1. If a company has assets of $60,000 and shareholders equity of $30,000, then its liabilities must be $90,000.
2. To determine the economic effect of a transaction on the entity in terms of its accounting equation, each transaction is analyzed as to the accounts (at least two) that are affected.
3. Assets are probable future economic benefits owned by the entity as a result of past transactions. True False
4. Liability accounts are reported on the balance sheet. True False
5. The primary objective of external financial reporting is to provide useful economic information about a business to help external parties, primarily investors and creditors, make sound financial decisions. True False
6. On the income statement, assets should always equal liabilities plus shareholders equity. True False
7. Liabilities are categorized as current liabilities (those that will be paid within the next year or the operating cycle, whichever is longer) and non-current liabilities.
8. A primary objective of accounting is to provide the fair market value of assets on the balance sheet. True False
9. The unit-of-measure assumption states that financial information is reported in the national monetary unit.
10. The separate-entity assumption assumes a stable monetary unit (not affected by inflation or deflation).
11. Three of the four basic assumptions that underlie accounting measurement and reporting relate to the statement of financial position.
12. The amount shown on the balance sheet as shareholders equity represents the current market value of the owners residual claim against the company.
13. Prepayments (e.g., insurance premiums and rent paid in advance of use of a building) reflect available benefits (e.g., monthly insurance protection, office space) that the company will use within one year. True False
14. Transactions have a dual economic effect on the fundamental accounting model. True False
15. The payment of a liability in cash will decrease owners equity. True False
16. The basic system of recording transactions has withstood the test of time, and has been in use for more than 500 years.
17. If you trade your computer plus cash for a new car, the cost of the new car is equal to the cash paid plus the market value of the computer.
18. The purchase of a delivery truck for cash increases assets and shareholders equity. True False
19. Recording the borrowing of cash with a note payable increases shareholders equity. True False
20. When a business owner invests cash in the business, the investment causes a liability to increase. True False
21. When a business pays a previously recorded bill, the liabilities of the business decrease. True False
22. The objective of transaction analysis is to determine the economic effects of each transaction in terms of the accounting model.
23. The adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards by many countries has made it easier to read foreign companies financial statements.
24. A T-account shows total debits of $25,000 and total credits of $22,000; therefore, it has a $3,000 credit balance.
25. Debits always increase and credits always decrease the accounts. True False
26. In a journal entry, the debits must equal the credits and at least two accounts are affected by the transaction.
27. If the correct accounts have been identified and the appropriate direction of the effect on each account has been determined, then the equation should remain in balance most of the time.
28. A T-account is an accounting method of expressing the effects of a single transaction in a debits-equal- credits format.
29. Normally, asset accounts will have credit balances and liability accounts will have debit balances. True False
30. Debit is the designation for the left side of an account, and credit is the designation for the right side of an account.
31. Some legal contracts, such as the signing of a contract to hire a new employee, are not reflected in the financial statements.
32. Share capital results when a company buys a new delivery truck. True False
33. Usually when a short-term, interest-bearing note payable is paid on its maturity date, an asset is credited and a liability is debited.
34. By themselves, journal entries do not provide the balances in accounts. True False
35. The word debit means to increase an account by an entry on its left side. True False
36. The debt-to-equity ratio indicates how much debt has been used to finance the companys acquisition of assets relative to equity financing that is supplied by creditors.
37. The statement of cash flows provides information that not only shows the sources and uses of cash but also helps both investors and creditors predict future cash flows.
38. When a loan is repaid to the bank it leads to an outflow of cash from a financing activity. True False
39. Which of the following statements about shareholders equity is not correct?
A.Shareholders equity is the shareholders residual interest in the company resulting from the difference
in assets and liabilities.
