Foundations of Financial Markets and Institutions Frank J. Fabozzi 4th,Edition Test Bank

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Foundations of Financial Markets and Institutions Frank J. Fabozzi 4th,Edition Test Bank

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Foundations of Financial Markets and Institutions, 4e (Fabozzi/Modigliani/Jones)
Chapter 1 Introduction

Multiple Choice Questions

1 Financial Assets

1) An asset is a possession that has value in an exchange and can be classified as ________.
A) financial or intangible.
B) financial or variable.
C) tangible or intangible.
D) fixed or variable.
Answer: C
Diff: 2
Topic: 1.1 Financial Assets
Objective: 1.5: the various ways to classify financial markets

2) The financial asset is referred to as a ________ if the claim is a fixed dollar.
A) debt instrument.
B) common equity instrument.
C) derivative instrument.
D) preferred equity instrument.
Answer: A
Diff: 2
Topic: 1.1 Financial Assets
Objective: 1.4: the distinction between debt instruments and equity instruments

3) A basic economic principle is that the price of any financial asset ________ the present value of its expected cash flow, even if the cash flow is not known with certainty.
A) is greater than
B) is equal to
C) is less than
D) is equal to or greater than
Answer: B
Diff: 2
Topic: 1.1 Financial Assets
Objective: 1.1: what a financial asset is and the principal economic functions of financial assets

4) A(n) ________ such as plant or equipment purchased by a business entity shares at least one characteristic with a financial asset: Both are expected to generate future cash flow for their owner.
A) tangible asset
B) intangible asset
C) balance sheet asset
D) cash asset
Answer: A
Diff: 1
Topic: 1.1 Financial Assets
Objective: 1.2: the distinction between financial assets and tangible assets

5) Financial assets have two principal economic functions. Which of the below is ONE of these?
A) A principal economic function is to transfer funds from those who have surplus funds to borrow to those who need funds to invest in intangible assets.
B) A principal economic function is to transfer funds in such a way as to redistribute the avoidable risk associated with the cash flow generated by intangible assets among those seeking and those providing the funds.
C) A principal economic function is to transfer funds in such a way as to redistribute the unavoidable risk associated with the cash flow generated by tangible assets among those seeking and those providing the funds.
D) A principal economic function is to transfer funds from those who have surplus funds to invest to those who need funds to invest in intangible assets.
Answer: C
Comment: Financial assets have two principal economic functions.
(1) The first is to transfer funds from those who have surplus funds to invest to those who need funds to invest in tangible assets.
(2) The second economic function is to transfer funds in such a way as to redistribute the unavoidable risk associated with the cash flow generated by tangible assets among those seeking and those providing the funds.
Diff: 3
Topic: 1.1 Financial Assets
Objective: 1.1: what a financial asset is and the principal economic functions of financial assets

6) A principal economic function to transfer funds from those who have ________ to invest to those who need funds to invest in ________.
A) deficit funds; tangible assets.
B) surplus funds; intangible assets.
C) deficit funds; intangible assets.
D) surplus funds; tangible assets.
Answer: D
Comment: Financial assets have two principal economic functions.
(1) The first is to transfer funds from those who have surplus funds to invest to those who need funds to invest in tangible assets.
(2) The second economic function is to transfer funds in such a way as to redistribute the unavoidable risk associated with the cash flow generated by tangible assets among those seeking and those providing the funds.
Diff: 2
Topic: 1.1 Financial Assets
Objective: 1.1: what a financial asset is and the principal economic functions of financial assets

2 Financial Markets

1) Financial markets provide three economic functions. Which of the below is NOT one of these?
A) The interactions of buyers and sellers in a financial market determine the price of the traded asset.
B) Financial markets provide a mechanism for an investor to sell a financial asset.
C) Financial markets increases the cost of transacting.
D) The interactions of buyers and sellers in a financial market determine the required return on a financial asset.
Answer: C
Comment: Financial markets provide three economic functions.
First, the interactions of buyers and sellers in a financial market determine the price of the traded asset. Or, equivalently, they determine the required return on a financial asset. As the nducement for firms to acquire funds depends on the required return that investors demand, it is this feature of financial markets that signals how the funds in the economy should be allocated among financial assets. This is called the price discovery process.
Second, financial markets provide a mechanism for an investor to sell a financial asset. Because of this feature, it is said that a financial market offers liquidity, an attractive feature when circumstances either force or motivate an investor to sell. If there were not liquidity, the owner would be forced to hold a debt instrument until it matures and an equity instrument until the company is either voluntarily or involuntarily liquidated.While all financial markets provide some form of liquidity, the degree of liquidity is one of the factors that characterize different markets.
The third economic function of a financial market is that it reduces the cost of transacting. There are two costs associated with transacting: search costs and information costs.
Diff: 3
Topic: 1.2 Financial Markets
Objective: 1.3: what a financial market is and the principal economic functions it performs

