Foundations in Microbiology Kathleen Park Talaro 8th Edition Test Bank

Foundations in Microbiology Kathleen Park Talaro  8th Edition  Test Bank
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Chapter 11 Testbank
Student: ___________________________________________________________________________
1. Microbiological contaminants are best described as:

A. unwanted microbes present on or in a substance.

B. any and all microbes present on or in a substance.

C. pathogenic microbes present on or in a substance.

D. vegetative microbes present on or in a substance.

E. None of the choices are correct.

2. Physical agents for controlling microbial growth include all of the following, except:

A. ultraviolet radiation.

B. boiling water.

C. HEPA filters.

D. pasteurization.

E. hydrogen peroxide.

3. Which of the following microbial forms have the highest resistance to physical and chemical controls?

A. naked viruses

B. protozoan cysts

C. fungal spores

D. bacterial endospores

E. yeast

4. The process that destroys or removes all microorganisms and microbial forms including bacterial endospores is:

A. disinfection.

B. sterilization.

C. antisepsis.

D. sanitization.

E. degermation.

5. The process of using a cleansing technique to mechanically remove and reduce microorganisms and debris to safe levels is:

A. disinfection.

B. sterilization.

C. antisepsis.

D. sanitization.

E. degermation.

6. The use of a physical or chemical process to destroy vegetative pathogens is:

A. disinfection.

B. sterilization.

C. antisepsis.

D. sanitization.

E. degermation.

7. The use of chemical agents directly on exposed body surfaces to destroy or inhibit vegetative pathogens is:

A. disinfection.

B. sterilization.

C. antisepsis.

D. sanitization.

E. degermation.

8. Scrubbing or immersing the skin in chemicals to reduce the numbers of microbes on the skin is:

A. disinfection.

B. sterilization.

C. antisepsis.

D. sanitization.

E. degermation.

9. Which of the following types of control agents would be used to achieve sterility?

A. virucide

B. bactericide

C. germicide

D. sporicide

E. fungicide

10. Which is correct regarding the rate of microbial death?

A. cells die at increasingly greater rates

B. only older cells die in a culture

C. cells in a culture die at a constant rate

D. upon contact with the control agent, all cells die at one time

E. cells become metabolically inactive but are never killed

11. Sterilization is achieved by:

A. flash pasteurization.

B. hot water.

C. boiling water.

D. steam autoclave.

E. All of the choices are correct.

12. Dry heat:

A. is less efficient than moist heat.

B. cannot sterilize.

C. includes tyndallization.

D. is used in devices called autoclaves.

E. will sterilize at 121 C for 15 minutes.

13. Endospores can be killed by:

A. dry heat at 170 C for 2 hours.

B. incineration.

C. glutaldehyde for 3 or more hours.

D. ethylene oxide for 3 or more hours.

E. All of the choices are correct.

14. The minimum sterilizing conditions in a steam autoclave are:

A. 121 C at 15 psi for 15 minutes.

B. 63 C for 30 minutes.

C. 160 C for 2 hours.

D. 71.6 C for 15 seconds.

E. 100 C for 30 minutes.

15. The shortest time required to kill all the microbes in a sample at a specified temperature is called the:

A. thermal death point (TDP).

B. thermal death time (TDT).

C. sporicidal time.

D. death phase point.

E. None of the choices are correct.

16. Disinfection of beverages, such as apple juice, milk, and wine, is optimally achieved by:

A. pasteurization.

B. chlorination.

C. moist heat autoclave.

D. filtration.

E. boiling water.

17. Electrons are ejected from atoms in cells when organisms are exposed to:

A. dessication.

B. ultraviolet light.

C. ethyl alcohol.

D. hydrogen peroxide.

E. gamma rays and X rays.

18. Which of the following items are typically irradiated in order to kill microbes?

A. ground beef and other meat and poultry

B. human tissues such as heart valves and skin

C. operating room air

D. surgical gloves

E. All of the choices are correct.

19. HEPA filters are used to remove microbes from:

A. air.

B. liquids.

C. human tissues.

D. medical instruments.

E. All of the choices are correct.

20. Which of the following does not contain a heavy metal?

A. tincture of iodine

B. Merthiolate

C. silver nitrate solutions

D. zinc

E. Mercurochrome

21. All of the following are phenols or phenolics, except:

A. Lysol.

B. hexachlorophene.

