Extreme Weather Climate 1st Edition Ahrens Samson -Test Bank

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Extreme Weather Climate 1st Edition Ahrens Samson -Test Bank

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Extreme Weather Climate 1st Edition Ahrens Samson -Test Bank

Chapter 2

Energy that Drives the Storms

 

 

Multiple Choice Exam Questions

 

  1. Energy of motion is also known as:
  2. dynamic energy.
  3. kinetic energy.
  4. sensible heat energy.
  5. static energy.
  6. latent heat energy.

 

ANSWER: b

 

  1. Heat is energy in the process of being transferred from:
  2. hot objects to cold objects.
  3. low pressure to high pressure.
  4. cold objects to hot objects.
  5. high pressure to low pressure.
  6. regions of low density toward regions of high density.

 

ANSWER: a

 

  1. The heat energy released when water vapor changes to a liquid is called:
  2. latent heat of evaporation.
  3. latent heat of fusion.
  4. latent heat of fission.
  5. latent heat of condensation.

 

ANSWER: d

 

  1. This is released as sensible heat during the formation of clouds:
  2. potential energy
  3. longwave radiation
  4. latent heat
  5. shortwave radiation
  6. kinetic energy

 

ANSWER: c

 

  1. The cold feeling that you experience after leaving a swimming pool on a hot, dry, summer day represents heat transport by:
  2. conduction.
  3. convection.
  4. radiation.
  5. latent heat.

 

ANSWER: d

 

 

 

 

 

  1. The processes of condensation and freezing:
  2. both release sensible heat into the environment.
  3. both absorb sensible heat from the environment.
  4. do not affect the temperature of their surroundings.
  5. do not involve energy transport.

 

ANSWER: a

 

  1. The transfer of heat by molecule-to-molecule contact is:
  2. conduction.
  3. convection.
  4. radiation.
  5. ultrasonic.

 

ANSWER: a

 

  1. A heat transfer process in the atmosphere that depends upon the movement of air is:
  2. conduction.
  3. absorption.
  4. reflection.
  5. convection.
  6. radiation.

 

ANSWER: d

 

  1. Snow will usually melt on the roof of a home that is a:
  2. good radiator of heat.
  3. good conductor of heat.
  4. poor radiator of heat.
  5. poor conductor of heat.

 

ANSWER: b

 

  1. The temperature of a rising air parcel:
  2. always cools due to expansion.
  3. always warms due to expansion.
  4. always cools due to compression.
  5. always warms due to compression.
  6. remains constant.

 

ANSWER: a

 

  1. The proper order from shortest to longest wavelength is:
  2. visible, infrared, ultraviolet.
  3. infrared, visible, ultraviolet.
  4. ultraviolet, visible, infrared.
  5. visible, ultraviolet, infrared.
  6. ultraviolet, infrared, visible.

 

ANSWER: c

 

  1. If the average temperature of the sun increased, the wavelength of peak solar emission would:
  2. shift to a shorter wavelength.
  3. shift to a longer wavelength.
  4. remain the same.
  5. impossible to tell from given information

 

ANSWER: a

 

  1. Which of the following determine(s) the kind (wavelength) and amount of radiation that an object emits?
  2. temperature
  3. thermal conductivity
  4. density
  5. latent heat

 

ANSWER: a

 

  1. Often before sunrise on a clear, calm, cold morning, ice (frost) can be seen on the tops of parked cars, even when the air temperature is above freezing. This condition happens because the tops of the cars are cooling by:
  2. conduction.
  3. convection.
  4. latent heat.
  5. radiation.

 

ANSWER: d

 

  1. Evaporation is a __________ process.
  2. cooling
  3. heating
  4. cant tell it depends on the temperature
  5. both a and c

 

ANSWER: a

 

  1. If you want to keep an object cool while exposed to direct sunlight, you should:
  2. put it inside a brown paper bag.
  3. wrap it in black paper.
  4. wrap it in aluminum foil with the shiny side facing inward.
  5. wrap it in aluminum foil with the shiny side facing outward.

 

ANSWER: d

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. The sun emits its greatest intensity of radiation in:
  2. the visible portion of the spectrum.
  3. the infrared portion of the spectrum.
  4. the ultraviolet portion of the spectrum.
  5. the x-ray portion of the spectrum.

 

ANSWER: a

 

  1. Air that rises always:
  2. contracts and warms.
  3. contracts and cools.
  4. expands and cools.
  5. expands and warms.

 

ANSWER: c

 

  1. If the earths average surface temperature were to increase, the amount of radiation emitted from the earths surface would __________ and the wavelength of peak emission would shift toward __________ wavelengths.
  2. increase, shorter
  3. increase, longer
  4. decrease, shorter
  5. decrease, longer

 

ANSWER: a

 

  1. Without the atmospheric greenhouse effect, the average surface temperature would be:
  2. higher than at present.
  3. lower than at present.
  4. the same as it is now.
  5. much more variable than it is now.