2) The shifting of the financial markets from dominance by retail investors to institutional investors is referred to as the ________ of financial markets.
A) globalization
B) institutionalization
C) securitization
D) diversification
Answer: B
Diff: 2
Topic: 1.2 Financial Markets
Objective: 1.5: the various ways to classify financial markets

3) Financial markets can be categorized as those dealing with newly issued financial claims that are called the ________, and those for exchanging financial claims previously issued that are called the ________.
A) secondary market; primary market.
B) financial market; secondary market.
C) OTC market; NYSE/AMEX market.
D) primary market; secondary market.
Answer: D
Diff: 2
Topic: 1.2 Financial Markets
Objective: 1.6: the differences between the primary and secondary markets

4) Business entities include nonfinancial and financial enterprises. ________ manufacture products such as cars and computers and/or provide nonfinancial services such as transportation and utilities.
A) Financial enterprises
B) Nonfinancial enterprises
C) Both financial and nonfinancial enterprises
D) None of these
Answer: B
Diff: 1
Topic: 1.2 Financial Markets
Objective: 1.7: the participants in financial markets

3 Globalization of Financial Markets

1) Which of the below is NOT a factor that has led to the integration of financial markets?
A) A factor is liberalization of markets and the activities of market participants in key financial centers of the world.
B) A factor is deregulation of markets and the activities of market participants in key financial centers of the world.
C) A factor is technological advances for monitoring world markets, executing orders, and analyzing financial opportunities.
D) A factor is decreased institutionalization of financial markets.
Answer: D
Comment: The factors that have led to the integration of financial markets are (1) deregulation or liberalization of markets and the activities of market participants in key financial centers of the world; (2) technological advances for monitoring world markets, executing orders, and analyzing financial opportunities; and (3) increased institutionalization of financial markets.
Diff: 3
Topic: 1.3 Globalization of Financial Markets
Objective: 1.8: reasons for the globalization of financial markets

2) A factor leading to the integration of financial markets is ________.
A) decreased institutionalization of financial markets.
B) increased monitoring of markets.
C) technological advances for monitoring domestic markets, executing orders, and analyzing financial opportunities.
D) technological advances for monitoring world markets, executing orders, and disregarding financial opportunities.
Answer: D
Comment: The factors that have led to the integration of financial markets are (1) deregulation or liberalization of markets and the activities of market participants in key financial centers of the world; (2) technological advances for monitoring world markets, executing orders, and analyzing financial opportunities; and (3) increased institutionalization of financial markets.
Diff: 2
Topic: 1.3 Globalization of Financial Markets
Objective: 1.8: reasons for the globalization of financial markets

3) From the perspective of a given country, financial markets can be classified as either internal or external. The internal market is composed of two parts: the domestic market and the foreign market. The domestic market is ________.
A) where the securities of issuers not domiciled in the country are sold and traded.
B) where issuers domiciled in a country issue securities and where those securities are subsequently traded.
C) where securities are offered simultaneously to investors in a number of countries.
D) where issuers domiciled in a country issue securities and where those securities are NOT subsequently traded.
Answer: B
Diff: 2
Topic: 1.3 Globalization of Financial Markets
Objective: 1.10: the distinction between a domestic market, a foreign market, and the Euromarket

4) A reason for a corporation using ________ is a desire by issuers to diversify their source of funding so as to reduce reliance on domestic investors.
A) Euromarkets
B) domestic equity markets
C) domestic government markets
D) None of these
Answer: A
Diff: 1
Topic: 1.3 Globalization of Financial Markets
Objective: 1.11: the reasons why entities use foreign markets and Euromarkets

