Foundations in Microbiology 6th Edition Test Bank Kathleen Park Talaro

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Foundations in Microbiology 6th Edition Test Bank Kathleen Park Talaro

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3
Student: ___________________________________________________________________________
1. The Five Is of studying microorganisms include all of the following except
A. inoculation.
B. incubation.
C. infection.
D. isolation.
E. identification.

2. All of the following are examples of different types of microbiological media except
A. broth.
B. enriched.
C. agar.
D. petri dish.
E. gelatin.

3. The term that refers to the purposeful addition of microorganisms into a laboratory nutrient medium is
A. isolation.
B. inoculation.
C. immunization.
D. infection.
E. contamination.

4. Which of the following is essential for development of discrete, isolated colonies?
A. broth medium
B. differential medium
C. selective medium
D. solid medium
E. assay medium

5. A pure culture contains only
A. one species of microorganism.
B. bacteria.
C. a variety of microbes from one source.
D. a variety of species from the same genus.
E. None of the choices are correct.

6. Which of the following will result when 1% to 5% agar is added to nutrient broth, boiled and cooled?
A. a pure culture
B. a mixed culture
C. a solid medium
D. a liquid medium
E. a contaminated medium

7. A microbiologist inoculates Staphylococcus aureus into a culture medium. Following incubation, both Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis are determined to be growing in this culture. What is the most likely explanation?
A. The microbiologist used too much inoculum.
B. The culture is contaminated.
C. The incubation temperature was incorrect.
D. The culture medium must be selective.
E. The culture medium must be differential.

8. A microbiologist inoculates Staphylococcus epidermidis and Escherichia coli into a culture medium. Following incubation, only the E. coli grows in the culture. What is the most likely explanation?
A. The microbiologist used too much inoculum.
B. The culture is contaminated.
C. The incubation temperature was incorrect.
D. The culture medium must be selective.
E. The culture medium must be differential.

9. Which method often results in colonies developing down throughout the agar and some colonies on the surface?
A. streak plate.
B. spread plate.
C. pour plate.
D. All of the choices are correct.
E. None of the choices are correct.

10. A common medium used for growing fastidious bacteria is
A. blood agar.
B. trypticase soy agar.
C. mannitol salt agar.
D. MacConkey medium.
E. a reducing medium.

11. A nutrient medium that has all of its chemical components identified and their precise concentrations known and reproducible, would be termed
A. complex.
B. reducing.
C. enriched.
D. enumeration.
E. synthetic.

12. A reducing medium contains
A. sugars that can be fermented.
B. extra oxygen.
C. hemoglobin, vitamins or other growth factors.
D. substances that remove oxygen.
E. inhibiting agents.

13. Which type of medium is able to distinguish different species or types of microorganisms based on an observable change in the colonies or in the medium?
A. differential
B. selective
C. enumeration
D. enriched
E. reducing

14. A microbiologist decides to use a nutrient medium that contains thioglycollic acid. What type of microbe is she attempting to culture?
A. fastidious
B. gram positive
C. anaerobe
D. gram negative
E. virus

15. For which bacterial genus is mannitol salt agar selective?
A. Salmonella
B. Streptococcus
C. Neisseria
D. Staphylococcus
E. Escherichia

16. A microbiologist must culture a patients feces for intestinal pathogens. Which of the following would likely be present in selective media for analyzing this fecal specimen?
A. NaCl
B. sheep red blood cells
C. bile salts
D. thioglycollic acid
E. peptone

17. Which of the following characteristics refers to the microscopes ability to show two separate entities as separate and distinct?
A. resolving power
B. magnification
C. refraction
D. All of the choices are correct.
E. None of the choices are correct.

18. Which of the following magnifies the specimen to produce the real image of the specimen?
A. condenser
B. objective lens
C. ocular lens
D. body
E. nosepiece

19. If a microbiologist is studying a specimen at a total magnification of 950X, what is the magnifying power of the objective lens if the ocular lens is 10X?
A. 100X
B. 950X
C. 85X
D. 850X
E. 95X

20. All of the following are diameters of cells that would be resolved in a microscope with a limit of resolution of 0.2m except
A. 0.2 m.
B. 0.2 mm.
C. 0.1 m.
D. 0.3 m.
E. 2.0 m.

