Extreme Weather Climate 1st Edition by Ahrens Samson Test Bank

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Extreme Weather Climate 1st Edition by Ahrens Samson Test Bank

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COMPLETE TEST BANK WITH ANSWERS

 

Extreme Weather Climate 1st Edition by Ahrens Samson Test Bank

 

Sample  Question

 

Chapter 2

Energy that Drives the Storms

 

 

Multiple Choice Exam Questions

 

  1. Energy of motion is also known as:
  2. dynamic energy.
  3. kinetic energy.
  4. sensible heat energy.
  5. static energy.
  6. latent heat energy.

 

ANSWER: b

 

  1. Heat is energy in the process of being transferred from:
  2. hot objects to cold objects.
  3. low pressure to high pressure.
  4. cold objects to hot objects.
  5. high pressure to low pressure.
  6. regions of low density toward regions of high density.

 

ANSWER: a

 

  1. The heat energy released when water vapor changes to a liquid is called:
  2. latent heat of evaporation.
  3. latent heat of fusion.
  4. latent heat of fission.
  5. latent heat of condensation.

 

ANSWER: d

 

  1. This is released as sensible heat during the formation of clouds:
  2. potential energy
  3. longwave radiation
  4. latent heat
  5. shortwave radiation
  6. kinetic energy

 

ANSWER: c

 

  1. The cold feeling that you experience after leaving a swimming pool on a hot, dry, summer day represents heat transport by:
  2. conduction.
  3. convection.
  4. radiation.
  5. latent heat.

 

ANSWER: d

 

 

 

 

 

  1. The processes of condensation and freezing:
  2. both release sensible heat into the environment.
  3. both absorb sensible heat from the environment.
  4. do not affect the temperature of their surroundings.
  5. do not involve energy transport.

 

ANSWER: a

 

  1. The transfer of heat by molecule-to-molecule contact is:
  2. conduction.
  3. convection.
  4. radiation.
  5. ultrasonic.

 

ANSWER: a

 

  1. A heat transfer process in the atmosphere that depends upon the movement of air is:
  2. conduction.
  3. absorption.
  4. reflection.
  5. convection.
  6. radiation.

 

ANSWER: d

 

  1. Snow will usually melt on the roof of a home that is a:
  2. good radiator of heat.
  3. good conductor of heat.
  4. poor radiator of heat.
  5. poor conductor of heat.

 

ANSWER: b

 

  1. The temperature of a rising air parcel:
  2. always cools due to expansion.
  3. always warms due to expansion.
  4. always cools due to compression.
  5. always warms due to compression.
  6. remains constant.

 

ANSWER: a

 

  1. The proper order from shortest to longest wavelength is:
  2. visible, infrared, ultraviolet.
  3. infrared, visible, ultraviolet.
  4. ultraviolet, visible, infrared.
  5. visible, ultraviolet, infrared.
  6. ultraviolet, infrared, visible.

 

ANSWER: c

 

  1. If the average temperature of the sun increased, the wavelength of peak solar emission would:
  2. shift to a shorter wavelength.
  3. shift to a longer wavelength.
  4. remain the same.
  5. impossible to tell from given information

 

ANSWER: a

 

  1. Which of the following determine(s) the kind (wavelength) and amount of radiation that an object emits?
  2. temperature
  3. thermal conductivity
  4. density
  5. latent heat

 

ANSWER: a

 

  1. Often before sunrise on a clear, calm, cold morning, ice (frost) can be seen on the tops of parked cars, even when the air temperature is above freezing. This condition happens because the tops of the cars are cooling by:
  2. conduction.
  3. convection.
  4. latent heat.
  5. radiation.

 

ANSWER: d

 

  1. Evaporation is a __________ process.
  2. cooling
  3. heating
  4. cant tell it depends on the temperature
  5. both a and c

 

ANSWER: a

 

  1. If you want to keep an object cool while exposed to direct sunlight, you should:
  2. put it inside a brown paper bag.
  3. wrap it in black paper.
  4. wrap it in aluminum foil with the shiny side facing inward.
  5. wrap it in aluminum foil with the shiny side facing outward.

 

ANSWER: d

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. The sun emits its greatest intensity of radiation in:
  2. the visible portion of the spectrum.
  3. the infrared portion of the spectrum.
  4. the ultraviolet portion of the spectrum.
  5. the x-ray portion of the spectrum.

 

ANSWER: a

 

  1. Air that rises always:
  2. contracts and warms.
  3. contracts and cools.
  4. expands and cools.
  5. expands and warms.