4 Derivative Markets

1) The two basic types of derivative instruments are ________ and ________.
A) insurance contracts; options contracts
B) futures/forward contracts; indentures
C) futures/forward contracts; legal contracts
D) futures/forward contracts; options contracts
Answer: D
Diff: 2
Topic: 1.4 Derivative Markets
Objective: 1.12: what a derivative instrument is and the two basic types of derivative instruments

2) Derivative instruments derive their value from ________.
A) market conditions at time of delivery.
B) market conditions at time of issue.
C) the underlying instruments to which they relate.
D) variations in the future claims conveyed from spot markets.
Answer: C
Diff: 2
Topic: 1.4 Derivative Markets
Objective: 1.13: the role of derivative instruments

3) Derivative contracts provide ________.
A) issuers and investors an expensive but efficient way of controlling some major risks.
B) issuers and investors an inexpensive way of controlling some major risks.
C) issuers and investors an inexpensive but inefficient way of controlling all major risks.
D) issuers and investors an expensive way of controlling some minor risks.
Answer: B
Diff: 1
Topic: 1.4 Derivative Markets
Objective: 1.13: the role of derivative instruments

4) Derivative markets may have at least three advantages over the corresponding cash (spot) market for the same financial asset. Which of the below is ONE of these advantages?
A) Transactions typically can be accomplished faster in the derivatives market.
B) It will always cost more to execute a transaction in the derivatives market in order to adjust the risk exposure of an investors portfolio to new economic information than it would cost to make that adjustment in the cash market.
C) All derivative markets can absorb a greater dollar transaction without an adverse effect on the price of the derivative instrument; that is, the derivative market may be more liquid than the cash market.
D) Some derivative markets can absorb a greater dollar transaction but with an adverse effect on the price of the derivative instrument; that is, the derivative market may be more liquid than the cash market.
Answer: A
Comment: Derivative markets may have at least three advantages over the corresponding cash (spot) market for the same financial asset.
First, depending on the derivative instrument, it may cost less to execute a transaction in the derivatives market in order to adjust the risk exposure of an investors portfolio to new economic information than it would cost to make that adjustment in the cash market.
Second, transactions typically can be accomplished faster in the derivatives market.
Third, some derivative markets can absorb a greater dollar transaction without an adverse effect on the price of the derivative instrument; that is, the derivative market may be more liquid than the cash market.
Diff: 3
Topic: 1.4 Derivative Markets
Objective: 1.13: the role of derivative instruments

5 The Role of the Government in Financial Markets

1) Which of the following statements is FALSE?
A) Because of the prominent role played by financial markets in economies, governments have long deemed it necessary to regulate certain aspects of these markets.
B) In their regulatory capacities, governments have had little influence on the development and evolution of financial markets and institutions.
C) It is important to realize that governments, markets, and institutions tend to behave interactively and to affect one anothers actions in certain ways.
D) A sense of how the government can affect a market and its participants is important to an understanding of the numerous markets and securities.
Answer: B
Comment: In their regulatory capacities, governments have greatly influenced the development and evolution of financial markets and institutions.
Diff: 2
Topic: 1.5 The Role of the Government in Financial Markets
Objective: 1.15 the different ways that governments regulate markets, including disclosure regulation, financial activity regulation, financial institution regulation, regulation of foreign firm participation, and regulation of the monetary system

2) Which of the below statements is TRUE?
A) Because of differences in culture and history, different countries regulate financial markets and financial institutions in varying ways, emphasizing some forms of regulation more than others.
B) The standard explanation or justification for governmental regulation of a market is that the market, left to itself, will produce its particular goods or services in an efficient manner and at the lowest possible cost.
C) Governments in most developed economies have created elaborate systems of regulation for financial markets, in part because the markets themselves are simple and in part because financial markets are unimportant to the general economies in which they operate.
D) Financial activity regulation are free of rules about traders of securities and trading on financial markets.
Answer: A
Comment: The standard explanation or justification for governmental regulation of a market is that the market, left to itself, will not produce its particular goods or services in an efficient manner and at the lowest possible cost.
Governments in most developed economies have created elaborate systems of regulation for financial markets, in part because the markets themselves are complex and in part because financial markets are so important to the general economies in which they operate.
Financial activity regulation consists of rules about traders of securities and trading on
financial markets.
Diff: 3
Topic: 1.5 The Role of the Government in Financial Markets
Objective: 1.14: the typical justification for governmental regulation of markets

