Foundations in Microbiology 9e Talaro Test bank

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Foundations in Microbiology 9e Talaro Test bank

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ch06
Student: ___________________________________________________________________________
1. Viruses have all the following except A. definite shape.
B. metabolism.
C. genes.
D. ability to infect host cells. E. ultramicroscopic size.
2. Host cells of viruses include A. human and other animals.
B. plants and fungi.
C. bacteria.
D. protozoa and algae.
E. All of the choices are correct.
3. The core of every virus particle always contains A. DNA.
B. capsomers.
C. enzymes.
D. DNA and RNA.
E. either DNA or RNA.
4. Classification of viruses into families involves determining all the following characteristics except A. type of nucleic acid.
B. type of capsid.
C. presence of an envelope.
D. biochemical reactions.
E. nucleic acid strand number.
5. Which of the following represents a virus family name? A. Herpes simplex virus
B. Herpesviridae
C. Picornavirus
D. Enterovirus
E. Hepatitis B virus
6. Virus capsids are made from subunits called A. envelopes.
B. spikes.
C. capsomeres. D. prophages. E. peplomers.
7. Helical and icosahedral are terms used to describe the shapes of a virus A. spike.
B. capsomere. C. envelope. D. capsid.
E. core.
8. Which of the following is correct about viruses? A. cannot be seen with a light microscope
B. are prokaryotic
C. contain 70S ribosomes
D. undergo binary fission
E. can be grown on nutrient agar
9. All of the following pertain to virus envelopes except they A. are gained as a virus leaves the host cell membrane.
B. are gained as a virus leaves the nuclear membrane.
C. contain special virus proteins.
D. help the virus particle attach to host cells.
E. are located between the capsid and nucleic acid.
10. Which of the following is not associated with every virus? A. envelope
B. capsomers C. capsid
D. nucleic acid E. genome
11. These structures are used by bacteriophages to attach to host cell receptors. A. sheath
B. tail fibers
C. nucleic acid
D. capsid head
E. None of the choices are correct.
12. Which is incorrect about prophages?
A. present when the virus is in lysogeny
B. formed when viral DNA enters the bacterial chromosome C. replicated with host DNA and passed on to progeny
D. cause lysis of host cells
E. occur when temperate phages enter host cells
13. T-even phages
A. include the poxviruses.
B. infect Escherichia coli cells. C. enter host cells by engulfment. D. have helical capsids.
E. All of the choices are correct.
14. The correct sequence of events in viral multiplication is
A. penetration, replication, maturation, adsorption, assembly, release. B. replication, penetration, maturation, assembly, absorption, release. C. adsorption, penetration, replication, maturation, assembly, release. D. assembly, maturation, replication, release, penetration, adsorption. E. adsorption, release, maturation, replication, assembly, penetration.
15. The event that occurs in bacteriophage multiplication that does not occur in animal virus replication is
A. adsorption to the host cells.
B. injection of the viral nucleic acid into the host cell.
C. host cell synthesis of viral enzymes and capsid proteins. D. assembly of nucleocapsids.
E. replication of viral nucleic acid.
16. Viruses acquire envelopes around their nucleocapsids during A. replication.
B. assembly. C. adsorption. D. release.
E. penetration.
17. Which of the following will not support viral cultivation? A. live lab animals
B. embryonated bird eggs
C. primary cell cultures
D. continuous cell cultures E. blood agar
18. In general, most DNA viruses multiply in the host cells _____, while most RNA viruses multiply in the host cells _____.
A. nucleus, cytoplasm
B. cytoplasm, cell membrane
C. cell membrane, cytoplasm
D. cytoplasm, nucleus
E. nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum
19. Host range is limited by
A. type of nucleic acid in the virus.
B. age of the host cell.
C. type of host cell receptors on cell membrane. D. size of the host cell.
E. All of the choices are correct.
20. The virus-induced, specific damage to the host cell that can be seen in a light microscope is called A. lysogeny.
B. budding.
C. plaques.
D. cytopathic effects. E. pocks.
21. Visible, clear, well-defined patches in a monolayer of virus-infected cells in a culture are called A. lysogeny.
B. budding.
C. plaques.
D. cytopathic effects. E. pocks.

22. Viral growth in bird embryos can cause discrete, opaque spots in the embryonic membranes called A. lysogeny.
B. budding.
C. plaques.
D. cytopathic effects. E. pocks.
23. Viruses that cause infection resulting in alternating periods of activity with symptoms and inactivity without symptoms are called
A. latent
B. oncogenic.
C. prions.
D. viroids.
E. delta agents.
24. Oncogenic viruses include all the following except A. Hepatitis B virus.
B. Measles virus.
C. Papillomavirus.
D. HTLVI and HTLVII viruses. E. Epstein-Barr virus.
25. Which of the following is a type of cytopathic effect? A. inclusions in the nucleus
B. multinucleated giant cells
C. inclusions in the cytoplasm
D. cells round up
E. All of the choices are correct.