 

ANSWER: c

 

  1. If the earths average surface temperature were to increase, the amount of radiation emitted from the earths surface would __________ and the wavelength of peak emission would shift toward __________ wavelengths.
  2. increase, shorter
  3. increase, longer
  4. decrease, shorter
  5. decrease, longer

 

ANSWER: a

 

  1. Without the atmospheric greenhouse effect, the average surface temperature would be:
  2. higher than at present.
  3. lower than at present.
  4. the same as it is now.
  5. much more variable than it is now.

 

ANSWER: b

 

  1. Which of the following gases are mainly responsible for the atmospheric greenhouse effect in the earths atmosphere?
  2. oxygen and nitrogen
  3. nitrogen and carbon dioxide
  4. ozone and oxygen
  5. water vapor and carbon dioxide

 

ANSWER: d

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. The combined albedo of the earth and the atmosphere is approximately:
  2. 4%.
  3. 10%.
  4. 30%.
  5. 50%.
  6. 90%.

 

ANSWER: c

 

  1. The albedo of the moon is 7%. This means that:
  2. 7% of the sunlight striking the moon is reflected.
  3. 7% of the sunlight striking the moon is absorbed.
  4. the moon emits only 7% as much energy as it absorbs from the sun.
  5. 93% of the sunlight striking the moon is reflected.

 

ANSWER: a

 

  1. On the average, about what percentage of the solar energy that strikes the outer atmosphere eventually reaches the earths surface?
  2.  5%
  3. 15%
  4. 30%
  5. 50%
  6. 70%

 

ANSWER: d

 

  1. If the amount of energy lost by the earth to space each year were not approximately equal to that received,
  2. the atmospheres average temperature would change.
  3. the length of the year would change.
  4. the suns output would change.
  5. the mass of the atmosphere would change.

 

ANSWER: a

 

  1. The earths radiative equilibrium temperature is:
  2. the temperature at which the earth is absorbing solar radiation and emitting infrared radiation at equal rates.
  3. the temperature at which the earth is radiating energy at maximum intensity.
  4. the average temperature the earth must maintain to prevent the oceans from freezing solid.
  5. the temperature at which rates of evaporation and condensation on the earth are in balance.

 

ANSWER: a

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Suppose you are outside in very cold temperatures, wearing a winter coat that is quite effective at keeping you warm. Which of the following is true?
  2. The coat is the source of the heat that keeps you warm.
  3. Your body generates the heat that keeps you warm.
  4. The coat prevents your bodys heat from escaping to the surrounding air.
  5. both (a) and (c) are true.
  6. both (b) and (c) are true.

 

ANSWER: e

 

  1. During the winter in the Northern Hemisphere, the land of the midnight sun would be found:
  2. at high latitudes.
  3. at middle latitudes.
  4. near the equator.
  5. in the desert southwest.
  6. on the West Coast.

 

ANSWER: a

 

  1. In the Northern Hemisphere, this day has the fewest hours of daylight:
  2. summer solstice
  3. winter solstice
  4. vernal equinox
  5. autumnal equinox

 

ANSWER: b

 

 

 

True/False Exam Questions

 

  1. During an equinox, the days and nights are of equal length except at the poles.

 

ANSWER: true

 

  1. On December 22, the equator (0o latitude) would experience fewer hours of daylight than the latitude 60o N.

 

ANSWER: false

 

  1. Considering each hemisphere as a whole, seasonal temperature variations in the Southern Hemisphere are greater than those in the Northern Hemisphere.

 

ANSWER: false

 

  1. The fact that solar energy is spread over a larger area in northern latitudes helps to explain why even though these latitudes experience 24 hours of sunlight on June 22, they are not warmer than latitudes further south.

 

ANSWER: true

 

  1. When it is January and winter in the Northern Hemisphere, it is July and summer in the Southern Hemisphere.

 

ANSWER: false

 

  1. The most important reason why summers in the Southern Hemisphere are not warmer than summers in the Northern Hemisphere is that over 80% of the Southern Hemisphere is covered with water.

 

ANSWER: true

 

  1. The changing distance between the earth and the sun over the course of the year is the main cause of the seasons.

 

ANSWER: false

 

  1. Although the polar regions radiate away more heat energy than they receive by insolation in the course of a year, the insulating properties of snow prevents them from becoming progressively colder each year.

