Exploring Psychology 10th Edition by David G. Myers -Test Bank

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Exploring Psychology 10th Edition by David G. Myers -Test Bank

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Exploring Psychology 10th Edition by David G. Myers -Test Bank

TB1 Chapter 02- Essays

 

1. After Lola began using a street drug to enhance her moods, she discovered that she needed larger and larger doses of the drug in order to feel the drugs effect. Use your understanding of the neurotransmission process to explain Lolas experience.

 

 

2. The ancient Greek physician Hippocrates believed that four basic body fluids (blood, black bile, yellow bile, and phlegm) influenced human behavior, emotions, and personality. Use your understanding of the bodys rapid and slower chemical communication systems to support or refute the general logic of Hippocrates theory.

 

 

3. Describe specific functions of our older brain structures, which reveal that our brains are responsible for much more than simply our capacity to think.

 

 

4. Describe how damage to specific structures in your limbic system would likely affect your experience of  (a) emotions such as anxiety and elation, (b) motives such as hunger and sex drive, and (c) memories such as recall of familiar faces or locations.

 

 

5. After suffering a head injury in an auto accident, Alyssa says that she remembers what her mother looks like, and she can accurately recall many of her mothers distinctive facial features. However, when she is shown pictures of her mother, Alyssa is unable to recognize who it is, even though she can see clearly. Use your understanding of the functioning brain to account for Alyssas strange pattern of experience.

 

 

6. Describe how an understanding of both a normally functioning brain and a split brain enables us to better appreciate the fact that most information processing takes place outside of conscious awareness.

 

 

7. Describe one of your personality traits that you believe to be heavily influenced by your unique genetic profile and another trait that seems to be much less so. Provide reasons for your answer, and explain why you would expect genetics to exert a greater impact on some personality traits than on others.

 

 

8. Mr. Firkin is a shy and reserved person who often feels tense and nervous. In therapy, he recalled that he had an unhappy childhood, feeling that he did not receive enough attention from his mother and resenting the conservative family discipline and lifestyle enforced by his father. He blames both parents for his current anxiety, unhappiness, and loneliness. In light of your understanding of the interactive influences of nature and nurture, explain why Mr. Firkins complaints about his parents may be somewhat unfair and unhelpful.

 

 

9. Biological fathers are so much less likely than unrelated boyfriends to abuse and murder the children with whom they share a home. Use the principles of evolutionary psychology and natural selection to explain why this is so.

 

 

TB1 Chapter 02- Multiple Choice

1. The study of the links between biology and behavior is called
  A) neurology.
  B) cognitive psychology.
  C) endocrinology.
  D) biological psychology.

 

 

2. Dr. Wolski conducts research on the relationship between neurotransmitter deficiencies and mood states. Dr. Wolskis research focus is most characteristic of
  A) tomography.
  B) biological psychology.
  C) psychoanalysis.
  D) cognitive psychology.

 

 

3. A biological psychologist would be most interested in conducting research on the relationship between
  A) neurotransmitters and depression.
  B) age and bone density.
  C) self-esteem and popularity.
  D) genetics and eye color.

 

 

4. Neurons are best described as
  A) positively charged sodium and potassium ions.
  B) chemical molecules that cross the synaptic gap.
  C) nerve cells that function as the building blocks of the nervous system.
  D) bundled axon cables that connect the CNS with muscles, glands, and sense organs.

 

 

5. Dendrites are branching extensions of
  A) neurotransmitters.
  B) endorphins.
  C) neurons.
  D) glial cells.

 

 

6. The function of dendrites is to
  A) receive incoming signals from other neurons.
  B) release neurotransmitters into the spatial junctions between neurons.
  C) coordinate the activation of the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems.
  D) control pain through the release of opiate-like chemicals into the brain.

 

 

7. An axon is
  A) a cell that serves as the basic building block of the nervous system.
  B) a layer of fatty tissue that encases the fibers of many neurons.
  C) a molecule that blocks neurotransmitter receptor sites.
  D) the extension of a neuron that carries messages away from the cell body.