21. The wavelength of light used plus the numerical aperature governs
A. illumination.
B. resolution.
C. magnification.
D. size of the field.
E. All of the choices are correct.

22. The type of microscope in which you would see brightly illuminated specimens against a black background is
A. bright-field.
B. dark-field.
C. phase-contrast.
D. fluorescence.
E. electron.

23. This microscope does not use light in forming the specimen image:
A. bright-field
B. dark-field
C. phase-contrast
D. fluorescence
E. electron

24. This microscope achieves the greatest resolution and highest magnification:
A. bright-field
B. dark-field
C. phase-contrast
D. fluorescence
E. electron

25. This microscope shows cells against a bright background and also shows intracellular structures of unstained cells based on their varying densities:
A. bright-field
B. dark-field
C. phase-contrast
D. fluorescence
E. electron

26. This microscope is the most widely used and shows cells against a bright background:
A. bright-field
B. dark-field
C. phase-contrast
D. fluorescence
E. electron

27. All of the following pertain to the fluorescence microscope except it
A. uses electrons to produce a specimen image.
B. type of compound microscope.
C. requires the use of dyes like acridine and fluorescein.
D. commonly used to diagnose certain infections.
E. requires an ultraviolet radiation source.

28. Which is incorrect about chocolate agar?
A. It can be used to cultivate Neisseria.
B. It usually uses sheep blood that has been heated.
C. It has chocolate extract in it.
D. It is an enriched medium.
E. It is used to grow fastidious bacteria.

29. Which microscope bombards a whole, metal-coated specimen with electrons moving back and forth over it?
A. fluorescence
B. differential interference contrast
C. scanning electron
D. transmission electron
E. phase-contrast

30. The specimen preparation that is best for viewing cell motility is
A. hanging drop.
B. fixed stained smear.
C. gram stain.
D. negative stain.
E. flagellar stain.

31. The primary purpose of staining cells on a microscope slide is to
A. kill them.
B. secure them to the slide.
C. enlarge the cells.
D. add contrast in order to see them better.
E. see motility.

32. The Gram stain, acid-fast stain and endospore stain have the following in common:
A. used on a wet mount of the specimen
B. use heat to force the dye into cell structures
C. outcome based on cell wall differences
D. use a negative stain technique
E. are differential stains

33. Basic dyes are
A. attracted to the acidic substances of bacterial cells.
B. anionic.
C. used in negative staining.
D. repelled by cells.
E. dyes such as India ink and nigrosin.

34. A microbiologist makes a fixed smear of bacterial cells and stains them with Loefflers methylene blue. All the cells appear blue under the oil lens. This is an example of
A. negative staining.
B. using an acidic dye.
C. simple staining.
D. using the acid-fast stain.
E. capsule staining.

35. Media that contains extracts from plants, animals or yeasts are
A. synthetic.
B. complex.
C. reducing.
D. enriched.
E. All of the choices are correct.

36. Brain-heart infusion, trypticase soy agar (TSA) and nutrient agar are all examples of which type of media?
A. synthetic
B. reducing
C. enriched
D. nonsynthetic
E. selective

37. Bacteria that require special growth factors and complex organic substances are called
A. fastidious.
B. pathogenic.
C. harmless.
D. anaerobic.
E. aerobic.

38. A media is designed that allows only Staphylococci to grow. In addition, S. aureus colonies have a yellow halo around them and other staphylococci appear white. This type of media is
A. selective only.
B. differential only.
C. both selective and differential.
D. a reducing media.
E. enriched.

39. All of the following are examples of basic dyes except
A. methylene blue.
B. nigrosin.
C. crystal violet.
D. safranin.
E. fuchsin.

40. Which type of media can be used to determine if a bacteria is motile?
A. SIM
B. MacConkey
C. Enriched media
D. Thayer-Martin media
E. Chocolate agar

41. All of the following are correct about agar except
A. it is flexible.
B. it melts at the boiling point of water (100oC).
C. it is a source of nutrition for bacteria.
D. it solidifies below 42oC.
E. it is solid at room temperature.