3) The regulatory structure in the United States is largely the result of ________.
A) the first IPO bubble in the 20th century.
B) the boom in the stock market experienced in the 1990s.
C) bull markets that have occurred at various times.
D) financial crises that have occurred at various times.
Answer: D
Diff: 1
Topic: 1.5 The Role of the Government in Financial Markets
Objective: 1.16 the U.S. Department of the Treasurys proposed plan for regulatory reform

4) The proposal by the U.S. Department of the Treasury, popularly referred to as the Blueprint for Regulatory Reform or simply Blueprint, would replace the prevailing complex array of regulators with a regulatory system based on functions. More specifically, there would be three regulators. Which of the below is NOT one of these?
A) market stability regulator
B) prudential regulator
C) uninhibited regulator
D) business conduct regulator
Answer: C
Diff: 2
Topic: 1.5 The Role of the Government in Financial Markets
Objective: 1.15 the different ways that governments regulate markets, including disclosure regulation, financial activity regulation, financial institution regulation, regulation of foreign firm participation, and regulation of the monetary system

6 Financial Innovation

1) ________ increase the liquidity of markets and the availability of funds by attracting new investors and offering new opportunities for borrowers.
A) Market-broadening instruments
B) Market-management instruments
C) Risk-management instruments
D) Arbitraging-broadening instruments
Answer: A
Comment: The Economic Council of Canada classifies financial innovations into the following three broad categories:
(1) market-broadening instruments, which increase the liquidity of markets and the availability of funds by attracting new investors and offering new opportunities for borrowers
(2) risk-management instruments, which reallocate financial risks to those who are less averse to them, or who offsetting exposure and thus are presumably better able to should them
(3) arbitraging instruments and processes, which enable investors and borrowers to take advantage of differences in costs and returns between markets, and which reflect differences in the perception of risks, as well as in information, taxation, and regulations
Diff: 2
Topic: 1.6 Financial Innovation
Objective: 1.17 the primary reasons for financial innovation

2) The Economic Council of Canada classifies financial innovations into three broad categories. Which of the below is NOT one of these?
A) market-broadening instruments
B) risk-management instruments
C) risk-broadening instruments
D) arbitraging instruments and processes
Answer: C
Comment: The Economic Council of Canada classifies financial innovations into the following three broad categories:
(1) market-broadening instruments, which increase the liquidity of markets and the availability of funds by attracting new investors and offering new opportunities for borrowers
(2) risk-management instruments, which reallocate financial risks to those who are less averse to them, or who offsetting exposure and thus are presumably better able to should them
(3) arbitraging instruments and processes, which enable investors and borrowers to take advantage of differences in costs and returns between markets, and which reflect differences in the perception of risks, as well as in information, taxation, and regulations
Diff: 2
Topic: 1.6 Financial Innovation
Objective: 1.17 the primary reasons for financial innovation

3) There are two extreme views of financial innovation. Which of the below is ONE of these?
A) Some hold that the essence of innovation is the introduction of financial assets that are less efficient for redistributing risks among market participants.
B) There are some who believe that the minor impetus for innovation has been the endeavor to circumvent regulations and find loopholes in tax rules.
C) Some hold that the essence of innovation is the introduction of financial instruments that are more efficient for redistributing risks among market participants.
D) None of these
Answer: C
Comment: There are two extreme views of financial innovation. There are some who believe that the major impetus for innovation has been the endeavor to circumvent (or arbitrage) regulations and find loopholes in tax rules. At the other extreme, some hold that the essence of innovation is the introduction of financial instruments that are more efficient for redistributing risks among market participants.
Diff: 2
Topic: 1.6 Financial Innovation
Objective: 1.17 the primary reasons for financial innovation

4) An ultimate and important cause of financial innovation does not involve ________.
A) incentives to follow existing regulation and and tax laws.
B) increased volatility of interest rates, inflation, equity prices, and exchange rates.
C) changing global patterns of financial wealth.
D) financial intermediary competition.
Answer: A
Comment: It would appear that many of the innovations that have passed the test of time and have not disappeared have been innovations that provided more efficient mechanisms for redistributing risk. Other innovations may just represent a more efficient way of doing things. Indeed, if we consider the ultimate causes of financial innovation, the following emerge as the most important:
1. Increased volatility of interest rates, inflation, equity prices, and exchange rates.
2. Advances in computer and telecommunication technologies.
3. Greater sophistication and educational training among professional market participants.
4. Financial intermediary competition.
5. Incentives to get around existing regulation and and tax laws.
6. Changing global patterns of financial wealth.
Diff: 2
Topic: 1.6 Financial Innovation
Objective: 1.17 the primary reasons for financial innovation

