at home is best at this age.
  D) Avoid it, as most preschools are poorly run.



62. If you lived in poverty as a young child, what force might BEST insulate you emotionally?
  A) having optimistic, happy, loving parents (or parent)
  B) having a good teacher
  C) having a large, extended family
  D) being a first born



63. Pick the most dramatic change in U.S. child care during the late twentieth century.
  A) more nannies
  B) more large day-care centers
  C) more moms quitting their jobs to stay with the kids
  D) more neighbors caring for kids



64. All are major concerns parents report when they send a baby to day care EXCEPT:
  A) Im worried about the expense.
  B) Im worried about leaving my baby with strangers.
  C) Im worried my child wont be as attached to me.
  D) Im worried that the setting is too far away.



65. Fiona has returned to work when her child is 4 months old. If she lives in the United States, who is MOST likely to be responsible for the babys care?
  A) another relative (or her spouse)
  B) a day-care center
  C) a nanny
  D) a neighbor



66. Your working friend has a 3-year-old child. Statistically speaking, where is the child MOST likely to be when your friend is at her job?
  A) with grandma
  B) at a preschool (or day-care center)
  C) with another relative
  D) at home with the other parent



67. A mom tells you she is upset about leaving her baby and going to work. What should you be thinking?
  A) Its a sign of insecurity.
  B) Its a sign of paranoia.
  C) Its a sign of excessive dependency.
  D) Its totally normal.



68. Pick the main message of the NCHID study of child care.
  A) Day care has a clear positive impact.
  B) Day care has neither a positive nor a nega

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