42. Which of the following media is useful for cultivating fungi?
A. Sabourauds agar
B. MacConkey agar
C. Tomato juice agar
D. Phenylethanol agar
E. Mueller tellurite

43. Which of the following puts the Five Is in their correct order?
A. inoculation, incubation, isolation, inspection, identification
B. isolation, inspection, inoculation, incubation, identification
C. incubation, inspection, isolation, identification, inoculation
D. inspection, identification, isolation, incubation, inoculation
E. inspection, isolation, incubation, inoculation, identification

44. Why is oil of immersion often used when viewing specimens under the microscope?
A. to stain the cells blue
B. to prevent the smear from drying out
C. to slow bacterial movement so you can see cells better
D. to increase the resolution
E. to reduce the amount of heat reaching the slide from the light source

45. The procedures for culturing a microorganism requires the use of a microscope.
True False

46. One colony typically develops from the growth of several parent bacterial cells.
True False

47. Some microbes are not capable of growing on artificial media.
True False

48. Mixed cultures are also referred to as contaminated cultures.
True False

49. A medium that is gel-like has less agar in it compared to a solid medium.
True False

50. A selective medium contains one or more substances that inhibit growth of certain microbes in order to facilitate the growth of other microbes.
True False

51. A bacterial species that grows on blood agar but will not grow on trypticase soy agar is termed an anaerobe.
True False

52. Fixed smears of specimens are required in order to perform the Gram stain and endospore stain on the specimens.
True False

53. The bending of light rays as they pass form one medium to another is called refraction.
True False

54. At the end of the Gram stain, gram positive bacteria will be seen as purple cells.
True False

55. Scanning tunneling and atomic force microscopes are used to image the detailed structure of biological molecules.
True False

56. The correct microbiological term for the tiny sample of specimen that is put into a nutrient medium in order to produce a culture is the _____.
________________________________________

57. The three physical forms of laboratory media are: solid, semisolid, and _____.
________________________________________

58. Bacteria that require special growth factors and complex nutrients are termed _____.
________________________________________

59. _____ is the term for a culture made from one isolated colony.
________________________________________

60. Newly inoculated cultures must be _____ at a specific temperature and time to encourage growth.
________________________________________

61. Magnification is achieved in a compound microscope through the initial magnification of the specimen by the _____ lens. This image is then projected to the _____ lens that will further magnify the specimen to form a virtual image received by the eye.
________________________________________

62. The _____ of the microscope holds and allows selection of the objective lenses.
________________________________________

63. _____ dyes have a negative charge on the chromophore and are repelled by bacterial cells.
________________________________________

64. _____ has the same optical qualities as glass and thus prevents refractive loss of light as it passes from the slide to the objective lens.
________________________________________

65. Compare and contrast the reagents and functions of negative staining versus positive staining.

66. Explain the difference and significance between a contaminated culture and a mixed culture.

67. A contaminated food sample contains several different species of bacteria. A food microbiologist is interested in studying just one of these species. Describe the sequence of procedures that the microbiologist must perform in order to obtain a pure culture of the bacterial species of interest from this food sample. Detail all the necessary media and equipment.

68. Explain how and why immersion oil increases resolution but not magnification when using the 100X objective.

3 Key

1. The Five Is of studying microorganisms include all of the following except
A. inoculation.
B. incubation.
C. infection.
D. isolation.
E. identification.

Talaro 003 Chapter #1

2. All of the following are examples of different types of microbiological media except
A. broth.
B. enriched.
C. agar.
D. petri dish.
E. gelatin.

Talaro 003 Chapter #2

3. The term that refers to the purposeful addition of microorganisms into a laboratory nutrient medium is
A. isolation.
B. inoculation.
C. immunization.
D. infection.
E. contamination.

Talaro 003 Chapter #3

4. Which of the following is essential for development of discrete, isolated colonies?
A. broth medium
B. differential medium
C. selective medium
D. solid medium
E. assay medium

Talaro 003 Chapter #4

5. A pure culture contains only
A. one species of microorganism.
B. bacteria.
C. a variety of microbes from one source.
D. a variety of species from the same genus.
E. None of the choices are correct.