C. triclosan.

D. cresols.

E. chloramines.

22. The easiest microbial forms to kill or inhibit are:

A. naked viruses.

B. vegetative bacteria and fungi.

C. endospores.

D. protozoan cysts.

E. Mycobacteria and Staphylococci.

23. Which control method would not be a suitable choice for killing Mycobacteria in a capped culture tube?

A. ultraviolet (germicidal) light

B. gamma rays

C. 121 C at 15 psi for 15 minutes

D. 160 C for 2 hours

E. All of the choices are correct.

24. All of the following pertain to hypochlorites, except:

A. release hypochlorous acid in solution.

B. cause denaturation of enzymes.

C. found in iodophors.

D. used to disinfect dairy, restaurant, and medical equipment.

E. found in common household bleach.

25. Which of the following is not used as an antiseptic?

A. iodophor

B. chlorhexidine

C. 3% hydrogen peroxide

D. Merthiolate

E. aqueous glutaraldehyde

26. Iodophors include:

A. chloramines.

B. Betadine.

C. tincture of iodine.

D. alcohols.

E. chlorhexidine.

27. The compound that is an organic base containing chlorine and two phenolic rings and is used increasingly for handscrubbing, neonatal washes, wound degerming, and prepping surgical skin sites is:

A. carbolic acid.

B. chlorhexidine.

C. triclosan.

D. formalin.

E. quarternary ammonium compounds.

28. Alcohols:

A. denature proteins when in a 5095% alcohol-water solution.

B. disinfect items soaked in alcohol.

C. are skin degerming agents.

D. at 50% or higher concentrations dissolve cell membrane lipids.

E. All of the choices are correct.

29. Which is mismatched?

A. sodium hypochlorite chlorine

B. iodophor iodine

C. benzalkonium chloride quaternary ammonium compound

D. Merthiolate silver

E. formalin formaldehyde

30. All of the following are correct about iodophors, except:

A. they are complexes of iodine and a neutral polymer.

B. this formulation allows a quick release of free iodine.

C. this formulation increases its penetration.

D. it is less prone to staining or irritating tissue.

E. a common iodophor is Betadine.

31. The sterilizing gas used in a special chamber is:

A. ethylene oxide.

B. iodophor.

C. glutaraldehyde.

D. formaldehyde.

E. chlorine dioxide.

32. The chemical agent that produces highly reactive hydroxyl-free radicals and also decomposes to O2 gas is:

A. Cidex.

B. cationic detergents.

C. hydrogen peroxide.

D. chlorhexidine.

E. iodophors.

33. All the following are correct about detergents, except:

A. they are polar molecules that act as surfactants.

B. the most effective ones are positively charged.

C. in low concentrations they are bacteriostatic.

D. they are ineffective against the tuberculosis bacteria.

E. they are active in the presence of organic matter.

34. Ethylene oxide is:

A. sporicidal.

B. only effective with high heat.

C. the active agent in household bleach.

D. used as an antiseptic against anaerobes.

E. a halogen.

35. Which of the following is being used to replace hypochlorites in treating water because of the possibility of cancer-causing substances being produced?

A. hydrogen peroxide

B. chloramines

C. fluorine

D. quaternary ammonium compounds

E. sodium iodide

36. Which of the following chemicals is a disinfectant for soft contact lenses?

A. hydrogen peroxide

B. alcohol

C. hexachlorophene

D. glutaraldehyde

E. hypochorites

37. Which of the following is officially accepted as a sterilant and high-level disinfectant?

A. benzalkonium chloride

B. silver nitrate

C. glutaraldehyde

D. triclosan

E. cresol

38. All of the following are correct about food irradiation, except:

A. food is not made radioactive by the process.

B. the World Health Organization does not endorse this process.

C. it is approved in the U.S. for beef, chicken, and pork.

D. it can lead to a longer shelf life for the irradiated food.

E. no irradiated food can be sold without clear labeling.

39. All of the following are benefits of food irradiation, except:

A. it can kill bacterial pathogens on the food.

B. it can kill insects on the food.

C. it can inhibit the sprouting of white potatoes.

D. it can reduce the number of food-borne deaths each year.

E. it makes the food less nutritious.

40. All of the following are methods of disinfection or sterilization, except:

A. gamma radiation.

B. dry oven.

C. lyophilization.

D. triclosan.

E. ethanol.

41. Historically, which of the following was instilled into the eyes of newborn infants to prevent gonococcal infections?

