Family Theories An Introduction 4th Edition by James M. White David M. Klein Todd F. Martin Test Bank

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Family Theories An Introduction 4th Edition by James M. White David M. Klein Todd F. Martin Test Bank

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Ch. 3 Test Questions

1. The philosophical perspective referring to rationally weighing the rewards and costs of behavioral choices is
*a. utilitarianism.
b. motivationism.
c. unanimity.
d. minimization.

2. Which of the following is true regarding utilitarian thinking? It
a. assumes that people are unable to act for themselves.
b. focuses on true selflessness.
*c. incorporates what people value.
d. is no longer a significant influence in family theory.

3. The text chapter especially explores the following aspects of exchange-related family theory, except
a. rational choice.
*b. group solidarity.
c. a voluntarist assumption.
d. Social Psychology.

4. Which of the following is not an assumption of exchange theory?
a. people are motivated by self-interest
b. prediction is the consequence of understanding ones motivation
c. the individual is real
*d. people behave irrationally

5. The concept that supports the idea that culture is created by individuals is called
a. macrosocial phenomenon.
b. individuated collectivism.
*c. methodological individualism.
d. group-interest.

6. A basic assumption of exchange theory is that peoples decisions can be understood by understanding peoples
a. socialization.
*b. motivation.
c. genetic disposition.
d. developmental stage.

7. An assumption of most exchange theory is that ______ is the key motivation for choices.
*a. self-interest
b. altruism
c. rationalization
d. realism

8. Exchange theory applies the concepts of reward and costs in ways that are most in harmony with
a. behaviorism.
b. hedonism.
*c. utilitarianism.
d. economic theory.

9. The key idea that sets exchange theory apart from behaviorism and hedonism is
a. punishment.
*b. profit.
c. gratification.
d. benefit.

10. Compared to CL, CL+ focuses on
a. how well one is doing compared to others in the same position.
b. the added benefits of making the same decision again.
c. decisions that result in benefits outweighing the costs.
*d. the profit of others outside of ones potion as an alternative to ones position.

11. Which of the following is the clearest example of marginal utility? You
a. are hungry but your food options are not equally valuable.
b. used to love reading a certain book as a child that has little interest for you as an adult.
*c. enjoy spending time with family but after a few days with them it is not as enjoyable.
d. realize that having a flashlight at nighttime is more valuable than during the day.

12. Since the value of rewards and costs change, which of the following helps account for their influence in light of their change in value?
*a. salience
b. comparison
c. sacrifice
d. alternatives

13. From an exchange perspective, equity is not the same thing as
a. fairness.
*b. equality.
c. justice.
d. any of the above.

14. Skills and capabilities are best considered examples of ____ capital.
a. economic
*b. human
c. social
d. historical

15. Having a network with other people is best considered an example of ____ capital.
a. economic
b. human
*c. social
d. historical

16. A parsimonious theory is one that
*a. offers successful explanations with little conceptual baggage.
b. clearly contradicts modern cultural values and norms.
c. contains multiple complex, interrelated propositions.
d. borrows aspects of multiple theories to create a new theory.

17. The principle of least cost best applies to a situation in which
a. equity is most likely to be achieved.
b. costs are higher than rewards.
c. it is common to have inequity.
*d. there are no rewards.

18. Social capital is lessened when
*a. there is less closure.
b. groups are larger.
c. members are all interconnected.
d. social norms are enforced.

19. Which of the following is a microexchange theory that postulates that some rewards can only be achieved by groups instead of individuals?
*a. rational choice theory
b. relative balance
c. equity theory
d. norm of reciprocity

20. Which of the following is a microexchange theory that focuses on the ratio of rewards to costs in relationships in ways that can predict relationship power?
a. rational choice theory
*b. relative balance
c. equity theory
d. norm of reciprocity

21. Which of the following is a microexchange theory that argues that relationships profit more from fair exchanges than unfair exchanges?
a. rational choice theory
b. relative balance
*c. equity theory
d. norm of reciprocity

22. The assumption that individuals band together to form social order in ways that exchange personal freedom for security is referred to as a
a. preferred barrier.
b. forced alternative.
c. manipulated exchange.
*d. social contract.

23. Which of the following is the clearest example of tautological reasoning as applied to the family?
a. Sam gave up a kidney to save his brother because it was better than feeling guilty if he hadnt.
*b. Lindas decision to have a child is rational because people make rational choices.
c. Trent decided to get divorced because he got less and less from his marriage every year.
d. Malory enjoys the praise she receives as a mother because society values motherhood.

24. Motivation is the central focus of exchange theory.
*a. True
b. False

25. Exchange theory and rational choice theory are typically in opposition to one another.
a. True
*b. False

26. A key assumption of exchange theory is that self-interest is a key motivation for peoples behavior.
*a. True
b. False

27. One must be able to calculate the ratio of cost to reward in order to behave rationally.
*a. True
b. False

28. Understanding rewards and costs is sufficient to explain why someone acts a certain way.
a. True
*b. False

29. Exchange theory assumes that for most people in a social group that the weightings of rewards and costs would be very similar.
*a. True
b. False

30. One thing all exchange theories have in common is that social relationships are happily maintained when people avoid concerns about equity.
a. True
*b. False

31. A key proposition in exchange theory is that people will choose an action with the highest level of reward.
a. True
*b. False

32. According to exchange theory, people are willing to give up short-term rewards for the sake of long-term rewards.
*a. True
b. False

33. Explain how exchange theory differs from behaviorism and hedonism in its application of costs and rewards.
a. Answer should include that behaviorism does not focus on cognitive processes and hedonism is overly simplistic in the complexities of decision making.

34. Explain how the assumptions of exchange theory help deal with predicting the decisions of a family given that each member can potentially weigh the multiple rewards and costs of alternatives differently.
a. Answer should include the assumption that people are rational so given the same set of circumstances people are interchangeable in what they would be expected to choose, and that people in groups are similar enough so that they are expected to weigh things similarly.

35. Explain what people are expected to choose in the long-term when the short-term profits are the same for two alternatives, and why.
a. Answer should include that they will choose the alternative that provides the most profit in the long term since they wont be sacrificing profit in the short term.

36. Explain the extent to which exchange theory is deterministic.
a. Answer should include that it is highly deterministic on the individual level because it asserts that a choice can be predicted by incorporating perceptions and values and calculating profit; for groups, it is a bit less deterministic because of so much variation and fluidity but focuses rather on probabilities.

37. Describe two common criticism of exchange theory as it applies to families.
a. Answer could include that it is an individual theory and difficult to apply to families who are arguably more than just a group of individuals, it does not clearly describe how social norms are created from individual self-interest, it does not explain altruistic behavior very convincingly, it assumes rewards are stable but they may vary by gender and cohort, some family decisions like life-long marriage seem counter to propositions regarding profitability over time, meanings of rewards and costs seem to change over time and across culture, and circular reasoning is used to argue that a decision in rational.

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