Talaro 003 Chapter #5

6. Which of the following will result when 1% to 5% agar is added to nutrient broth, boiled and cooled?
A. a pure culture
B. a mixed culture
C. a solid medium
D. a liquid medium
E. a contaminated medium

Talaro 003 Chapter #6

7. A microbiologist inoculates Staphylococcus aureus into a culture medium. Following incubation, both Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis are determined to be growing in this culture. What is the most likely explanation?
A. The microbiologist used too much inoculum.
B. The culture is contaminated.
C. The incubation temperature was incorrect.
D. The culture medium must be selective.
E. The culture medium must be differential.

Talaro 003 Chapter #7

8. A microbiologist inoculates Staphylococcus epidermidis and Escherichia coli into a culture medium. Following incubation, only the E. coli grows in the culture. What is the most likely explanation?
A. The microbiologist used too much inoculum.
B. The culture is contaminated.
C. The incubation temperature was incorrect.
D. The culture medium must be selective.
E. The culture medium must be differential.

Talaro 003 Chapter #8

9. Which method often results in colonies developing down throughout the agar and some colonies on the surface?
A. streak plate.
B. spread plate.
C. pour plate.
D. All of the choices are correct.
E. None of the choices are correct.

Talaro 003 Chapter #9

10. A common medium used for growing fastidious bacteria is
A. blood agar.
B. trypticase soy agar.
C. mannitol salt agar.
D. MacConkey medium.
E. a reducing medium.

Talaro 003 Chapter #10

11. A nutrient medium that has all of its chemical components identified and their precise concentrations known and reproducible, would be termed
A. complex.
B. reducing.
C. enriched.
D. enumeration.
E. synthetic.

Talaro 003 Chapter #11

12. A reducing medium contains
A. sugars that can be fermented.
B. extra oxygen.
C. hemoglobin, vitamins or other growth factors.
D. substances that remove oxygen.
E. inhibiting agents.

Talaro 003 Chapter #12

13. Which type of medium is able to distinguish different species or types of microorganisms based on an observable change in the colonies or in the medium?
A. differential
B. selective
C. enumeration
D. enriched
E. reducing

Talaro 003 Chapter #13

14. A microbiologist decides to use a nutrient medium that contains thioglycollic acid. What type of microbe is she attempting to culture?
A. fastidious
B. gram positive
C. anaerobe
D. gram negative
E. virus

Talaro 003 Chapter #14

15. For which bacterial genus is mannitol salt agar selective?
A. Salmonella
B. Streptococcus
C. Neisseria
D. Staphylococcus
E. Escherichia

Talaro 003 Chapter #15

16. A microbiologist must culture a patients feces for intestinal pathogens. Which of the following would likely be present in selective media for analyzing this fecal specimen?
A. NaCl
B. sheep red blood cells
C. bile salts
D. thioglycollic acid
E. peptone

Talaro 003 Chapter #16

17. Which of the following characteristics refers to the microscopes ability to show two separate entities as separate and distinct?
A. resolving power
B. magnification
C. refraction
D. All of the choices are correct.
E. None of the choices are correct.

Talaro 003 Chapter #17

18. Which of the following magnifies the specimen to produce the real image of the specimen?
A. condenser
B. objective lens
C. ocular lens
D. body
E. nosepiece

Talaro 003 Chapter #18

19. If a microbiologist is studying a specimen at a total magnification of 950X, what is the magnifying power of the objective lens if the ocular lens is 10X?
A. 100X
B. 950X
C. 85X
D. 850X
E. 95X

Talaro 003 Chapter #19

20. All of the following are diameters of cells that would be resolved in a microscope with a limit of resolution of 0.2m except
A. 0.2 m.
B. 0.2 mm.
C. 0.1 m.
D. 0.3 m.
E. 2.0 m.

Talaro 003 Chapter #20

21. The wavelength of light used plus the numerical aperature governs
A. illumination.
B. resolution.
C. magnification.
D. size of the field.
E. All of the choices are correct.

Talaro 003 Chapter #21

22. The type of microscope in which you would see brightly illuminated specimens against a black background is
A. bright-field.
B. dark-field.
C. phase-contrast.
D. fluorescence.
E. electron.