A. triclosan

B. formaldehyde

C. phenol

D. silver nitrate

E. mercurochrome

42. Which common hospital pathogen is able to grow abundantly in soap dishes?

A. Escherichia coli

B. Pseudomonas

C. Hemophilus influenzae

D. Mycobacteria tuberculosis

E. Salmonella

43. All of the following are correct about the autoclave, except:

A. it is important not to overload the chamber.

B. it is effective for sterilizing powders, oils, and waxy substances.

C. the duration of the process depends on how full the chamber is.

D. it is the temperature that kills the microbes, not the pressure by itself.

E. sterilization is achieved when steam condenses against the objects in the chamber and raises their temperatures.

44. Which of the following types of agents targets protein conformation?

A. Detergents

B. Ultraviolet light

C. Alcohol

D. Hydrogen peroxide

E. Crystal violet

45. Using toilet bowl cleaner and nonionizing radiation to non-animate surfaces only removes or kills vegetative bacteria. The term that best describes this action is:

A. Sterilization

B. Disinfection

C. Antisepsis

D. Degermation

E. None of these are correct

46. Which of these metals have antimicrobial properties associated with them?

A. Silver

B. Gold

C. Tin

D. Aluminum

E. Both A and B are correct.

47. Commercial products containing which chemicals are more effective at killing microorganisms?

A. bacteriostatic

B. bacteriocidal

C. carbohydrate

D. lead

E. None of these are correct.

48. Bacteriocidal agents are sterilants.

True False

49. Bacteriostatic agents kill bacterial cells.

True False

50. The presence of organic matter such as saliva and pus can interfere with the actions of disinfectants.

True False

51. When a control agent targets the metabolic processes of microbial cells, active younger cells typically die more rapidly than older cells.

True False

52. A microorganism that is not motile and has stopped metabolizing could be considered dead.

True False

53. Most microbial contaminants of food are killed at freezing temperatures.

True False

54. Filtration is an effective method to remove microbes from air and liquids.

True False

55. Chlorine compounds remain stable and effective in the presence of excess organic matter.

True False

56. Aniline dyes like crystal violet have antimicrobial activity particularly against gram positive bacteria and some fungi.

True False

57. Alcohols are more effective at inactivating enveloped viruses than naked viruses.

True False

58. Isopropyl alcohol wiped across a skin site can sterilize it.

True False

59. Chlorine dioxide and ethylene oxide are gaseous sterilants.

True False

60. _____ heat is more rapidly effective and efficient compared to _____ heat.

________________________________________

61. Vials of microorganisms that undergo the freeze-drying process called _____ will remain preserved and viable for years.

________________________________________

62. A method for sterilizing milk, called _____ temperature treatment, uses 134 C for 1 to 2 seconds.

________________________________________

63. _____ radiation excites atoms to a higher energy state within molecules such as DNA that then leads to the formation of pyrimidine dimers.

________________________________________

64. Some microbial control agents are able to _____ cell proteins by breaking bonds that maintain the native state, three-dimensional configuration of the proteins.

________________________________________

65. _____ filters are widely used to provide a flow of sterile air to hospital rooms.

________________________________________

66. _____ is a halogen used in gaseous and liquid form for large scale disinfection of drinking water and sewage.

________________________________________

67. __________ or steam sterilization is the process by which steam is heated under pressure to sterilize objects.

________________________________________

68. Compare and contrast antisepsis, disinfection, sanitization, and sterilization with regard to techniques used and level of microbial control achieved.

69. Discuss the purpose and level of control achieved by pasteurization. Compare the flash and batch methods.

70. Explain why boiling water is considered disinfection, not a sterilization method. List three materials commonly disinfected by boiling water.

71. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of irradiating food. Include examples of foods that are irradiated.

72. Discuss the technique of filtration as a microbial control method, why its utilized, and specific materials that are filtered.

73. For each item listed below, select a sterilant that you feel is the most suitable and effective for that item. Discuss why you selected each sterilant.
A) plastic Petri dishes to be used for nutrient media
B) glass tubes of bacterial cultures to be discarded
C) sterile milk
D) dozens of reusable glass pipets
E) bone tissue for grafting
F) room air
G) hospital mattresses
H) biopsy tissue for histology analysis
I) plastic respiratory therapy equipment and arthroscopes
J) vaccines

Chapter 11 Testbank Key

1. Microbiological contaminants are best described as:

A. unwanted microbes present on or in a substance.

B. any and all microbes present on or in a substance.

C. pathogenic microbes present on or in a substance.

D. vegetative microbes present on or in a substance.

E. None of the choices are correct.

Learning objective: 11.01 Summarize the major categories of microbial control and its purposes.
Learning objective: 11.06 Identify the targets of antimicrobial control agents, and explain what effects their modes of actions have.

2. Physical agents for controlling microbial growth include all of the following, except:

A. ultraviolet radiation.

B. boiling water.

C. HEPA filters.

D. pasteurization.

E. hydrogen peroxide.

Learning objective: 11.07 List the major types of physical agents used in controlling microbes.

3. Which of the following microbial forms have the highest resistance to physical and chemical controls?

A. naked viruses

B. protozoan cysts

C. fungal spores

D. bacterial endospores

E. yeast

Learning objective: 11.02 Evaluate the relative resistance of different groups of infectious agents.