26. Uncoating of viral nucleic acid
A. does not occur in bacteriophage multiplication.
B. involves enzymatic destruction of the capsid.
C. occurs during penetration in the multiplication cycle. D. occurs before replication.
E. All of the choices are correct.
27. Infectious protein particles are called A. viroids.
B. phages.
C. prions.
D. oncogenic viruses. E. spikes.
28. Infectious naked strands of RNA are called A. viroids.
B. phages.
C. prions.
D. oncogenic viruses. E. spikes.
29. Creutzfeld-Jacob disease is A. caused by a chronic latent virus. B. initiated by an oncogenic virus. C. caused by a viroid.
D. a spongiform encephalopathy of humans. E. also called mad cow disease.
30. Satellite viruses are
A. also called viroids.
B. dependent on other viruses for replication. C. the cause of spongiform encephalopathies. D. significant pathogens of plants.
E. All of the choices are correct.
31. All of the following is correct about treating viral diseases except A. viruses are killed by the same antibiotics that kill bacteria.
B. many antiviral drugs block viral replication.
C. many antiviral drugs cause severe side effects.
D. interferons show potential for treating and preventing viral infections. E. All of the choices are correct.
32. The capsomers are made of A. DNA.
B. RNA.
C. lipids.
D. protein.
E. carbohydrate.
33. Viruses that consist of only a nucleocapsid are considered A. simple viruses.
B. complex viruses.
C. naked viruses.
D. viroids.
E. incomplete viruses.
34. The nucleocapsid consists of
A. the capsomers assembled into the capsid. B. the nucleic acid of the virus only.
C. the nucleic acid along with the capsid. D. the envelope and capsid.
E. the envelope, nucleic acid, and capsid.
35. Which of the following parts of a virus is not always present?
A. envelope
B. nucleic acid
C. capsid
D. capsomers
E. None of the choices are optional parts of a virus.
36. Which of the following viruses did D. Ivanovski and M. Beijerinck work with? A. Rabies
B. Smallpox
C. Tobacco Mosaic Virus D. Herpes
E. Epstein-Barr virus
37. Viruses belong to which of the following Kingdoms? A. Protists
B. Fungi
C. Archaea
D. Bacteria
E. None of the choices are correct.
38. Which body system is mainly affected by Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease? A. digestive
B. genitourinary C. nervous
D. circulatory E. respiratory
39. When a virus enters a lysogenic phase, it means
A. the virus is integrated into the DNA of the host cell and is latent.
B. the virus is bursting through the host cell membrane.
C. the virus is starting biosynthesis of its nucleic acid.
D. the virus will remain in circulation and not continue infecting its host.
E. the number of viruses in the host is decreasing as the immune system becomes effective.
40. All of the following are characteristics of viruses except A. they can be crystallized.
B. they often have a geometric capsid.
C. they have a viscous fluid inside their capsids.
D. they can cause fatal diseases. E. they can cause mild diseases.
41. How do enveloped animal viruses exit their host? A. Budding or exocytosis
B. Bursting the host cell
C. Rupturing the virus
D. Endocytosis
E. None of these are correct
42. Clostridium botulinum is made virulent by incorporated prophage genes encoding for the botulinum toxin. What term describes this process?
A. Lytic phase
B. Budding
C. Adsorption
D. Lysogenic conversion E. Latent phase
43. Viruses are ultramicroscopic because they range in size from 2 mm to 450 mm. True False
44. Spikes are glycoproteins of the virus capsid. True False
45. Prophages can be activated into viral replication and enter the lytic cycle. True False
46. Viral infections are easier to treat with drugs than bacterial infections. True False
47. The International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses has determined that there are only three orders of viruses.
True False
48. Bacteriophages do not undergo adsorption to specific host cell receptors prior to penetration. True False
49. When a virus enters a host cell, the viral genes redirect the genetic and metabolic activities of the host cell.
True False
50. Viral spikes are inserted into the host cell membrane before budding or exocytosis occurs. True False
51. No cases of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob syndrome linked to eating infected cows have occurred in the United States.
True False
52. The adeno-associated virus (AAV) and the delta agent are prions.
True False
53. A(n) _____ is the protein shell around the nucleic acid core of a virus. ________________________________________
54. Viruses that infect bacteria are specifically called _____. ________________________________________
55. Diagnosis of viral infections sometimes involves analyzing the patients blood for specific _____ that the immune system produced against the virus.
________________________________________
56. Two noncellular agents, smaller than viruses, are the infectious proteins called _____, and the infectious RNA strands called _____.
________________________________________
57. Viruses with _____ sense RNA contain the correct message for translation, while viruses with _____ sense RNA must first be converted into a correct message. ________________________________________
58. Freshly isolated animal tissue that is placed in a growth medium and allowed to produce a cell monolayer is referred to as a _____ cell culture.
________________________________________
59. One of the principal capsid shapes is a 20-sided figure with 12 evenly spaced corners referred to as a(n) _____ capsid.
________________________________________
60. A naked virus does not have a(n) _____. ________________________________________
61. During lysogeny, an inactive prophage state occurs when the viral DNA is inserted into the _____ _____.