B. Shareholders equity results only from contributions of the owners.
C. Shareholders equity accounts are increased with credits.
D. The purchase of equipment for cash has no effect on shareholders equity.
40. Shareholders equity
A. is equal to liabilities and retained earnings.
B. includes retained earnings and common shares. C. is shown on the statement of earnings.
D. is usually equal to cash on hand.
41. If Golden Company owed Eye Company $500, where would Golden Company reflect this? A. Balance sheet.
B. Income statement.
C. Cash flow statement.
D. Statement of shareholders equity.
42. It is assumed that the activities of PetroCanada Corporation can be distinguished from those of Imperial Oil Limited because of the
A. Going concern assumption.
B. Separate entity assumption.
C. Unit of measure assumption. D. Time period assumption.
43. Which of the following defines assets?
A. Probable future economic benefits owned by an entity as a result of past transactions. B. Possible future economic benefits owed by an entity as a result of past transactions.
C. Probable future economic benefits owned by an entity as a result of future transactions. D. Possible future economic benefits owed by an entity as a result of future transactions.
44. Which of the following defines liabilities?
A.Possible debts or obligations of an entity as a result of future transactions which will be paid with
assets or services.
B. Possible debts or obligations of an entity as a result of past transactions which will be paid with assets
C. Probable debts or obligations of an entity as a result of future transactions which will be paid with
assets or services.
D. Probable debts or obligations of an entity as a result of past transactions which will be paid with assets
45. Which of the following defines shareholders equity?
A. Probable debts or obligations of an entity as a result of past transactions which will be paid with assets
B. Assets plus liabilities.
C. Probable future economic benefits owned by an entity as a result of past transactions. D. The financing provided by the owners and the operations of a business.
46. Abe Cox is the sole owner and manager of Cox Auto Repair Shop. In 20A, Cox purchased a new automobile for personal use and continued to use an old truck in the business. Which of the following fundamentals prevents Cox from recording the cost of the new automobile as an asset to the business?
A. Separate-entity assumption. B. Revenue principle.
C. Full disclosure.
D. Cost principle.
47. Which of the following is the principle that requires us to record a transaction when we provide service to a client and bill them?
B. Cost principle.
C. Full disclosure.
D. Revenue recognition.
48. What is the primary difference between revenues and gains?
A. Gains are increases in net assets from peripheral activities while revenues are increases from ongoing
B. Generally Accepted Accounting Principles makes no distinction between them since they both increase
C.Revenues cause increases in net assets as a result of peripheral activities and gains cause increases
through ongoing activities.
D. Both revenues and gains cause a decrease in net assets from ongoing and peripheral transactions
49. Where would we report changes in shareholders equity caused by operating activities? A. In the retained earnings account.
B. In a share capital account.
C. In a liability account.
D. In an asset account.
50. Which of the following events will cause retained earnings to decrease? A. Dividends declared by the Board of Directors.
B. Net income reported for the period.
C. Net loss reported for the period.
D. Both dividends declared by the Board and net loss reported for the period decrease retained earnings.
51. Which of the following benefits does a franchising agreement provide to a franchisor?
A. It creates a future revenue source as the initial franchise fees are earned over time.
B It increases revenues because franchisees may have to make annual payments to the franchisor for . continuingservicestheyprovidetothefranchisee.
C.It generates revenue for the franchisor because the franchisee may have to purchase inventory and
supplies from the franchisor.
D. All of these are potential benefits to the franchisor.
52. To what does the element Accounts Payable refer? A. An amount owed to our business.
B. An amount a business owes to a third party.
C. The bottom line on the income statement.
D. The total cash paid by a business during the year.
53. Which of the following is not classified properly as a current asset? A. Supplies.
B. Short-term investments.
C. A fund to be used to purchase a building within the next year. D. Equipment with an estimated useful life of five years.
54. Which of the following liability accounts is usually not satisfied by payment of cash? A. Accounts payable.
B. Unearned revenues.
C. Taxes payable.
D. All of the mentioned are satisfied by paying cash.
55. Which of the following is an example of an external exchange? A. The purchase of inventory on credit from a supplier.
B. Cash received from a credit customer.
C. Cash dividend paid to shareholders.
D. A, B and C are external exchanges.
56. If total liabilities decreased by $14,000 during a period of time and shareholders equity increased by $6,000 during the same period, then the amount and direction (increase or decrease) of the periods change in total assets is a(n)
A. $20,000 increase.
B. $8,000 decrease. C. $8,000 increase. D. $14,000 increase.
57. Everest Acres Development Corporation recently sold a parcel of land for $50,000 more than its cost. This transaction:
A. Increased assets and liabilities.
B. Increased shareholders equity and assets.
C. Reduced assets and shareholders equity.
D. Increased assets and left liabilities and shareholders equity unchanged.
58. Which of the following direct effects on the fundamental accounting model is not possible as a result of transaction analysis?