4. The process that destroys or removes all microorganisms and microbial forms including bacterial endospores is:

A. disinfection.

B. sterilization.

C. antisepsis.

D. sanitization.

E. degermation.

Learning objective: 11.03 Define and differentiate among the major terms for microbial control, citing examples of each.

5. The process of using a cleansing technique to mechanically remove and reduce microorganisms and debris to safe levels is:

A. disinfection.

B. sterilization.

C. antisepsis.

D. sanitization.

E. degermation.

Learning objective: 11.03 Define and differentiate among the major terms for microbial control, citing examples of each.

6. The use of a physical or chemical process to destroy vegetative pathogens is:

A. disinfection.

B. sterilization.

C. antisepsis.

D. sanitization.

E. degermation.

Learning objective: 11.03 Define and differentiate among the major terms for microbial control, citing examples of each.

7. The use of chemical agents directly on exposed body surfaces to destroy or inhibit vegetative pathogens is:

A. disinfection.

B. sterilization.

C. antisepsis.

D. sanitization.

E. degermation.

Learning objective: 11.03 Define and differentiate among the major terms for microbial control, citing examples of each.

8. Scrubbing or immersing the skin in chemicals to reduce the numbers of microbes on the skin is:

A. disinfection.

B. sterilization.

C. antisepsis.

D. sanitization.

E. degermation.

Learning objective: 11.03 Define and differentiate among the major terms for microbial control, citing examples of each.

9. Which of the following types of control agents would be used to achieve sterility?

A. virucide

B. bactericide

C. germicide

D. sporicide

E. fungicide

Learning objective: 11.06 Identify the targets of antimicrobial control agents, and explain what effects their modes of actions have.
Learning objective: 11.07 List the major types of physical agents used in controlling microbes.

10. Which is correct regarding the rate of microbial death?

A. cells die at increasingly greater rates

B. only older cells die in a culture

C. cells in a culture die at a constant rate

D. upon contact with the control agent, all cells die at one time

E. cells become metabolically inactive but are never killed

Learning objective: 11.04 Identify the parameters of microbial death and describe several factors that influence the rate of death.

11. Sterilization is achieved by:

A. flash pasteurization.

B. hot water.

C. boiling water.

D. steam autoclave.

E. All of the choices are correct.

Learning objective: 11.06 Identify the targets of antimicrobial control agents, and explain what effects their modes of actions have.

12. Dry heat:

A. is less efficient than moist heat.

B. cannot sterilize.

C. includes tyndallization.

D. is used in devices called autoclaves.

E. will sterilize at 121 C for 15 minutes.

Learning objective: 11.08 Describe the basic effects of temperature on microbes.
Learning objective: 11.09 Define moist and dry heat and explain their modes of action and relative effectiveness.

13. Endospores can be killed by:

A. dry heat at 170 C for 2 hours.

B. incineration.

C. glutaldehyde for 3 or more hours.

D. ethylene oxide for 3 or more hours.

E. All of the choices are correct.

Learning objective: 11.08 Describe the basic effects of temperature on microbes.
Learning objective: 11.09 Define moist and dry heat and explain their modes of action and relative effectiveness.
Learning objective: 11.12 Describe some methods using dry heat and its chief applications.
Learning objective: 11.22 Describe the characteristics of oxidizing agents and aldehydes, and summarize their main applications.
Learning objective: 11.23 Differentiate among the sterilizing gases and aerosols, and describe how they are used.

14. The minimum sterilizing conditions in a steam autoclave are:

A. 121 C at 15 psi for 15 minutes.

B. 63 C for 30 minutes.

C. 160 C for 2 hours.

D. 71.6 C for 15 seconds.

E. 100 C for 30 minutes.

Learning objective: 11.08 Describe the basic effects of temperature on microbes.
Learning objective: 11.09 Define moist and dry heat and explain their modes of action and relative effectiveness.
Learning objective: 11.11 Describe several moist heat methods and their chief applications for sterilization and disinfection.

15. The shortest time required to kill all the microbes in a sample at a specified temperature is called the:

A. thermal death point (TDP).

B. thermal death time (TDT).

C. sporicidal time.

D. death phase point.

E. None of the choices are correct.

Learning objective: 11.10 Describe the characteristics of oxidizing agents and aldehydes, and summarize their main applications.

16. Disinfection of beverages, such as apple juice, milk, and wine, is optimally achieved by:

A. pasteurization.

B. chlorination.

C. moist heat autoclave.

D. filtration.

E. boiling water.

Learning objective: 11.11 Describe several moist heat methods and their chief applications for sterilization and disinfection.