________________________________________
62. A common method for cultivating viruses in the lab is to use in vitro systems called _____ cultures. ________________________________________
63. Discuss at least six characteristics that are unique to viruses compared to other microorganisms.

64. Discuss the criteria used for classifying viruses into families and genera.

65. Compare and contrast the steps of viral multiplication cycles in bacteriophages and animal viruses.

66. Explain what is meant by host range, what governs host range, and what is meant by tissue tropism.

67. Discuss why it is difficult to trace the origins of viruses and why they are important.

68. Compare and contrast viruses, prions, and viroids.

1. B 2. E 3. E 4. D 5. B 6. C 7. D 8. A 9. E 10. A 11. B 12. D 13. B 14. C 15. B 16. D 17. E 18. A 19. C 20. D 21. C 22. E 23. A 24. B 25. E 26. E 27. C 28. A 29. D 30. B 31. A 32. D 33. C 34. C 35. A 36. C
ch06 Key
37. E
38. C
39. A
40. C
41. A
42. D
43. FALSE
44. FALSE
45. TRUE
46. FALSE
47. TRUE
48. FALSE
49. TRUE
50. TRUE
51. TRUE
52. FALSE
53. capsid
54. bacteriophages
55. antibodies
56. prions, viroids
57. positive, negative
58. primary
59. icosahedral
60. envelope
61. bacterial chromosome
62. cell
63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68.

ch06 Summary Category
ASM Objective: 01.04 The traditional concept of species is not readily applicable to microbes due to asexual reproduction and the frequent occurrence of horizontal gene transfer.
ASM Objective: 02.05 The replication cycles of viruses (lytic and lysogenic) differ among viruses and are determined by their uniq ue structures and genomes.
ASM Objective: 04.02 Although the central dogma is universal in all cells, the processes of replication, transcription, and translatio n differ in Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukaryotes.
ASM Objective: 04.04 The synthesis of viral genetic material and proteins is dependent on host cells.
ASM Objective: 05.04 Microorganisms, cellular and viral, can interact with both human and nonhuman hosts in beneficial, neutral or detrimental ways.
ASM Objective: 06.02 Microorganisms provide essential models that give us fundamental knowledge about life processes.
ASM Objective: 06.04 Because the true diversity of microbial life is largely unknown, its effects and potential benefits have not be en fully explored.
ASM Objective: 08.03 Use appropriate methods to identify microorganisms (media-based, molecular and serological). ASM Topic: Module 01 Evolution
ASM Topic: Module 02 Structure and Function
ASM Topic: Module 04 Information Flow
ASM Topic: Module 05 Systems
ASM Topic: Module 06 Impact of Microorganisms ASM Topic: Module 08 Microbiology Skills
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06.01 Indicate how viruses were discovered and characterized.
06.02 Describe the unique characteristics of viruses.
06.03 Discuss the origin and importance of viruses.
06.04 Describe the general structure and size range of viruses.
06.05 Distinguish among types of capsids and nucleocapsids.
06.06 Describe envelopes and spikes, and discuss their origins.
06.07 Explain the functions of capsids, nucleocapsids, envelopes, and spikes. 06.08 Summarize the different viral groups based on their basic structure. 06.09 Explain the classification scheme used for viruses.
06.10 Indicate the characteristics used in identifying and naming viruses.
06.11 Describe the virus-host relationship.
06.12 Relate the stages in the multiplication cycle of animal viruses, and summarize what is happening in each
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Talaro Chapter 06
Topic: Bacteriophage Cycles Topic: General Viral Properties Topic: History of Microbiology Topic: Prions
Topic: Viral Classification Topic: Viral Replication Topic: Viral Structure
06.13 Describe three ways that animal viruses enter into a host cell.
06.15 Explain two ways that animal viruses are released by a host cell.
06.16 Describe cytopathic effects of viruses and the possible results of persistent viral infections.
06.17 Describe the stages in the multiplication cycle of bacteriophages.
06.18 Explain what is meant by lysogeny, prophage, and lysogenic induction and conversion.
06.19 Compare the major stages in multiplication of animal viruses and bacteriophage.
06.20 Describe the general purposes of cultivating viruses.
06.21 Compare the methods and uses of cell culture, bird embryos, and live animals in growing viruses. 06.22 Discuss the medical impact and importance of viruses.
06.23 Explain how animal viral infections are treated and detected.
06.24 Describe the properties of nonviral infectious particles.
06.25 Discuss the importance of prions and viroids and the diseases they cause.

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