 

 

8. Dendrite is to ________ as axon is to _________.
  A) sensory neuron; motor neuron
  B) sodium ion; potassium ion
  C) signal reception; signal transmission
  D) central nervous system; peripheral nervous system

 

 

9. The longest part of a motor neuron is likely to be the
  A) dendrite.
  B) axon.
  C) cell body.
  D) synapse.

 

 

10. In transmitting sensory information to the brain, an electrical signal travels from the ________ of a single neuron.
  A) dendrites to the axon to the cell body
  B) axon to the cell body to the dendrites
  C) dendrites to the cell body to the axon
  D) axon to the dendrites to the cell body

 

 

11. A myelin sheath is a
  A) nerve network within the spinal cord that controls physical arousal.
  B) large band of neural fibers connecting the two adrenal glands.
  C) layer of fatty tissue encasing the axons of some nerve cells.
  D) bushy extension of a neuron that conducts impulses toward the cell body.

 

 

12. The speed at which a neural impulse travels is increased when the axon is encased by a(n)
  A) endorphin.
  B) myelin sheath.
  C) glial cell.
  D) synaptic vesicle.

 

 

13. Degeneration of the myelin sheath results in
  A) reuptake.
  B) multiple sclerosis.
  C) the fight-or-flight response.
  D) an action potential.

 

 

14. Gerald has experienced increasing difficulties with muscle weakness, motor coordination, and body balance, which physicians have attributed to multiple sclerosis. These symptoms are most likely to be directly linked with the degeneration of
  A) endorphins.
  B) synaptic gaps.
  C) the pituitary gland.
  D) the myelin sheath.

 

 

15. Neurons are surrounded by ________, which guide neural connections and mop up ions and neurotransmitters.
  A) endorphins
  B) glial cells
  C) hormones
  D) agonists

 

 

16. One function of glial cells is to
  A) increase the speed of neural impulses.
  B) mimic the effects of neurotransmitters.
  C) provide nutrients to neurons.
  D) stimulate the production of hormones.

 

 

17. Which brain cells play a role in learning and memory by communicating with neurons?
  A) endorphins
  B) glial cells
  C) agonists
  D) myelin cells

 

 

18. A brief electrical charge that travels down the axon of a neuron is called the
  A) synapse.
  B) agonist.
  C) action potential.
  D) refractory period.

 

 

19. Mathematical computations by a computer are faster than your quickest mathematical computations because the top speed of a neural impulse is about ________ times slower than the speed of electricity through the wired circuitry in a computer.
  A) 3 hundred
  B) 3 thousand
  C) 3 hundred thousand
  D) 3 million

 

 

20. An action potential is generated by the movement of ________ through an axon membrane.
  A) glial cells
  B) glands
  C) neurotransmitters
  D) ions

 

 

21. A state in which the fluid outside an axon has a mostly positive charge and the fluid inside the axon has a mostly negative charge is called
  A) the action potential.
  B) the resting potential.
  C) the refractory period.
  D) depolarization.

 

 

22. A resting axons fluid interior has a mostly negative charge thanks to the presence of large ________ ions.
  A) sodium
  B) serotonin
  C) protein
  D) dopamine

 

 

23. Neurons generate electricity from a chemical process involving the exchange of
  A) ions.
  B) enzymes.
  C) cortisol.
  D) oxytocin.

 

 

24. The resting potential of an axon results from the fact that an axon membrane is
  A) encased by a myelin sheath.
  B) selectively permeable.
  C) sensitive to neurotransmitter molecules.
  D) part of a larger neural network.

 

 

25. The depolarization of a neural membrane creates a(n)
  A) action potential.
  B) myelin sheath.
  C) neural network.
  D) interneuron.

 

 

26. An action potential involves the temporary ________ through an axon membrane.
  A) inflow of positively charged ions
  B) inflow of negatively charged ions
  C) outflow of positively charged ions
  D) outflow of negatively charged ions

 

 

27. The loss of an electrical charge difference between the inside and outside of an axon membrane is called
  A) reuptake.
  B) depolarization.
  C) the resting potential.
  D) selective permeability.

 

 

28. Following depolarization, the sodium/potassium pump transports ________ ions ________ a neuron.
  A) positively charged; into
  B) negatively charged; into
  C) positively charged; out of
  D) negatively charged; out of

 

 

29. The minimum level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse is called the
  A) reflex.
  B) threshold.
  C) synapse.
  D) action potential.

 

 

30. Excitatory signals to a neuron must exceed inhibitory signals by a minimum intensity in order to trigger
  A) reuptake.
  B) a refractory period.
  C) an action potential.
  D) selective permeability.

 

 

31. The ______ occurs at an electrical charge of about 70 mV and the ______ occurs at a charge of about +40 mV.
  A) action potential; resting potential
  B) resting potential; threshold
  C) threshold; resting potential
  D) resting potential; action potential

 

 

32. With regard to the process of neural transmission, a refractory period refers to a time interval in which
  A) chemical messengers cross synaptic gaps between neurons.
  B) a neurotransmitter is reabsorbed by a sending neuron.
  C) an action potential cannot occur.
  D) an organism reflexively withdraws from a pain stimulus.