A. Increase a liability and increase an asset.
B. Decrease shareholders equity and increase an asset.
C. Increase an asset and decrease an asset.
D. Decrease shareholders equity and decrease an asset.
59. Assume a companys January 1, 20A, financial position was: Assets, $40,000 and Liabilities, $15,000. During January 20A, the company completed the following transactions: (a) paid on a note payable, $4,000 (no interest); (b) collected accounts receivable, $4,000; (c) paid accounts payable, $2,000; and (d) purchased a truck, $1,000 cash, and $8,000 notes payable. What is the companys January 31, 20A,
financial position? A. Choice A
B. Choice B
C. Choice C
D. Choice D
60. Which of the following will NOT cause a change in the shareholders equity of a business? A. Payment of a business debt.
B. Payment of dividends.
C. Sale of land at a profit.
D. Losses from unprofitable operations.
61. Winsome Inc. reports total assets and total liabilities of $225,000 and $100,000, respectively, at the conclusion of its first year of business. The company earned $75,000 during the first year and distributed $30,000 in dividends. What was the corporations share capital?
B. $95,000 C. $80,000 D. $50,000
62. Payment of a liability would do which of the following? A. Decrease shareholders equity.
B. Decrease assets.
C. Not affect assets.
D. Increase shareholders equity.
63. The collection of an account receivable from a customer would do which of the following? A. Increase liabilities.
B. Decrease liabilities.
C. Not affect liabilities.
D. Decrease shareholders equity.
64. The following amounts are reported in the ledger of Bowers
What is the balance in the share capital account? A. $7,000 credit.
B. $8,000 debit.
C. $12,000 credit.
D. $12,000 debit.
65. The best interpretation of the word credit is the A. offset side of an account.
B. increase side of an account.
C. right side of an account.
D. decrease side of an account.
66. Which of the following will not result in recording a transaction?
A. Signing a contract to have an outside cleaning service clean offices nightly.
B. Paying our employees their wages.
C. Selling shares to investors.
D. Buying equipment and agreeing to pay a note payable and interest at the end of a year.
67. Which of the following transactions will cause both the left and right side of the equation to increase? A. We collect cash from a customer who owed us money
B. We pay a supplier for inventory we previously bought on account
C. We borrow money from the bank
D. We purchase equipment for cash
68. When a company buys equipment for $60,000 and pays for one third in cash and the other two thirds is financed by a note payable, which of the following are the effects on the equation?
A. Cash decreases by $60,000.
B. Equipment increases by $20,000.
C. Liabilities increase by $40,000. D. Total assets increase by $60,000.
69. The effect on total assets of the purchase of supplies for cash is which of the following? A. An increase in total assets.
B. A decrease in total assets.
C. Total assets remain unchanged.
D. An increase in total assets and total liabilities.
70. If total liabilities increased by $25,000 and shareholders equity increased by $5,000 during a period of
time, then total assets must change by what amount and direction during that same period? A. $20,000 decrease
B. $25,000 increase
C. $30,000 increase
D. $20,000 increase
71. Borrowing $100,000 of cash from First National Bank would do which of the following? A. Increase cash by a credit.
B. Increase notes payable by a debit.
C. Increase notes payable by a credit.
D. Decrease cash by a debit.
72. Jet Corporation was organized on March 1, 20B. Jet Corporation issued shares to each of the six owners who paid in a total of $3,000 cash. On the basis of transaction analysis, the following entry should be recorded in the accounts (dr = debit and cr = credit)
A. Cash (dr), $3,000; Revenue (cr), $3,000.
B. Cash (cr), $3,000; Shareholders equity (dr), $3,000. C. Cash (dr), $3,000; Share Capital (cr), $3,000.
D. Cash (cr), $3,000; Share Capital (dr), $3,000.
73. Salida Company paid a note payable of $10,000 (interest had previously been paid). This transaction
should be recorded as follows on the payment date. A. Option A
B. Option B
C. Option C
D. Option D
74. A T account consists of
A. a title, a debit balance, and a credit balance. B. a title, a left side, and a debit balance.
C. a title, a debit side, and a credit side.
D. a title, a right side, and a debit balance.
75. An accountant has debited an asset account for $500 and credited a revenue account for $1,000. What can be done to complete the recording of the transaction?