17. Electrons are ejected from atoms in cells when organisms are exposed to:

A. dessication.

B. ultraviolet light.

C. ethyl alcohol.

D. hydrogen peroxide.

E. gamma rays and X rays.

Learning objective: 11.15 Differentiate between ionizing and nonionizing radiation in their modes of action.
Learning objective: 11.21 Identify the characteristics of phenolic compounds and alcohols, explain how they act, and evaluate their primary uses.

18. Which of the following items are typically irradiated in order to kill microbes?

A. ground beef and other meat and poultry

B. human tissues such as heart valves and skin

C. operating room air

D. surgical gloves

E. All of the choices are correct.

Learning objective: 11.14 Define radiation and assess the use of irradiation as a method of microbial control.

19. HEPA filters are used to remove microbes from:

A. air.

B. liquids.

C. human tissues.

D. medical instruments.

E. All of the choices are correct.

Learning objective: 11.07 List the major types of physical agents used in controlling microbes.
Learning objective: 11.17 Describe the concept behind sterilization by filtration, including examples of applications.

20. Which of the following does not contain a heavy metal?

A. tincture of iodine

B. Merthiolate

C. silver nitrate solutions

D. zinc

E. Mercurochrome

Learning objective: 11.24 Explain how detergents, soaps, and heavy metals can be employed in clinical, commercial, and household control.

21. All of the following are phenols or phenolics, except:

A. Lysol.

B. hexachlorophene.

C. triclosan.

D. cresols.

E. chloramines.

Learning objective: 11.14 Define radiation and assess the use of irradiation as a method of microbial control.

22. The easiest microbial forms to kill or inhibit are:

A. naked viruses.

B. vegetative bacteria and fungi.

C. endospores.

D. protozoan cysts.

E. Mycobacteria and Staphylococci.

Learning objective: 11.02 Evaluate the relative resistance of different groups of infectious agents.

23. Which control method would not be a suitable choice for killing Mycobacteria in a capped culture tube?

A. ultraviolet (germicidal) light

B. gamma rays

C. 121 C at 15 psi for 15 minutes

D. 160 C for 2 hours

E. All of the choices are correct.

Learning objective: 11.09 Define moist and dry heat and explain their modes of action and relative effectiveness.
Learning objective: 11.15 Differentiate between ionizing and nonionizing radiation in their modes of action.
Learning objective: 11.16 Summarize the primary uses of ionizing and nonionizing radiation in sterilization and disinfection.

24. All of the following pertain to hypochlorites, except:

A. release hypochlorous acid in solution.

B. cause denaturation of enzymes.

C. found in iodophors.

D. used to disinfect dairy, restaurant, and medical equipment.

E. found in common household bleach.

Learning objective: 11.20 Describe the types of halogens, their modes of action, and their clinical and commercial applications.

25. Which of the following is not used as an antiseptic?

A. iodophor

B. chlorhexidine

C. 3% hydrogen peroxide

D. Merthiolate

E. aqueous glutaraldehyde

Learning objective: 11.07 List the major types of physical agents used in controlling microbes.

26. Iodophors include:

A. chloramines.

B. Betadine.

C. tincture of iodine.

D. alcohols.

E. chlorhexidine.

Learning objective: 11.21 Identify the characteristics of phenolic compounds and alcohols, explain how they act, and evaluate their primary uses.

27. The compound that is an organic base containing chlorine and two phenolic rings and is used increasingly for handscrubbing, neonatal washes, wound degerming, and prepping surgical skin sites is:

A. carbolic acid.

B. chlorhexidine.

C. triclosan.

D. formalin.

E. quarternary ammonium compounds.

Learning objective: 11.20 Describe the types of halogens, their modes of action, and their clinical and commercial applications.

28. Alcohols:

A. denature proteins when in a 5095% alcohol-water solution.

B. disinfect items soaked in alcohol.

C. are skin degerming agents.

D. at 50% or higher concentrations dissolve cell membrane lipids.

E. All of the choices are correct.

Learning objective: 11.21 Identify the characteristics of phenolic compounds and alcohols, explain how they act, and evaluate their primary uses.

29. Which is mismatched?

A. sodium hypochlorite chlorine

B. iodophor iodine

C. benzalkonium chloride quaternary ammonium compound

D. Merthiolate silver

E. formalin formaldehyde

Learning objective: 11.22 Describe the characteristics of oxidizing agents and aldehydes, and summarize their main applications.

30. All of the following are correct about iodophors, except:

A. they are complexes of iodine and a neutral polymer.

B. this formulation allows a quick release of free iodine.

C. this formulation increases its penetration.

D. it is less prone to staining or irritating tissue.

E. a common iodophor is Betadine.

Learning objective: 11.20 Describe the types of halogens, their modes of action, and their clinical and commercial applications.