 

 

33. Increasing excitatory signals above the threshold for neural activation will not affect the intensity of an action potential. This indicates that a neurons reaction is
  A) inhibited by the myelin sheath.
  B) delayed by a refractory period.
  C) an all-or-none response.
  D) dependent on neurotransmitter molecules.

 

 

34. A neurons reaction of either firing at full strength or not firing at all is described as
  A) an all-or-none response.
  B) a refractory period.
  C) the resting potential.
  D) a reflexive response.

 

 

35. A slap on the back is more painful than a pat on the back because a slap triggers
  A) the release of endorphins.
  B) more intense neural impulses.
  C) the release of GABA.
  D) more neurons to fire, and to fire more often.

 

 

36. Sir Charles Sherrington observed that impulses took an unexpectedly long time to travel a neural pathway. His observation provided evidence for the existence of
  A) antagonists.
  B) synaptic gaps.
  C) interneurons.
  D) neural networks.

 

 

37. A synapse is a(n)
  A) chemical messenger that triggers muscle contractions.
  B) automatic response to sensory input.
  C) junction between a sending neuron and a receiving neuron.
  D) neural cable containing many axons.

 

 

38. The axon of a sending neuron is separated from the dendrite of a receiving neuron by a
  A) myelin sheath.
  B) neural network.
  C) glial cell.
  D) synaptic gap.

 

 

39. The chemical messengers released into the spatial junctions between neurons are called
  A) hormones.
  B) neurotransmitters.
  C) synapses.
  D) genes.

 

 

40. Neurotransmitters are released from knob-like terminals at the end of the
  A) dendrites.
  B) cell body.
  C) axon.
  D) myelin sheath.

 

 

41. Reuptake refers to the
  A) movement of neurotransmitter molecules across a synaptic gap.
  B) release of hormones into the bloodstream.
  C) inflow of positively charged ions through an axon membrane.
  D) reabsorption of excess neurotransmitter molecules by a sending neuron.

 

 

42. The number of neurotransmitter molecules located within a specific synaptic gap would most clearly be reduced by
  A) an action potential.
  B) ACh-producing neurons.
  C) acupuncture.
  D) reuptake.

 

 

43. Which neurotransmitter plays the most direct role in learning and memory?
  A) dopamine
  B) acetylcholine
  C) GABA
  D) oxytocin

 

 

44. Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter that
  A) causes sleepiness.
  B) lessens physical pain.
  C) reduces depressed moods.
  D) triggers muscle contractions.

 

 

45. Mr. Anderson suffers from Parkinsons disease and his shaking arm movements are so severe that he has difficulty feeding or dressing himself without help. His symptoms are most likely to be linked with an undersupply of the neurotransmitter
  A) cortisol.
  B) dopamine.
  C) serotonin.
  D) oxytocin.

 

 

46. Schizophrenia is most closely linked to an oversupply of the neurotransmitter
  A) dopamine.
  B) epinephrine.
  C) acetylcholine.
  D) serotonin.

 

 

47. An undersupply of serotonin is most closely linked to
  A) Alzheimers disease.
  B) schizophrenia.
  C) Parkinsons disease.
  D) depression.

 

 

48. An undersupply of the major inhibitory neurotransmitter known as ________ is linked to seizures.
  A) glutamate
  B) GABA
  C) serotonin
  D) ACh

 

 

49. Jacobs severe migraine headaches have led him to seek medical help. It is likely that his symptoms are most closely linked to an
  A) oversupply of GABA.
  B) undersupply of serotonin.
  C) oversupply of glutamate.
  D) undersupply of acetylcholine.

 

 

50. Endorphins are
  A) neurotransmitters.
  B) sex hormones.
  C) endocrine glands.
  D) glial cells.

 

 

51. Opiate drugs occupy the same receptor sites as
  A) serotonin.
  B) endorphins.
  C) dopamine.
  D) epinephrine.

 

 

52. Which of the following is an opiate that elevates mood and eases pain?
  A) melatonin
  B) acetylcholine
  C) morphine
  D) glutamate

 

 

53. Jos has just played a long, bruising football game but feels little fatigue or discomfort. His lack of pain is most likely caused by the release of
  A) glutamate.
  B) dopamine.
  C) acetylcholine.
  D) endorphins.