A. Nothing further must be done.
B. Debit a shareholders equity account for $500.
C. Debit another asset account for $500.
D. Credit a different asset account for $500.
76. The accounts payable account has a beginning balance of $1,000 and we purchased $3,000 of inventory on credit during the month. The ending balance was $800. How much did we pay our creditors during the month?
B. $3,000 C. $3,200 D. $4,800
77. When recording transactions in T-account format, we must add a fourth step to the transactional analysis process. Which of the following is the additional step?
A. Determine what accounts and elements in the equation are affected by the transaction.
B. Determine if the affected accounts are increased or decreased by the transaction.
C. We must have equal debits and credits once the entry is recorded in the accounts. D. The accounting equation must remain in balance after each transaction.
78. The equality of debits and credits is the basis for A. the double-entry accounting system.
B. the single-entry accounting system.
C. the T account.
D. all accounting systems.
79. When a company has a debt-to-equity ratio close to 1 to 1, which of the following is true?
A. The company is primarily using debt financing for acquisition of its assets.
B. The creditors of the company would most likely be willing to give a loan to the company since debt is
C. The return to shareholders is higher than it would be if the ratio was higher. D. The return to shareholders is lower than it would be if the ratio was higher.
80. The debt-to-equity ratio is computed by taking which of the following? A. Total assets divided by total liabilities.
B. Average total assets divided by average total liabilities.
C. Average total assets divided by average total shareholders equity.
D. Total assets divided by total shareholders equity.
81. Liabilities are generally classified on a balance sheet as A. small liabilities and large liabilities.
B. present liabilities and future liabilities.
C. tangible liabilities and intangible liabilities.
D. current liabilities and long-term liabilities.
82. The usefulness of the debt-to-equity ratio is that it allows interested parties to assess all of the following except?
A. How the company finances its assets.
B. The relative risk assumed by the company caused by the use of debt financing. C. Whether the company should expand its use of debt to finance assets.
D. How many shares the company has issued in the past year.
83. Which of the following would be an example of a financing transaction? A. Purchasing equipment for cash.
B. Buying inventory from a supplier on credit.
C. Selling shares to investors for cash.
D. Buying inventory from a supplier for cash.
84. Loans made to outside parties would be classified into which of the following categories for the purpose of disclosure in the cash flow statement?
A. Operating cash flow.
B. Investing cash flow.
C. Financing cash flow.
D. Item reconciling earnings and operating cash flow.
85. Which of the following would cause an inflow of cash? A. Payment of a long-term mortgage.
B. Sale of an asset for cash at less than its book value.
C. Payment of accounts payable.
D. Purchase of inventory for debt.
86. Dow Construction Company reports a net use of cash for investing activities of $1.2 million and a net source of cash provided by financing of $.8 million. What was the effect on the cash balance? A. To cause the balance to increase by $.8 million.
B. To cause the balance to decrease by $.4 million.
C. To cause the balance to increase by $.4 million.
D. Undeterminable because the beginning cash balance was not given.
87. When a new business is just starting up, which of the following must be done first? A. Generate positive cash flow through successful operations.
B. Acquire the assets both long-lived and short-lived so they can operate.
C. Acquire financing from issuance of shares and borrowing from creditors.
D. These activities all occur simultaneously not sequentially.
88. Why is the continuity assumption so important for balance sheet reporting?
89. Why is the separate-entity assumption so important for balance sheet reporting?
90. Why is the cost principle so important for balance sheet reporting?
91. For each of the following accounts, complete the chart below by indicating whether the account is an asset (A), liability (L), or shareholders equity (SE) and whether the account usually has a debit (Dr) or
credit (Cr) balance.