Talaro 003 Chapter #22

23. This microscope does not use light in forming the specimen image:
A. bright-field
B. dark-field
C. phase-contrast
D. fluorescence
E. electron

Talaro 003 Chapter #23

24. This microscope achieves the greatest resolution and highest magnification:
A. bright-field
B. dark-field
C. phase-contrast
D. fluorescence
E. electron

Talaro 003 Chapter #24

25. This microscope shows cells against a bright background and also shows intracellular structures of unstained cells based on their varying densities:
A. bright-field
B. dark-field
C. phase-contrast
D. fluorescence
E. electron

Talaro 003 Chapter #25

26. This microscope is the most widely used and shows cells against a bright background:
A. bright-field
B. dark-field
C. phase-contrast
D. fluorescence
E. electron

Talaro 003 Chapter #26

27. All of the following pertain to the fluorescence microscope except it
A. uses electrons to produce a specimen image.
B. type of compound microscope.
C. requires the use of dyes like acridine and fluorescein.
D. commonly used to diagnose certain infections.
E. requires an ultraviolet radiation source.

Talaro 003 Chapter #27

28. Which is incorrect about chocolate agar?
A. It can be used to cultivate Neisseria.
B. It usually uses sheep blood that has been heated.
C. It has chocolate extract in it.
D. It is an enriched medium.
E. It is used to grow fastidious bacteria.

Talaro 003 Chapter #28

29. Which microscope bombards a whole, metal-coated specimen with electrons moving back and forth over it?
A. fluorescence
B. differential interference contrast
C. scanning electron
D. transmission electron
E. phase-contrast

Talaro 003 Chapter #29

30. The specimen preparation that is best for viewing cell motility is
A. hanging drop.
B. fixed stained smear.
C. gram stain.
D. negative stain.
E. flagellar stain.

Talaro 003 Chapter #30

31. The primary purpose of staining cells on a microscope slide is to
A. kill them.
B. secure them to the slide.
C. enlarge the cells.
D. add contrast in order to see them better.
E. see motility.

Talaro 003 Chapter #31

32. The Gram stain, acid-fast stain and endospore stain have the following in common:
A. used on a wet mount of the specimen
B. use heat to force the dye into cell structures
C. outcome based on cell wall differences
D. use a negative stain technique
E. are differential stains

Talaro 003 Chapter #32

33. Basic dyes are
A. attracted to the acidic substances of bacterial cells.
B. anionic.
C. used in negative staining.
D. repelled by cells.
E. dyes such as India ink and nigrosin.

Talaro 003 Chapter #33

34. A microbiologist makes a fixed smear of bacterial cells and stains them with Loefflers methylene blue. All the cells appear blue under the oil lens. This is an example of
A. negative staining.
B. using an acidic dye.
C. simple staining.
D. using the acid-fast stain.
E. capsule staining.

Talaro 003 Chapter #34

35. Media that contains extracts from plants, animals or yeasts are
A. synthetic.
B. complex.
C. reducing.
D. enriched.
E. All of the choices are correct.

Talaro 003 Chapter #35

36. Brain-heart infusion, trypticase soy agar (TSA) and nutrient agar are all examples of which type of media?
A. synthetic
B. reducing
C. enriched
D. nonsynthetic
E. selective

Talaro 003 Chapter #36

37. Bacteria that require special growth factors and complex organic substances are called
A. fastidious.
B. pathogenic.
C. harmless.
D. anaerobic.
E. aerobic.

Talaro 003 Chapter #37

38. A media is designed that allows only Staphylococci to grow. In addition, S. aureus colonies have a yellow halo around them and other staphylococci appear white. This type of media is
A. selective only.
B. differential only.
C. both selective and differential.
D. a reducing media.
E. enriched.

Talaro 003 Chapter #38

39. All of the following are examples of basic dyes except
A. methylene blue.
B. nigrosin.
C. crystal violet.
D. safranin.
E. fuchsin.

Talaro 003 Chapter #39

40. Which type of media can be used to determine if a bacteria is motile?
A. SIM
B. MacConkey
C. Enriched media
D. Thayer-Martin media
E. Chocolate agar

Talaro 003 Chapter #40

41. All of the following are correct about agar except
A. it is flexible.
B. it melts at the boiling point of water (100oC).
C. it is a source of nutrition for bacteria.
D. it solidifies below 42oC.
E. it is solid at room temperature.