 

 

54. The bodys natural production of endorphins is likely to be
  A) increased by heroin use and increased by vigorous exercise.
  B) decreased by heroin use and decreased by vigorous exercise.
  C) increased by heroin use and decreased by vigorous exercise.
  D) decreased by heroin use and increased by vigorous exercise.

 

 

55. Jasons intensely uncomfortable withdrawal symptoms following heroin use were probably due in part to a reduction in his bodys normal production of
  A) dopamine.
  B) epinephrine.
  C) acetylcholine.
  D) endorphins.

 

 

56. A drug molecule that increases a neurotransmitters action is called a(n)
  A) antagonist.
  B) endorphin.
  C) agonist.
  D) steroid.

 

 

57. Any drug molecule that occupies a neurotransmitter receptor site and blocks the neurotransmitters effect is a(n)
  A) glutamate.
  B) agonist.
  C) opiate.
  D) antagonist.

 

 

58. Any drug molecule that blocks the reuptake of a neurotransmitter is a(n)
  A) steroid.
  B) agonist.
  C) endorphin.
  D) antagonist.

 

 

59. Endorphin agonists are likely to ________ ones immediate pain, and endorphin antagonists are likely to ________ ones immediate pain.
  A) decrease; increase
  B) increase; decrease
  C) increase; increase
  D) decrease; decrease

 

 

60. Botulin poisoning from improperly canned food causes paralysis by blocking the release of
  A) endorphins.
  B) epinephrine.
  C) acetylcholine.
  D) dopamine.

 

 

61. Madison is experiencing symptoms of paralysis after eating food contaminated by botulin. Her paralysis is most likely to be relieved by a drug that functions as a(n)
  A) ACh agonist.
  B) serotonin agonist.
  C) ACh antagonist.
  D) serotonin antagonist.

 

 

62. The nervous system is the
  A) complete set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream.
  B) collection of bundled axons that form neural cables carrying information to body muscles.
  C) an organisms complete set of automatic reflex responses.
  D) electrochemical communication network that includes all the bodys neurons.

 

 

63. The two major divisions of the nervous system are the central and the ________ nervous systems.
  A) autonomic
  B) sympathetic
  C) somatic
  D) peripheral

 

 

64. The central nervous system consists of
  A) sensory and motor neurons.
  B) somatic and autonomic systems.
  C) the brain and the spinal cord.
  D) sympathetic and parasympathetic branches.

 

 

65. Messages are transmitted from your spinal cord to muscles in your hands by the ________ nervous system.
  A) somatic
  B) parasympathetic
  C) sympathetic
  D) autonomic

 

 

66. Information travels through axons that are bundled into the cables we call
  A) interneurons.
  B) action potentials.
  C) nerves.
  D) reflex pathways.

 

 

67. You feel the pain of a sprained ankle when ________ relay(s) messages from your ankle to your central nervous system.
  A) the myelin sheath
  B) interneurons
  C) motor neurons
  D) sensory neurons

 

 

68. Sensory neurons are located in the
  A) synaptic gaps.
  B) endocrine system.
  C) peripheral nervous system.
  D) myelin sheath.

 

 

69. Sensory neurons are ________ neurons, and motor neurons are ________ neurons.
  A) agonist; antagonist
  B) afferent; efferent
  C) antagonist; agonist
  D) efferent; afferent

 

 

70. Information is carried from the central nervous system to the bodys tissues by
  A) interneurons.
  B) sensory neurons.
  C) motor neurons.
  D) adrenal glands.

 

 

71. Some neurons enable you to grasp objects by relaying outgoing messages to the muscles in your arms and hands. These neurons are called
  A) interneurons.
  B) sensory neurons.
  C) neurotransmitters.
  D) motor neurons.

 

 

72. Motor neurons transmit signals to
  A) glands.
  B) interneurons.
  C) sensory neurons.
  D) all of these parts.

 

 

73. Neurons that function within the brain and spinal cord are called
  A) sensory neurons.
  B) interneurons.
  C) endorphins.
  D) motor neurons.

 

 

74. Central nervous system neurons that process information between sensory inputs and motor outputs are called
  A) neurotransmitters.
  B) interneurons.
  C) synapses.
  D) dendrites.

 

 

75. The two divisions of the peripheral nervous system are the
  A) brain and spinal cord.
  B) sympathetic nervous system and parasympathetic nervous system.
  C) endocrine system and circulatory system.
  D) somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system.