 

ANSWER: false

 

  1. The latitude 90 oN is closer to the earths axis than the latitude 40 oN.

 

ANSWER: true

 

 

 

  1. More solar radiation is received at the top of the atmosphere than at the earths surface.

 

ANSWER: true

 

 

Essay/Critical Thinking Exam Questions

 

  1. The earth radiates energy constantly. What prevents the earth from getting colder and colder?

 

  1. Will a rising parcel of air always expand? Why?  How does this expansion affect the air temperature?  Why?

 

  1. Explain how energy in the form of sunlight absorbed at the ground could be transferred upward in the atmosphere in the form of latent heat. How or when is the latent heat energy released in the air above the ground?

 

  1. Describe the atmospheric greenhouse effect. Is there any difference between the way the atmospheric greenhouse effect works on a clear night and on a cloudy night?

 

  1. How could clouds increase the surface temperature? How could clouds decrease the surface temperature?

 

  1. When you remove a cold beverage from a refrigerator in a humid room, water vapor will condense on the sides of the container. Would this act to warm or cool the beverage, or would the condensation have no effect on the beverages temperature?

 

  1. Many people will blow on a bowl of hot soup to try to cool it. What are the two most important heat transport processes being used to cool the soup?

 

  1. When you place an ice cube in your hand, the ice cube melts and your hand cools. List all the heat transport processes that are taking place.

 

  1. Which wavelengths of radiation does your body radiate most: ultraviolet, visible or infrared? Why?

 

  1. Describe why noontime shadows are longer in New York City than they are in Cancun, Mexico.

Chapter 4

Condensation in the Atmosphere

 

 

Multiple Choice Exam Questions

 

  1. The cooling of the ground to produce dew is mainly the result of:
  2. conduction.
  3. radiational cooling.
  4. cooling due to the release of latent heat.
  5. advection.

 

ANSWER: b

 

  1. Suppose it is a winter night and at about 11 pm the air cools to the dew-point temperature and a thick radiation fog develops. If the air continues to cool during the night, in 5 hours the dew point temperature will probably:
  2. decrease as the air becomes drier.
  3. decrease as the air becomes moister.
  4. increase as the air becomes drier.
  5. increase as the air becomes moister.

 

ANSWER: a

 

  1. Frost typically forms on the inside of a windowpane (rather than the outside) because:
  2. the inside of the pane is colder than the outside.
  3. there is more water vapor touching the inside of the pane.
  4. there is less water vapor touching the inside of the pane.

 

ANSWER: b

 

  1. When radiation fog burns off, the fog tends to dissipate:
  2. from the bottom up.
  3. from the top down.
  4. starting at the middle, and working both upward and downward.

 

ANSWER: a

 

  1. On a cold, winter morning the most likely place for radiation fog to form is:
  2. at the top of a hill or mountain.
  3. in a valley.
  4. along the side of a hill.
  5. over a body of water.

 

ANSWER: b

 

  1. Exhaled breath from your mouth can condense when:
  2. it is very cold.
  3. it is very warm and humid.
  4. the addition of water vapor from your breath causes the airs relative humidity to exceed 100%.
  5. all of the above

 

ANSWER: d

 

  1. At which city might you be able to observe cirrus clouds at an altitude of 3,000 m (10,000 feet) above the surface?
  2. Barrow, Alaska
  3. Honolulu, Hawaii
  4. Miami, Florida
  5. Chicago, Illinois

 

ANSWER: a

 

  1. Which cloud type is composed of ice crystals and can cause a halo to form around the sun or moon?
  2. altostratus
  3. stratus
  4. nimbostratus
  5. cirrostratus
  6. angelitus

 

ANSWER: d

 

  1. Light or moderate-but-steady precipitation is most often associated with __________ clouds.
  2. nimbostratus
  3. cirrostratus
  4. cirrocumulus
  5. cumulonimbus

 

ANSWER: a

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. When viewed from the surface, the smallest individual cloud elements (puffs) are observed with which cloud?
  2. stratocumulus
  3. cumulus
  4. cirrocumulus
  5. altocumulus
  6. cumulonimbus

 

ANSWER: c

 

  1. Cirrus clouds are composed primarily of:
  2. water droplets.
  3. water vapor.
  4. ice particles.
  5. salt aerosols.

 

ANSWER: c

 

  1. Suppose the sky is completely covered with a thin, white layered-type cloud. You look at the ground and see that objects cast a distinct shadow.  From this you conclude that the cloud type must be:
  2. stratus.
  3. nimbostratus.
  4. cirrostratus.
  5. stratocumulus.