31. The sterilizing gas used in a special chamber is:

A. ethylene oxide.

B. iodophor.

C. glutaraldehyde.

D. formaldehyde.

E. chlorine dioxide.

Learning objective: 11.23 Differentiate among the sterilizing gases and aerosols, and describe how they are used.

32. The chemical agent that produces highly reactive hydroxyl-free radicals and also decomposes to O2 gas is:

A. Cidex.

B. cationic detergents.

C. hydrogen peroxide.

D. chlorhexidine.

E. iodophors.

Learning objective: 11.23 Differentiate among the sterilizing gases and aerosols, and describe how they are used.

33. All the following are correct about detergents, except:

A. they are polar molecules that act as surfactants.

B. the most effective ones are positively charged.

C. in low concentrations they are bacteriostatic.

D. they are ineffective against the tuberculosis bacteria.

E. they are active in the presence of organic matter.

Learning objective: 11.24 Explain how detergents, soaps, and heavy metals can be employed in clinical, commercial, and household control.

34. Ethylene oxide is:

A. sporicidal.

B. only effective with high heat.

C. the active agent in household bleach.

D. used as an antiseptic against anaerobes.

E. a halogen.

Learning objective: 11.23 Differentiate among the sterilizing gases and aerosols, and describe how they are used.

35. Which of the following is being used to replace hypochlorites in treating water because of the possibility of cancer-causing substances being produced?

A. hydrogen peroxide

B. chloramines

C. fluorine

D. quaternary ammonium compounds

E. sodium iodide

Learning objective: 11.20 Describe the types of halogens, their modes of action, and their clinical and commercial applications.

36. Which of the following chemicals is a disinfectant for soft contact lenses?

A. hydrogen peroxide

B. alcohol

C. hexachlorophene

D. glutaraldehyde

E. hypochorites

Learning objective: 11.18 Define the terms that are used to describe different methods of chemical control of microbes.

37. Which of the following is officially accepted as a sterilant and high-level disinfectant?

A. benzalkonium chloride

B. silver nitrate

C. glutaraldehyde

D. triclosan

E. cresol

Learning objective: 11.22 Describe the characteristics of oxidizing agents and aldehydes, and summarize their main applications.

38. All of the following are correct about food irradiation, except:

A. food is not made radioactive by the process.

B. the World Health Organization does not endorse this process.

C. it is approved in the U.S. for beef, chicken, and pork.

D. it can lead to a longer shelf life for the irradiated food.

E. no irradiated food can be sold without clear labeling.

Learning objective: 11.14 Define radiation and assess the use of irradiation as a method of microbial control.

39. All of the following are benefits of food irradiation, except:

A. it can kill bacterial pathogens on the food.

B. it can kill insects on the food.

C. it can inhibit the sprouting of white potatoes.

D. it can reduce the number of food-borne deaths each year.

E. it makes the food less nutritious.

Learning objective: 11.14 Define radiation and assess the use of irradiation as a method of microbial control.

40. All of the following are methods of disinfection or sterilization, except:

A. gamma radiation.

B. dry oven.

C. lyophilization.

D. triclosan.

E. ethanol.

Learning objective: 11.11 Describe several moist heat methods and their chief applications for sterilization and disinfection.

41. Historically, which of the following was instilled into the eyes of newborn infants to prevent gonococcal infections?

A. triclosan

B. formaldehyde

C. phenol

D. silver nitrate

E. mercurochrome

Learning objective: 11.19 Explain the desirable features of antimicrobial chemicals and what factors influence their effectiveness.

42. Which common hospital pathogen is able to grow abundantly in soap dishes?

A. Escherichia coli

B. Pseudomonas

C. Hemophilus influenzae

D. Mycobacteria tuberculosis

E. Salmonella

Learning objective: 11.19 Explain the desirable features of antimicrobial chemicals and what factors influence their effectiveness.
Learning objective: 11.24 Explain how detergents, soaps, and heavy metals can be employed in clinical, commercial, and household control.

43. All of the following are correct about the autoclave, except:

A. it is important not to overload the chamber.

B. it is effective for sterilizing powders, oils, and waxy substances.

C. the duration of the process depends on how full the chamber is.

D. it is the temperature that kills the microbes, not the pressure by itself.

E. sterilization is achieved when steam condenses against the objects in the chamber and raises their temperatures.

Learning objective: 11.11 Describe several moist heat methods and their chief applications for sterilization and disinfection.

44. Which of the following types of agents targets protein conformation?

A. Detergents

B. Ultraviolet light

C. Alcohol

D. Hydrogen peroxide

E. Crystal violet

Learning objective: 11.21 Identify the characteristics of phenolic compounds and alcohols, explain how they act, and evaluate their primary uses.