 

ANSWER: b

 

  1. Which of the following gases are mainly responsible for the atmospheric greenhouse effect in the earths atmosphere?
  2. oxygen and nitrogen
  3. nitrogen and carbon dioxide
  4. ozone and oxygen
  5. water vapor and carbon dioxide

 

ANSWER: d

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. The combined albedo of the earth and the atmosphere is approximately:
  2. 4%.
  3. 10%.
  4. 30%.
  5. 50%.
  6. 90%.

 

ANSWER: c

 

  1. The albedo of the moon is 7%. This means that:
  2. 7% of the sunlight striking the moon is reflected.
  3. 7% of the sunlight striking the moon is absorbed.
  4. the moon emits only 7% as much energy as it absorbs from the sun.
  5. 93% of the sunlight striking the moon is reflected.

 

ANSWER: a

 

  1. On the average, about what percentage of the solar energy that strikes the outer atmosphere eventually reaches the earths surface?
  2.  5%
  3. 15%
  4. 30%
  5. 50%
  6. 70%

 

ANSWER: d

 

  1. If the amount of energy lost by the earth to space each year were not approximately equal to that received,
  2. the atmospheres average temperature would change.
  3. the length of the year would change.
  4. the suns output would change.
  5. the mass of the atmosphere would change.

 

ANSWER: a

 

  1. The earths radiative equilibrium temperature is:
  2. the temperature at which the earth is absorbing solar radiation and emitting infrared radiation at equal rates.
  3. the temperature at which the earth is radiating energy at maximum intensity.
  4. the average temperature the earth must maintain to prevent the oceans from freezing solid.
  5. the temperature at which rates of evaporation and condensation on the earth are in balance.

 

ANSWER: a

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Suppose you are outside in very cold temperatures, wearing a winter coat that is quite effective at keeping you warm. Which of the following is true?
  2. The coat is the source of the heat that keeps you warm.
  3. Your body generates the heat that keeps you warm.
  4. The coat prevents your bodys heat from escaping to the surrounding air.
  5. both (a) and (c) are true.
  6. both (b) and (c) are true.

 

ANSWER: e

 

  1. During the winter in the Northern Hemisphere, the land of the midnight sun would be found:
  2. at high latitudes.
  3. at middle latitudes.
  4. near the equator.
  5. in the desert southwest.
  6. on the West Coast.

 

ANSWER: a

 

  1. In the Northern Hemisphere, this day has the fewest hours of daylight:
  2. summer solstice
  3. winter solstice
  4. vernal equinox
  5. autumnal equinox

 

ANSWER: b

 

 

 

True/False Exam Questions

 

  1. During an equinox, the days and nights are of equal length except at the poles.

 

ANSWER: true

 

  1. On December 22, the equator (0o latitude) would experience fewer hours of daylight than the latitude 60o N.

 

ANSWER: false

 

  1. Considering each hemisphere as a whole, seasonal temperature variations in the Southern Hemisphere are greater than those in the Northern Hemisphere.

 

ANSWER: false

 

  1. The fact that solar energy is spread over a larger area in northern latitudes helps to explain why even though these latitudes experience 24 hours of sunlight on June 22, they are not warmer than latitudes further south.

 

ANSWER: true

 

  1. When it is January and winter in the Northern Hemisphere, it is July and summer in the Southern Hemisphere.

 

ANSWER: false

 

  1. The most important reason why summers in the Southern Hemisphere are not warmer than summers in the Northern Hemisphere is that over 80% of the Southern Hemisphere is covered with water.

 

ANSWER: true

 

  1. The changing distance between the earth and the sun over the course of the year is the main cause of the seasons.

 

ANSWER: false

 

  1. Although the polar regions radiate away more heat energy than they receive by insolation in the course of a year, the insulating properties of snow prevents them from becoming progressively colder each year.

 

ANSWER: false

 

  1. The latitude 90 oN is closer to the earths axis than the latitude 40 oN.

 

ANSWER: true

 

 

 

  1. More solar radiation is received at the top of the atmosphere than at the earths surface.

 

ANSWER: true

 

 

Essay/Critical Thinking Exam Questions

 

  1. The earth radiates energy constantly. What prevents the earth from getting colder and colder?

 

  1. Will a rising parcel of air always expand? Why?  How does this expansion affect the air temperature?  Why?

 

  1. Explain how energy in the form of sunlight absorbed at the ground could be transferred upward in the atmosphere in the form of latent heat. How or when is the latent heat energy released in the air above the ground?

 

  1. Describe the atmospheric greenhouse effect. Is there any difference between the way the atmospheric greenhouse effect works on a clear night and on a cloudy night?