 

ANSWER: c

 

  1. An anvil-shaped top is most often associated with:
  2. cumulonimbus.
  3. cumulus congestus.
  4. altocumulus.
  5. cumulus humilis.

 

ANSWER: a

 

  1. Hail is usually associated with what cloud?
  2. stratus
  3. cumulus
  4. stratocumulus
  5. altocumulus
  6. cumulonimbus

 

ANSWER: e

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Infrared satellite images are computer-enhanced to:
  2. increase the contrast between specific features in the picture.
  3. show where thick clouds with cold tops are located.
  4. show where clouds with tops near the freezing level are located.
  5. all of the above

 

ANSWER: d

 

  1. Satellite images taken of clouds at night use:
  2. reflected visible light.
  3. reflected infrared light.
  4. emitted infrared light.
  5. microwave radiation.

 

ANSWER: c

 

  1. Which two clouds can produce precipitation?
  2. cumulonimbus, stratocumulus
  3. nimbostratus, altostratus
  4. nimbostratus, cirrus
  5. cumulonimbus, nimbostratus

 

ANSWER: d

 

  1. The clouds shown in Figure 4.14 are:
  2. cumulus.
  3. stratocumulus.
  4. altocumulus.
  5. cirrocumulus.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ANSWER: c

 

  1. The clouds shown in Figure 4.15 are:
  2. cumulus.
  3. stratus.
  4. nimbostratus.
  5. altostratus.
  6. cirrostratus.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ANSWER: d

 

 

 

 

  1. If the satellite image shown in Figure 4.31 was taken during nighttime hours, it must be:
  2. an infrared image.
  3. a water vapor image.
  4. a visible image.
  5. none of the above

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ANSWER: a

 

 

 

True/False Exam Questions

 

  1. Particles that serve as surfaces on which water vapor may condense are called condensation nuclei.

 

ANSWER: true

 

  1. Frost forms when water vapor changes into ice without first becoming a liquid.

 

ANSWER: true

 

  1. On a humid day, the attraction of water by hydrophobic condensation nuclei causes salty potato chips left outside in an uncovered bowl to turn soggy.

 

ANSWER: false

 

  1. The largest concentration of condensation nuclei are usually observed near the earths surface.

 

ANSWER: true

 

  1. When the air is perfectly dry, the relative humidity can exceed 100 percent without producing fog.

 

ANSWER: false

 

  1. When fog burns off it absorbs sunlight and warms up.

 

ANSWER: false

 

  1. Cirrocumulus clouds rarely produce precipitation that reaches the ground.

 

ANSWER: true

 

  1. Stratus clouds are often delicate, fibrous, and white in color.

 

ANSWER: false

 

  1. A dim watery sun visible through a gray sheet-like cloud layer is often a good indication of stratocumulus clouds.

 

ANSWER: false

 

  1. Mammatus clouds form in descending air.

 

ANSWER: true

 

 

 

 

Essay/Critical Thinking Exam Questions

 

  1. It is a cold winter night and a fog cloud forms. If it continues to cool during the night would you expect to find that the dew point has changed overnight?  If so, would it have increased or decreased?

 

  1. List the main types of fog. Then briefly explain how each one forms.  Where might you expect each of these different types of fog to form?

 

  1. List one or more key identifying features for each of the ten basic cloud types. Which cloud types might have fairly similar appearances and thus be difficult to identify?

 

  1. Suppose the sky is covered with stratus clouds. How might you determine whether middle or high clouds are also present?

 

  1. List the major height categories of clouds. What differences might you expect to find in the clouds that form at these different levels?

 

  1. In what ways are the formation of fog and clouds similar and different?

 

  1. Explain why clouds form in rising air. Would it be possible for rising air to remain cloud-free?  If so, how?

 

  1. Describe the difference between the orbital paths followed by geostationary and polar-orbiting satellites.

 

  1. What kinds of information about clouds can you determine using infrared and visible satellite photographs?

 

  1. Under what conditions can a cloud form when air is sinking?

 

  1. How can you visually distinguish between cumulus, altocumulus, and cirrocumulus clouds?

 

  1. An air parcel that is warmer than its surroundings will rise. What force accounts for this upward motion?

 

  1. Explain how the stability of the atmosphere can affect the types of clouds that form.

 

  1. Does radiational cooling at the ground at night act to increase or decrease atmospheric stability? How does daytime heating at the ground during the day affect atmospheric stability?

 

  1. Cumulonimbus clouds indicate unstable atmospheric conditions. What stops the upward growth and causes the top of a cumulonimbus cloud to flatten out into an anvil?

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