45. Using toilet bowl cleaner and nonionizing radiation to non-animate surfaces only removes or kills vegetative bacteria. The term that best describes this action is:

A. Sterilization

B. Disinfection

C. Antisepsis

D. Degermation

E. None of these are correct

Learning objective: 11.03 Define and differentiate among the major terms for microbial control, citing examples of each.

46. Which of these metals have antimicrobial properties associated with them?

A. Silver

B. Gold

C. Tin

D. Aluminum

E. Both A and B are correct.

Learning objective: 11.24 Explain how detergents, soaps, and heavy metals can be employed in clinical, commercial, and household control.

47. Commercial products containing which chemicals are more effective at killing microorganisms?

A. bacteriostatic

B. bacteriocidal

C. carbohydrate

D. lead

E. None of these are correct.

Learning objective: 11.04 Identify the parameters of microbial death and describe several factors that influence the rate of death.
Learning objective: 11.19 Explain the desirable features of antimicrobial chemicals and what factors influence their effectiveness.

48. Bacteriocidal agents are sterilants.

FALSE

Learning objective: 11.04 Identify the parameters of microbial death and describe several factors that influence the rate of death.

49. Bacteriostatic agents kill bacterial cells.

FALSE

Learning objective: 11.04 Identify the parameters of microbial death and describe several factors that influence the rate of death.

50. The presence of organic matter such as saliva and pus can interfere with the actions of disinfectants.

TRUE

Learning objective: 11.06 Identify the targets of antimicrobial control agents, and explain what effects their modes of actions have.

51. When a control agent targets the metabolic processes of microbial cells, active younger cells typically die more rapidly than older cells.

TRUE

Learning objective: 11.06 Identify the targets of antimicrobial control agents, and explain what effects their modes of actions have.

52. A microorganism that is not motile and has stopped metabolizing could be considered dead.

FALSE

Learning objective: 11.02 Evaluate the relative resistance of different groups of infectious agents.

53. Most microbial contaminants of food are killed at freezing temperatures.

FALSE

Learning objective: 11.13 Explain how cold temperatures and desiccation are used in microbial control.

54. Filtration is an effective method to remove microbes from air and liquids.

TRUE

Learning objective: 11.17 Describe the concept behind sterilization by filtration, including examples of applications.

55. Chlorine compounds remain stable and effective in the presence of excess organic matter.

FALSE

Learning objective: 11.20 Describe the types of halogens, their modes of action, and their clinical and commercial applications.

56. Aniline dyes like crystal violet have antimicrobial activity particularly against gram positive bacteria and some fungi.

TRUE

Learning objective: 11.18 Define the terms that are used to describe different methods of chemical control of microbes.

57. Alcohols are more effective at inactivating enveloped viruses than naked viruses.

TRUE

Learning objective: 11.21 Identify the characteristics of phenolic compounds and alcohols, explain how they act, and evaluate their primary uses.

58. Isopropyl alcohol wiped across a skin site can sterilize it.

FALSE

Learning objective: 11.21 Identify the characteristics of phenolic compounds and alcohols, explain how they act, and evaluate their primary uses.

59. Chlorine dioxide and ethylene oxide are gaseous sterilants.

TRUE

Learning objective: 11.23 Differentiate among the sterilizing gases and aerosols, and describe how they are used.

60. _____ heat is more rapidly effective and efficient compared to _____ heat.

Moist, dry

Learning objective: 11.09 Define moist and dry heat and explain their modes of action and relative effectiveness.

61. Vials of microorganisms that undergo the freeze-drying process called _____ will remain preserved and viable for years.

lypophilization

Learning objective: 11.13 Explain how cold temperatures and desiccation are used in microbial control.

62. A method for sterilizing milk, called _____ temperature treatment, uses 134 C for 1 to 2 seconds.

ultrahigh

Learning objective: 11.09 Define moist and dry heat and explain their modes of action and relative effectiveness.

63. _____ radiation excites atoms to a higher energy state within molecules such as DNA that then leads to the formation of pyrimidine dimers.

Nonionizing

Learning objective: 11.15 Differentiate between ionizing and nonionizing radiation in their modes of action.

64. Some microbial control agents are able to _____ cell proteins by breaking bonds that maintain the native state, three-dimensional configuration of the proteins.

denature

Learning objective: 11.21 Identify the characteristics of phenolic compounds and alcohols, explain how they act, and evaluate their primary uses.

65. _____ filters are widely used to provide a flow of sterile air to hospital rooms.

HEPA

Learning objective: 11.17 Describe the concept behind sterilization by filtration, including examples of applications.