 

  1. How could clouds increase the surface temperature? How could clouds decrease the surface temperature?

 

  1. When you remove a cold beverage from a refrigerator in a humid room, water vapor will condense on the sides of the container. Would this act to warm or cool the beverage, or would the condensation have no effect on the beverages temperature?

 

  1. Many people will blow on a bowl of hot soup to try to cool it. What are the two most important heat transport processes being used to cool the soup?

 

  1. When you place an ice cube in your hand, the ice cube melts and your hand cools. List all the heat transport processes that are taking place.

 

  1. Which wavelengths of radiation does your body radiate most: ultraviolet, visible or infrared? Why?

 

  1. Describe why noontime shadows are longer in New York City than they are in Cancun, Mexico.

 

Chapter 14

Weather Forecasting

 

 

 

Multiple Choice Exam Questions

 

  1. A weather warning indicates that:
  2. the atmospheric conditions are favorable for hazardous weather over a particular region.
  3. hazardous weather is either imminent or occurring within the forecast area.
  4. hazardous weather is likely to occur within the forecast area during the next 24 hours.
  5. hazardous weather is frequently observed in a particular region.

 

ANSWER: b

 

  1. An analysis is:
  2. a forecast chart that shows the atmosphere at some future time.
  3. a forecast chart that compares past weather maps with those of the present.
  4. a surface or upper-level chart that interprets the present weather patterns.
  5. a forecast method used in long range weather prediction.
  6. a method used to determine skill in predicting the weather.

 

ANSWER: c

 

  1. A forecast of an extended period of dry weather would be made for a region beneath:
  2. an upper-level trough.
  3. the polar jet stream.
  4. a cold pool of air aloft.
  5. an upper-level ridge.
  6. a shortwave trough.

 

ANSWER: d

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Suppose it is warm and raining, and a cold front is moving toward your location. Directly behind the cold front it is cold and snowing.  Still further behind the front the weather is cold and clearing.  If the front is scheduled to pass your area in 6 hours, a persistence forecast for your area for 12 hours from now would be:
  2. cold and snowing.
  3. cold and clearing.
  4. cold and cloudy.
  5. warm and raining.
  6. not enough information on which to base a forecast.

 

ANSWER: d

 

  1. The least accurate forecast method of predicting the weather two days into the future during changeable weather conditions is usually the:
  2. trend method.
  3. persistence forecast.
  4. analogue method.
  5. prediction by weather types.
  6. numerical weather prediction.

 

ANSWER: b

 

  1. A persistence forecast could be quite accurate when:
  2. a frontal system approaches your location at constant speed.
  3. you are positioned in the middle of a large, stationary air mass.
  4. the weather has been unusually cold for several days.
  5. upper level winds blow straight from west to east.

 

ANSWER: b

 

  1. By examining a surface map, the movement of a surface low pressure area can be predicted based upon the:
  2. orientation of the isobars in the warm sector.
  3. region of greatest pressure decrease.
  4. movement during the previous 6 hours.
  5. all of the above

 

ANSWER: d

 

  1. A forecast method that compares past weather maps and weather patterns to those of the present is:
  2. persistence forecasting.
  3. the analogue method.
  4. the trend method.
  5. nowcasting.

 

ANSWER: b

 

 

 

  1. Suppose that where you live the middle of January is typically several degrees warmer than the rest of the month. If you forecast this January thaw for the middle of next January, you would have made a:
  2. forecast based on the analogue method.
  3. persistence forecast.
  4. forecast based on weather types.
  5. probability forecast.
  6. climatological forecast.

 

ANSWER: e

 

  1. A probability forecast that calls for a 40 percent chance of rain means that:
  2. there is a 40 percent chance that it will not rain within the forecast area.
  3. there is a 40 percent chance that any random place in the forecast area will receive measurable rain.
  4. it will rain on 40 percent of the forecast area.
  5. it will rain during 40 percent of the time over the forecast area.

 

ANSWER: b

 

  1. Which of the following is presently a problem with modern-day weather predictions?
  2. computer forecast models make assumptions about the atmosphere that are not always correct.
  3. there are regions of the world where only space observations are available.
  4. computer models do not always adequately interpret the surfaces influence on the weather.
  5. the distance between grid points on some models is too large to pick up smaller-scale weather features such as thunderstorms.
  6. all of the above

 

ANSWER: e

 

  1. An accurate forecast:
  2. always shows skill.
  3. may or may not show skill.
  4. never shows skill.
  5. requires complex computer equipment.

 

ANSWER: b

 

  1. For a forecast to show skill it must:
  2. be better than one based on persistence or climatology.
  3. be accurate to within 2 oC of the predicted temperature.
  4. be accurate for over more than 90% of the forecast area.
  5. use the analogue method of forecasting.
  6. use a probability.