92. (A) Complete the following schedule for Gold Eye
(B) How much did cash change during the period?
93. For each of the transactions listed below, indicate whether it is an investing (I) or financing (F) activity on the cash flow statement. Also, indicate if the transaction increases (+) or decreases (-)
94. For each financial statement element listed, enter check marks to reflect the Debit = Credit
95. Scott, Kim and Koko organized the SKK Corporation on January 1, 20A. Each of these owners invested $30,000 cash and received shares. Below are selected transactions that were completed during January. (A) Give the entry on SKKs books for each transaction:
(1) Sold shares to the owners.
(2) Borrowed $100,000 on one-year note payable.
(3) Purchased land by signing a $20,000 note payable.
(4) Paid $5,000 of accounts payable.
(5) Purchased two service vehicles, $21,000 each; paid cash.
(6) Accepted a promissory note of $1,000 from a customer.
(B) Complete the following based only on the 6 transactions above: Assets $
Shareholders equity $
96. The accounts with identification letters for WildWorld, Inc. are listed below. Letter Account Title
B Accounts Receivable
C Office supplies
F Accounts Payable G Notes Payable
H Share Capital
I Retained Earnings
During 20X, the company completed the transactions given below. You are to indicate the appropriate journal entry for each transaction by giving the account letter and amount. Some entries may need three letters. The first transaction is given as an
97. For each of the accounts listed below, enter a check mark in the space provided to the right to indicate whether the typical or normal balance is a debit or
98. In what two places do amounts for transactions appear in the accounting system or the books? Describe them.
99. On January 1, 20A, Hux Cliffable started a new professional corporation, Hux Cliffable, P. C., to practice medicine with an initial investment of $50,000. On June 30, 20A the accounting records contained the
following amounts: Prepare a balance sheet at June 30, 20A.
100.Match the terminology with the description by entering the proper letter in the space to the left.
1. Cumulative earnings that have not been distributed to the owners
2. An exchange between an entity and another party
3. To provide useful economic information about a business to help external parties make sound financial decisions
4. Account for a business separate from its owners
5. Normal balances for liabilities
6. Increase assets and decreases owners equity
7. Statement of financial position
8. Accounting assumption that requires assets to be recorded at their cash equivalent cost
9. Dating of the balance sheet (20A)
10. A debt owed by the entity
101.For each of the following events, which ones result in an exchange transaction for the OBrien Company? (YforYesandNforNo)
1. One of our shareholders sells her shares to a new investor
2. Agreed to purchase one million inventory parts from a new supplier
3. Received inventory from a supplier under the new contract
4. Entered into a contract with a new cleaning service 5. Paid the employees for the week
6. Purchased land for cash and a note payable
Yes ____ No ____ Yes ____ No ____ Yes ____ No ____
_ Primary objective _ of external financial__
reporting Cost principle
_ At December 31, _ 20A __
102.Classify the following balance sheet accounts for White Goose Linen Co. Use the following code: CA = current assets, NCA = noncurrent assets, CL = current liabilities, NCL = noncurrent liabilities and SE = shareholders equity
1. Marketable Securities
2. Notes Payable due in 5 years 3. Income Taxes Payable
5. Bonds Payable
6. Share Capital
7. Retained Earnings
8. Notes Payable due in 3 months 9. Land
103.The Donald Company, an etiquette consulting firm, recorded the following business transactions during March, 20A. Indicate whether each transaction would I) increase, D) decrease, or N) have no effect on the total assets of the company.