True/False Questions

1 Financial Assets

1) An equity instrument (also called a residual claim) obligates the issuer of the financial asset to pay the holder an amount based on earnings, if any, after holders of debt instruments have been paid.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 1
Topic: 1.1 Financial Assets
Objective: 1.4: the distinction between debt instruments and equity instruments

2) A intangible asset is one whose value depends on particular physical properties such as buildings, land, or machinery. Tangible assets, by contrast, represent legal claims to some future benefit.
Answer: FALSE
Comment: A tangible asset is one whose value depends on particular physical properties such as buildings, land, or machinery. Intangible assets, by contrast, represent legal claims to some future benefit.
Diff: 1
Topic: 1.1 Financial Assets
Objective: 1.2: the distinction between financial assets and tangible assets

3) Financial assets have two principal economic functions. One function is to transfer funds from those who have surplus funds to invest to those who need funds to invest in tangible assets.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 1
Topic: 1.1 Financial Assets
Objective: 1.1: what a financial asset is and the principal economic functions of financial assets

2 Financial Markets

1) The three economic functions of financial markets are: to improve the price discovery process; to lessen liquidity; and, to reduce the cost of transacting.
Answer: FALSE
Comment: The three economic functions of financial markets are: to improve the price discovery process; to enhance liquidity; and to reduce the cost of transacting.
Diff: 2
Topic: 1.2 Financial Markets
Objective: 1.3: what a financial market is and the principal economic functions it performs

2) The market participants include households, business entities, national governments, national government agencies, state and local governments, supranationals, and regulators.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 1
Topic: 1.2 Financial Markets
Objective: 1.3: what a financial market is and the principal economic functions it performs

3) One economic function of a financial market is to reduce the cost of transacting. There are two costs associated with transacting: search costs and information costs.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 1
Topic: 1.2 Financial Markets
Objective: 1.3: what a financial market is and the principal economic functions it performs

3 Globalization of Financial Markets

1) Globalization means the integration of financial markets throughout the world into an international financial market.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 1
Topic: 1.3 Globalization of Financial Markets
Objective: 1.8: reasons for the globalization of financial markets

2) The domestic market in any country is the market where the securities of issuers not domiciled in the
country are sold and traded.
Answer: FALSE
Comment: The foreign market in any country is the market where the securities of issuers not domiciled in the country are sold and traded.
Diff: 1
Topic: 1.3 Globalization of Financial Markets
Objective: 1.10: the distinction between a domestic market, a foreign market, and the Euromarket

3) Global competition has forced governments to exercise control various aspects of their financial markets so that their financial enterprises can compete effectively around the world.
Answer: FALSE
Comment: Global competition has forced governments to deregulate (or liberalize) various aspects of their financial markets so that their financial enterprises can compete effectively around the world.
Diff: 1
Topic: 1.3 Globalization of Financial Markets
Objective: 1.8: reasons for the globalization of financial markets

4 Derivative Markets

1) Derivative instruments play a critical role in global financial markets.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 1
Topic: 1.4 Derivative Markets
Objective: 1.13: the role of derivative instruments

2) IBM pension fund owns a portfolio consisting of the common stock of a large number of companies. Suppose the pension fund knows that two months from now it must sell stock in its portfolio to pay beneficiaries $20 million. The risk that IBM pension fund faces is that two months from now when the stocks are sold, the price of most or all stocks may be higher than they are today.
Answer: FALSE
Comment: IBM pension fund owns a portfolio consisting of the common stock of a large number of companies. Suppose the pension fund knows that two months from now it must sell stock in its portfolio to pay beneficiaries $20 million. The risk that IBM pension fund faces is that two months from now when the stocks are sold, the price of most or all stocks may be lower than they are today.
Diff: 2
Topic: 1.4 Derivative Markets
Objective: 1.13: the role of derivative instruments