Talaro 003 Chapter #41

42. Which of the following media is useful for cultivating fungi?
A. Sabourauds agar
B. MacConkey agar
C. Tomato juice agar
D. Phenylethanol agar
E. Mueller tellurite

Talaro 003 Chapter #42

43. Which of the following puts the Five Is in their correct order?
A. inoculation, incubation, isolation, inspection, identification
B. isolation, inspection, inoculation, incubation, identification
C. incubation, inspection, isolation, identification, inoculation
D. inspection, identification, isolation, incubation, inoculation
E. inspection, isolation, incubation, inoculation, identification

Talaro 003 Chapter #43

44. Why is oil of immersion often used when viewing specimens under the microscope?
A. to stain the cells blue
B. to prevent the smear from drying out
C. to slow bacterial movement so you can see cells better
D. to increase the resolution
E. to reduce the amount of heat reaching the slide from the light source

Talaro 003 Chapter #44

45. The procedures for culturing a microorganism requires the use of a microscope.
FALSE

Talaro 003 Chapter #45

46. One colony typically develops from the growth of several parent bacterial cells.
FALSE

Talaro 003 Chapter #46

47. Some microbes are not capable of growing on artificial media.
TRUE

Talaro 003 Chapter #47

48. Mixed cultures are also referred to as contaminated cultures.
FALSE

Talaro 003 Chapter #48

49. A medium that is gel-like has less agar in it compared to a solid medium.
TRUE

Talaro 003 Chapter #49

50. A selective medium contains one or more substances that inhibit growth of certain microbes in order to facilitate the growth of other microbes.
TRUE

Talaro 003 Chapter #50

51. A bacterial species that grows on blood agar but will not grow on trypticase soy agar is termed an anaerobe.
FALSE

Talaro 003 Chapter #51

52. Fixed smears of specimens are required in order to perform the Gram stain and endospore stain on the specimens.
TRUE

Talaro 003 Chapter #52

53. The bending of light rays as they pass form one medium to another is called refraction.
TRUE

Talaro 003 Chapter #53

54. At the end of the Gram stain, gram positive bacteria will be seen as purple cells.
TRUE

Talaro 003 Chapter #54

55. Scanning tunneling and atomic force microscopes are used to image the detailed structure of biological molecules.
TRUE

Talaro 003 Chapter #55

56. The correct microbiological term for the tiny sample of specimen that is put into a nutrient medium in order to produce a culture is the _____.
Inoculum

Talaro 003 Chapter #56

57. The three physical forms of laboratory media are: solid, semisolid, and _____.
Liquid

Talaro 003 Chapter #57

58. Bacteria that require special growth factors and complex nutrients are termed _____.
Fastidious

Talaro 003 Chapter #58

59. _____ is the term for a culture made from one isolated colony.
Subculture

Talaro 003 Chapter #59

60. Newly inoculated cultures must be _____ at a specific temperature and time to encourage growth.
Incubated

Talaro 003 Chapter #60

61. Magnification is achieved in a compound microscope through the initial magnification of the specimen by the _____ lens. This image is then projected to the _____ lens that will further magnify the specimen to form a virtual image received by the eye.
Objective, Ocular

Talaro 003 Chapter #61

62. The _____ of the microscope holds and allows selection of the objective lenses.
Nosepiece

Talaro 003 Chapter #62

63. _____ dyes have a negative charge on the chromophore and are repelled by bacterial cells.
Acidic

Talaro 003 Chapter #63

64. _____ has the same optical qualities as glass and thus prevents refractive loss of light as it passes from the slide to the objective lens.
Immersion Oil

Talaro 003 Chapter #64

65. Compare and contrast the reagents and functions of negative staining versus positive staining.
Answers may vary.

Talaro 003 Chapter #65

66. Explain the difference and significance between a contaminated culture and a mixed culture.
Answers may vary.

Talaro 003 Chapter #66

67. A contaminated food sample contains several different species of bacteria. A food microbiologist is interested in studying just one of these species. Describe the sequence of procedures that the microbiologist must perform in order to obtain a pure culture of the bacterial species of interest from this food sample. Detail all the necessary media and equipment.
Answers may vary.

Talaro 003 Chapter #67

68. Explain how and why immersion oil increases resolution but not magnification when using the 100X objective.
Answers may vary.

Talaro 003 Chapter #68

3 Summary
Category # of Questions
Talaro 003 Chapter 68

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