1. Purchased office supplies on credit
2. Issued shares in exchange for cash contributed by owners 3. Collected cash on accounts receivable
4. Loaned money to a trusted employee
5. Paid cash on accounts payable to a supplier
6. Borrowed money from the bank on a promissory note payable 7. Purchased office supplies for cash
I ____ N ____ I ____ D ____ N ____ I ____ N ____
NCA ____ SE ____ CL ____ NCA ____ CA ____ NCL ____ CA ____ SE ____ NCL ____ CL ____
1. FALSE 2. TRUE 3. FALSE 4. TRUE 5. TRUE 6. FALSE 7. TRUE 8. FALSE 9. TRUE 10. FALSE 11. TRUE 12. FALSE 13. TRUE 14. TRUE 15. FALSE 16. TRUE 17. TRUE 18. FALSE 19. FALSE 20. FALSE 21. TRUE 22. TRUE 23. TRUE 24. FALSE 25. FALSE 26. TRUE 27. FALSE 28. FALSE 29. FALSE 30. TRUE 31. TRUE 32. FALSE 33. TRUE 34. TRUE 35. FALSE 36. FALSE
37. TRUE 38. TRUE 39. B
41. A 42. B 43. A 44. D 45. D 46. A 47. D 48. A 49. A 50. D 51. D 52. B 53. D 54. B 55. D 56. B 57. B 58. B 59. D 60. A 61. C 62. B 63. C 64. A 65. C 66. A 67. C 68. C 69. C 70. C 71. C 72. C 73. C 74. C
75. C 76. C 77. C 78. A 79. D 80. C 81. B 82. D 83. C 84. B 85. B 86. B 87. C
88. The continuity assumption is also known as the going-concern assumption. It is important for balance sheet reporting because of valuation issues. If a business is expected to operate into the foreseeable future, amounts presented on the balance sheet for assets and liabilities are based on the cost principle. If the continuity assumption is not followed, assets and liabilities might be reported at liquidation values as if they are going out of business.
89. The separate-entity assumption is important for balance sheet reporting because a business should present only its own assets and liabilities on the balance sheet. A business is a separate accounting entity from its owners. Therefore, the owners assets and liabilities would appear on their own (personal) financial statement.
90. The cost principle is important for balance sheet reporting because of valuation issues. The cash-equivalent cost is verifiable. If it were not for the cost principle, assets and liabilities could be reported at more subjective values. This could lead to manipulation of balance sheet amounts.
8. A, Dr
7. L, Cr
6. A, Dr
5. A, Dr
4. L, Cr
3. SE, Cr
2. A, Dr
91. 1. SE, Cr
98. Transactions are first recorded in the journal. This is known as the book of original entry. Transactions are entered chronologically in a debit- credit format. After transactions are journalized, the amounts are posted to the ledger (the book of final entry). The ledger contains accounts for each financial statement element so that balances can be determined.
100. Increase assets and decreases owners equity :: Debits and An exchange between an entity and another party :: Transaction and Normal balances for liabilities :: Credits and To provide useful economic information about a business to help external parties make sound financial decisions :: Primary objective of external financial reporting and Accounting assumption that requires assets to be recorded at their cash equivalent cost :: Cost principle and Cumulative earnings that have not been distributed to the owners :: Retained earnings and A debt owed by the entity :: Liability and Statement of financial position :: Balance Sheet and Account for a business separate from its owners :: Retained earnings and Dating of the balance sheet (20A) :: At December 31, 20A
101. Purchased land for cash and a note payable :: Yes and Agreed to purchase one million inventory parts from a new supplier :: No and Paid the employees for the week :: Yes and One of our shareholders sells her shares to a new investor :: No and Received inventory from a supplier under the new contract :: Yes and Entered into a contract with a new cleaning service :: No
102. Investments :: NCA and Retained Earnings :: SE and Notes Payable due in 3 months :: CL and Land :: NCA and Marketable Securities :: CA and Bonds Payable :: NCL and Supplies :: CA and Share Capital :: SE and Notes Payable due in 5
years :: NCL and Income Taxes Payable :: CL
103. Issued shares in exchange for cash contributed by owners :: I and Purchased office supplies for cash :: N and Purchased office supplies on credit :: I and Paid cash on accounts payable to a supplier :: D and Collected cash on accounts receivable :: N and Borrowed money from the bank on a promissory note payable :: I and Loaned money to a trusted employee :: N
Difficulty: Easy Difficulty: Hard Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 1 Learning Objective: 2 Learning Objective: 3 Learning Objective: 4 Learning Objective: 5 Learning Objective: 6 Learning Objective: 7 Libby Chapter 02
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