 

 

76. The somatic nervous system is a component of the ________ nervous system.
  A) peripheral
  B) central
  C) sympathetic
  D) parasympathetic

 

 

77. The part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the movements of your mouth and jaws as you eat is called the
  A) somatic nervous system.
  B) sympathetic nervous system.
  C) endocrine system.
  D) autonomic nervous system.

 

 

78. The part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs is called the
  A) somatic nervous system.
  B) endocrine system.
  C) sensory nervous system.
  D) autonomic nervous system.

 

 

79. Messages are transmitted from your spinal cord to your heart muscles by the
  A) sensory nervous system.
  B) somatic nervous system.
  C) central nervous system.
  D) autonomic nervous system.

 

 

80. Which division of the autonomic nervous system arouses the body and mobilizes its energy in stressful situations?
  A) the parasympathetic nervous system
  B) the sympathetic nervous system
  C) the somatic nervous system
  D) the central nervous system

 

 

81. You come home one night to find a burglar in your house. Your heart starts racing and you begin to perspire. These physical reactions are triggered by the
  A) somatic nervous system.
  B) sympathetic nervous system.
  C) parasympathetic nervous system.
  D) sensory nervous system.

 

 

82. The parasympathetic nervous system
  A) stimulates digestion and slows heartbeat.
  B) inhibits digestion and accelerates heartbeat.
  C) stimulates digestion and accelerates heartbeat.
  D) inhibits digestion and slows heartbeat.

 

 

83. After discovering that the shadows outside his window were only the trees in the yard, Ralphs blood pressure decreased and his heartbeat slowed. These physical reactions were most directly regulated by his
  A) parasympathetic nervous system.
  B) sympathetic nervous system.
  C) somatic nervous system.
  D) sensory nervous system.

 

 

84. The sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems work together to keep you in a steady internal state called
  A) depolarization.
  B) reuptake.
  C) homeostasis.
  D) the resting potential.

 

 

85. An accelerated heartbeat is to a slowed heartbeat as the ________ nervous system is to the ________ nervous system.
  A) somatic; autonomic
  B) autonomic; somatic
  C) sympathetic; parasympathetic
  D) parasympathetic; sympathetic

 

 

86. Neural networks refer to
  A) the branching extensions of a neuron.
  B) interrelated clusters of neurons in the central nervous system.
  C) neural cables containing many axons.
  D) junctions between sending and receiving neurons.

 

 

87. The strengthening of the brains synaptic connections facilitates the formation of
  A) interneurons.
  B) endorphins.
  C) neural networks.
  D) glial cells.

 

 

88. A football quarterback can simultaneously make calculations of receiver distances, player movements, and gravitational forces. This best illustrates the activity of multiple
  A) endocrine glands.
  B) endorphin agonists.
  C) neural networks.
  D) acetylcholine antagonists.

 

 

89. The part of the central nervous system that carries information from your senses to your brain and motor-control information to your body parts is the
  A) pituitary gland.
  B) pancreas.
  C) spinal cord.
  D) myelin sheath.

 

 

90. A simple, automatic, inborn response to a sensory stimulus is called a(n)
  A) neural network.
  B) action potential.
  C) neurotransmitter.
  D) reflex.

 

 

91. The knee-jerk reflex is controlled by interneurons in the
  A) synaptic gap.
  B) spinal cord.
  C) sympathetic nervous system.
  D) parasympathetic nervous system.

 

 

92. In a tragic diving accident, Andrew damaged his spinal cord. As a result, his legs were paralyzed. Andrews injury was located in his
  A) somatic nervous system.
  B) autonomic nervous system.
  C) sympathetic nervous system.
  D) central nervous system.

 

 

93. Aaron consistently exhibits a knee-jerk response without having any sensations of the taps on his knees. Aarons experience is most indicative of
  A) botulin poisoning.
  B) a severed spinal cord.
  C) a sympathetic nervous system injury.
  D) a refractory period.

 

 

94. The endocrine system consists of the
  A) communication network that includes all the bodys neurons.
  B) regions of the brain that regulate emotion.
  C) interneurons within the spinal cord.
  D) glands that secrete hormones.

 

 

95. Hormones are the chemical messengers of the
  A) autonomic nervous system.
  B) somatic nervous system.
  C) endocrine system.
  D) central nervous system.

 

 

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96. The speedy nervous system zips messages by way of neurotransmitters. Endocrine messages, however, are delivered more slowly because hormones travel through
  A) myelinated neurons.
  B) the bloodstream.