66. _____ is a halogen used in gaseous and liquid form for large scale disinfection of drinking water and sewage.

Chlorine

Learning objective: 11.20 Describe the types of halogens, their modes of action, and their clinical and commercial applications.

67. __________ or steam sterilization is the process by which steam is heated under pressure to sterilize objects.

Autoclaving

Learning objective: 11.09 Define moist and dry heat and explain their modes of action and relative effectiveness.

68. Compare and contrast antisepsis, disinfection, sanitization, and sterilization with regard to techniques used and level of microbial control achieved.

Learning objective: 11.03 Define and differentiate among the major terms for microbial control, citing examples of each.

69. Discuss the purpose and level of control achieved by pasteurization. Compare the flash and batch methods.

Learning objective: 11.11 Describe several moist heat methods and their chief applications for sterilization and disinfection.

70. Explain why boiling water is considered disinfection, not a sterilization method. List three materials commonly disinfected by boiling water.

Learning objective: 11.03 Define and differentiate among the major terms for microbial control, citing examples of each.

71. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of irradiating food. Include examples of foods that are irradiated.

Learning objective: 11.14 Define radiation and assess the use of irradiation as a method of microbial control.

72. Discuss the technique of filtration as a microbial control method, why its utilized, and specific materials that are filtered.

Learning objective: 11.17 Describe the concept behind sterilization by filtration, including examples of applications.

73. For each item listed below, select a sterilant that you feel is the most suitable and effective for that item. Discuss why you selected each sterilant.
A) plastic Petri dishes to be used for nutrient media
B) glass tubes of bacterial cultures to be discarded
C) sterile milk
D) dozens of reusable glass pipets
E) bone tissue for grafting
F) room air
G) hospital mattresses
H) biopsy tissue for histology analysis
I) plastic respiratory therapy equipment and arthroscopes
J) vaccines

Learning objective: 11.05 Summarize what practices in microbial control influence the effectiveness of an antimicrobial agent.
Learning objective: 11.06 Identify the targets of antimicrobial control agents, and explain what effects their modes of actions have.
Learning objective: 11.07 List the major types of physical agents used in controlling microbes.

Chapter 11 Testbank Summary

Category # of Questions
Learning objective: 11.01 Summarize the major categories of microbial control and its purposes. 1
Learning objective: 11.02 Evaluate the relative resistance of different groups of infectious agents. 3
Learning objective: 11.03 Define and differentiate among the major terms for microbial control, citing examples of each. 8
Learning objective: 11.04 Identify the parameters of microbial death and describe several factors that influence the rate of death. 4
Learning objective: 11.05 Summarize what practices in microbial control influence the effectiveness of an antimicrobial agent. 1
Learning objective: 11.06 Identify the targets of antimicrobial control agents, and explain what effects their modes of actions have. 6
Learning objective: 11.07 List the major types of physical agents used in controlling microbes. 5
Learning objective: 11.08 Describe the basic effects of temperature on microbes. 3
Learning objective: 11.09 Define moist and dry heat and explain their modes of action and relative effectiveness. 7
Learning objective: 11.10 Describe the characteristics of oxidizing agents and aldehydes, and summarize their main applications. 1
Learning objective: 11.11 Describe several moist heat methods and their chief applications for sterilization and disinfection. 5
Learning objective: 11.12 Describe some methods using dry heat and its chief applications. 1
Learning objective: 11.13 Explain how cold temperatures and desiccation are used in microbial control. 2
Learning objective: 11.14 Define radiation and assess the use of irradiation as a method of microbial control. 5
Learning objective: 11.15 Differentiate between ionizing and nonionizing radiation in their modes of action. 3
Learning objective: 11.16 Summarize the primary uses of ionizing and nonionizing radiation in sterilization and disinfection. 1
Learning objective: 11.17 Describe the concept behind sterilization by filtration, including examples of applications. 4
Learning objective: 11.18 Define the terms that are used to describe different methods of chemical control of microbes. 2
Learning objective: 11.19 Explain the desirable features of antimicrobial chemicals and what factors influence their effectiveness. 3
Learning objective: 11.20 Describe the types of halogens, their modes of action, and their clinical and commercial applications. 6
Learning objective: 11.21 Identify the characteristics of phenolic compounds and alcohols, explain how they act, and evaluate their primary uses. 7
Learning objective: 11.22 Describe the characteristics of oxidizing agents and aldehydes, and summarize their main applications. 3
Learning objective: 11.23 Differentiate among the sterilizing gases and aerosols, and describe how they are used. 5
Learning objective: 11.24 Explain how detergents, soaps, and heavy metals can be employed in clinical, commercial, and household control. 4

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