3) When the option grants the owner of the option the right to buy a financial asset from the other party, the option is called a put option.
Answer: FALSE
Comment: When the option grants the owner of the option the right to buy a financial asset from the other party, the option is called a call option.
Diff: 2
Topic: 1.4 Derivative Markets
Objective: 1.13: the role of derivative instruments

5 The Role of the Government in Financial Markets

1) The market stability regulator would take on the traditional role of the Federal Reserve by giving it the responsibility and authority to ensure overall financial market stability.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 1
Topic: 1.5 The Role of the Government in Financial Markets
Objective: 1.15 the different ways that governments regulate markets, including disclosure regulation, financial activity regulation, financial institution regulation, regulation of foreign firm participation, and regulation of the monetary system

2) Blueprint regulation is the form of regulation that requires issuers of securities to make public a large amount of financial information to actual and potential investors.
Answer: FALSE
Comment: Disclosure regulation is the form of regulation that requires issuers of securities to make public a large amount of financial information to actual and potential investors.
Diff: 1
Topic: 1.5 The Role of the Government in Financial Markets
Objective: 1.16 the U.S. Department of the Treasurys proposed plan for regulatory reform

3) Financial activity regulation is the form of regulation that requires issuers of securities to make public a large amount of financial information to actual and potential investors.
Answer: FALSE
Comment: Disclosure regulation is the form of regulation that requires issuers of securities to make public a large amount of financial information to actual and potential investors.
NOTE. Financial activity regulation consists of rules about traders of securities and trading on
financial markets.
Diff: 1
Topic: 1.5 The Role of the Government in Financial Markets
Objective: 1.14: the typical justification for governmental regulation of markets

6 Financial Innovation

1) No one holds the extreme view that the essence of innovation is the introduction of financial instruments that are more efficient for redistributing risks among market participants.
Answer: FALSE
Comment: Some hold the extreme view that the essence of innovation is the introduction of financial instruments that are more efficient for redistributing risks among market participants.
Diff: 1
Topic: 1.6 Financial Innovation
Objective: 1.17 the primary reasons for financial innovation

2) Liquidity-generating innovations can increase the liquidity of the market, allow borrowers to draw upon new sources of funds, and permit market participants to circumvent capital constraints imposed by regulations.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2
Topic: 1.6 Financial Innovation
Objective: 1.17 the primary reasons for financial innovation
Essay Questions

1 Financial Assets

1) What are the two principal economic functions of financial assets? Give an illustration.
Answer: Financial assets have two principal economic functions. The first is to transfer funds from those who have surplus funds to invest to those who need funds to invest in tangible assets. The second economic function is to transfer funds in such a way as to redistribute the unavoidable risk associated with the cash flow generated by tangible assets among those seeking and those providing the funds. However, as we will see, the claims held by the final wealth holders are generally different from the liabilities issued by the final demanders of funds because of the activity of financial intermediaries that seek to transform the final liabilities into the financial assets that the public prefers.
We can illustrate these two economic functions with an example similar to one the below examples.
1. Joe Grasso has obtained a license to manufacture Rugrat wristwatches. Joe estimates that he will need $1 million to purchase plant and equipment to manufacture the watches. Unfortunately, he has only $200,000 to invest, and that is his life savings, which he does not want to invest, even though he has confidence that there will be a receptive market for the watches.
2. Susan Carlson has recently inherited $730,000. She plans to spend $30,000 on some jewelry, furniture, and a few cruises, and to invest the balance, $700,000.
3. Larry Stein, an up-and-coming attorney with a major New York law firm, has received a bonus check that after taxes has netted him $250,000. He plans to spend $50,000 on a BMW and invest the balance, $200,000.
Diff: 3
Topic: 1.1 Financial Assets
Objective: 1.1: what a financial asset is and the principal economic functions of financial assets

2 Financial Markets

1) The third economic function of a financial market is that it reduces the cost of transacting. Name and describe the two costs associated with this economic function.
Answer: There are two costs associated with reducing the cost of transacting: search costs and information costs.
Search costs represent explicit costs, such as the money spent to advertise ones intention to sell or purchase a financial asset, and implicit costs, such as the value of time spent in locating a counterparty. The presence of some form of organized financial market reduces search costs.
Information costs are costs associated with assessing the investment merits of a financial asset, that is, the amount and the likelihood of the cash flow expected to be generated. In an efficient market, prices reflect the aggregate information collected by all market participants.
Diff: 3
Topic: 1.2 Financial Markets
Objective: 1.3: what a financial market is and the principal economic functions it performs