 

ANSWER: a

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Warm advection is most likely to occur:
  2. in the center of a cut-off low.
  3. from the surface up to the 500 mb level ahead of an advancing warm front.
  4. behind a cold front.
  5. where the winds back with height.
  6. on the western side of a shortwave trough at the 500 mb level.

 

ANSWER: b

 

  1. Suppose there are two cloud layers above you. The lower cloud layer is moving from a westerly direction, while the higher cloud layer is moving from a northwesterly direction.  From this observation you conclude that the wind is __________ with height and __________ advection is occurring between the cloud layers.
  2. backing, cold
  3. backing, warm
  4. veering, cold
  5. veering, warm

 

ANSWER: d

 

  1. When making a forecast, a meteorologist typically examines:
  2. surface charts.
  3. upper-air charts.
  4. radar displays.
  5. satellite imagery.
  6. all of the above

 

ANSWER: e

 

  1. If you wanted to make a persistence forecast of minimum and maximum temperatures for a particular city, which type of chart would be most helpful?
  2. surface chart
  3. meteogram
  4. 500 mb chart
  5. adiabatic chart
  6. Doppler radar display

 

ANSWER: b

 

  1. Numerical weather prediction models begin with an __________ and produce a __________.
  2. prog; analysis
  3. prog; meteogram
  4. meteogram; prog
  5. analysis; prog

 

ANSWER: d

 

 

 

 

  1. Smaller grid spacing in numerical weather prediction models typically leads to:
  2. reduced accuracy in predicting the location of large anticyclones.
  3. better prediction of small-scale weather phenomena.
  4. better prediction of jet streams.
  5. both a and c

 

ANSWER: b

 

  1. When several numerical weather prediction models produce similar progs,
  2. a forecaster has little faith in the model predictions.
  3. more confidence can be placed in the forecast.
  4. the forecast is considered robust.
  5. both b and c

 

ANSWER: d

 

 

True/False Exam Questions

 

  1. If there is a chance for tornadoes tomorrow, a weather watch would probably be issued.
  2. true
  3. false

 

ANSWER: a

 

 

  1. Weather forecast that predicts that the future weather will be the same as the present weather is called a persistence forecast.
  2. true
  3. false

 

ANSWER: a

 

  1. A forecast based on weather types is a forecasting technique that produces several versions of a forecast model, each beginning with slightly different weather information to reflect errors in the measurements.
  2. true
  3. false

 

ANSWER: b

 

  1. A prog is a chart that interprets the current state of the atmosphere.
  2. true
  3. false

 

ANSWER: b

 

 

 

 

  1. The forecasting of weather by a computer is known as numerical weather prediction.
  2. true
  3. false

 

ANSWER: a

 

  1. The greatest improvement in forecasting skill during the past 30 years has been made in forecasting severe storm warnings for hurricanes and tornadoes.
  2. true
  3. false

 

ANSWER: a

 

  1. Modern computer forecasting models with very small grid spacing can only resolve large-scale features like jet streams and large highs and lows.
  2. true
  3. false

 

ANSWER: b

 

  1. Very short-range forecasts often utilize the ensemble forecasting method.
  2. true
  3. false

 

ANSWER: b

 

  1. Wintertime CAPE values tend to be much larger than summertime values.
  2. true
  3. false

 

ANSWER: b

 

  1. Low 1000-500 mb thicknesses correspond to cold air, while high thicknesses correspond to warm air.
  2. true
  3. false

 

ANSWER: a

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Essay/Critical Thinking Exam Questions

 

  1. List some of the ways that you can predict the future movement of surface middle latitude storms.

 

  1. Describe four different types of weather forecasting methods and give an example of each.

 

  1. List some of the factors that affect the accuracy of atmospheric models.

 

  1. With all other factors being equal, will a cloudy day have a higher or lower maximum temperature then a clear day? How about the minimum temperature during a cloudy vs. clear night?  Explain.

 

  1. Describe the data and tools that a meteorologist assembles prior to making a weather forecast.

 

  1. What type of forecast method do you think would be most appropriate for a short range (6 to 12 hours), a medium range (24 to 48 hours), a long range (5 to 10 days), or a seasonal (3 month) forecast?

 

  1. About how far apart do you think weather observing stations should be in order to accurately depict a middle latitude storm and to be able to forecast the storms movement?

 

  1. What local signs would you look for to predict the approach of a low pressure center or a weather front?

 

  1. Assuming you know last nights minimum temperature, what weather information would you use to predict tonights minimum temperature?

 

  1. Explain how observed teleconnection patterns can help in the preparation of a seasonal weather forecast.

 

  1. Describe the relationship between dew point and minimum temperatures.

 

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