2) Name and describe some of the ways to classify financial markets.
Answer: There are many ways to classify financial markets.
(a) One way is by the nature or type of the financial claim, such as debt markets and equity markets.
(b) Another is by the maturity of the claim, such as short-term and long-term. For example, there is a financial market for short-term debt instruments, called the money market, and one for longer-maturity financial assets, called the capital market.
(c) Financial markets can also be categorized as those dealing with financial claims that are newly issued, called the primary market, and those for exchanging financial claims previously issued, called the secondary market or the market for seasoned instruments.
NOTE: Other classifications are:
Markets can be classified as either cash or derivative instruments markets and also by their organizational structure such as an auction market, an over-the-counter market, or an intermediated market.
Diff: 3
Topic: 1.2 Financial Markets
Objective: 1.5: the various ways to classify financial markets

3 Globalization of Financial Markets

1) Describe at least two reasons why a corporation may seek to raise funds outside its domestic market.
Answer: There are several reasons why a corporation may seek to raise funds outside its domestic market.
First, in some countries, large corporations seeking to raise a substantial amount of funds may have no choice but to obtain financing in either the foreign market sector of another country or the Euromarket. This is because the fund-seeking corporations domestic market is not fully developed and cannot satisfy its demand for funds on globally competitive terms. Governments of developing countries have used these markets in seeking funds for government-owned corporations that they are privatizing.
The second reason is that there may be opportunities for obtaining a lower cost of funding than is available in the domestic market, although with the integration of capital markets throughout the world, such opportunities have diminished. Nevertheless, there are still some imperfections in capital markets throughout the world that may permit a reduced cost of funds. The causes of these imperfections are discussed throughout the book.
A third reason for using foreign or Euromarkets is a desire by issuers to diversify their source of funding so as to reduce reliance on domestic investors.
Diff: 3
Topic: 1.3 Globalization of Financial Markets
Objective: 1.11: the reasons why entities use foreign markets and Euromarkets

4 Derivative Markets

1) The two basic types of derivative instruments are futures/forward contracts and options contracts. Describe these two basic types.
Answer: A futures or forward contract is an agreement whereby two parties agree to transact with respect to some financial asset at a predetermined price at a specified future date. One party agrees to buy the financial asset; the other agrees to sell the financial asset. Both parties are obligated to perform, and neither party charges a fee.
An options contract gives the owner of the contract the right, but not the obligation, to buy (or sell) a financial asset at a specified price from (or to) another party. The buyer of the contract must pay the seller a fee, which is called the option price. When the option grants the owner of the option the right to buy a financial asset from the other party, the option is called a call option. If, instead, the option grants the owner of the option the right to sell a financial asset to the other party, the option is called a put option.
Diff: 2
Topic: 1.4 Derivative Markets
Objective: 1.12: what a derivative instrument is and the two basic types of derivative instruments

5 The Role of the Government in Financial Markets

1) Governments in most developed economies have created elaborate systems of regulation for financial markets, in part because the markets themselves are complex and in part because financial markets are so important to the general economies in which they operate. The numerous rules and regulations are designed to serve several purposes. These rules and regulations fall into the various categories. Provide at least three of these categories.
Answer: The numerous rules and regulations for financial markets are designed to serve several purposes, which fall into the following categories:
1. To prevent issuers of securities from defrauding investors by concealing relevant information.
2. To promote competition and fairness in the trading of financial securities.
3. To promote the stability of financial institutions.
4. To restrict the activities of foreign concerns in domestic markets and institutions.
5. To control the level of economic activity.
Diff: 3
Topic: 1.5 The Role of the Government in Financial Markets
Objective: 1.15 the different ways that governments regulate markets, including disclosure regulation, financial activity regulation, financial institution regulation, regulation of foreign firm participation, and regulation of the monetary system

6 Financial Innovation

1) Professor Stephen Ross suggests two classes of financial innovation. List these two classes.
Answer: Professor Stephen Ross suggests these two classes:
(1) new financial products (financial assets and derivative instruments) better suited to the circumstances of the time (for example, to inflation) and to the markets in which they trade, and
(2) strategies that primarily use these financial products.
Diff: 2
Topic: 1.6 Financial Innovation
Objective: 1.17 the primary reasons for financial innovation

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