Fundamentals Of Anatomy And Physiology 9th Edition By Frederic-H. -Test Bank

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Fundamentals Of Anatomy And Physiology 9th Edition By Frederic-H. -Test Bank

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Fundamentals Of Anatomy And Physiology 9th Edition By Frederic-H. -Test Bank

Fundamentals of Anatomy and Physiology, 9e (Martini)

Chapter 5  The Integumentary System

 

Multiple-Choice Questions

 

1) Each of the following is a function of the integumentary system, except

  1. A) protection of underlying tissue.
  2. B) excretion of salts and wastes.
  3. C) maintenance of body temperature.
  4. D) synthesis of vitamin C.
  5. E) provision of sensation.

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  5-1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

2) The two components of the integumentary system are the

  1. A) epidermis and dermis.
  2. B) cutaneous membrane and hypodermis.
  3. C) cutaneous membrane and accessory structures.
  4. D) integument and hypodermis.
  5. E) epidermis and superficial fascia.

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  5-1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

3) The type of cells that form the strata in the epidermis are

  1. A) adipocytes.
  2. B) keratinocytes.
  3. C) fibroblasts.
  4. D) melanocytes.
  5. E) dendritic cells.

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  5-1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

4) The tough horny superficial layer of the epidermis is known as the

  1. A) stratum corneum.
  2. B) stratum lucidum.
  3. C) stratum germinativum.
  4. D) stratum granulosum.
  5. E) stratum spinosum.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  5-1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

5) Large quantities of keratin are found in the epidermal layer called the

  1. A) stratum corneum.
  2. B) stratum lucidum.
  3. C) stratum germinativum.
  4. D) stratum granulosum.
  5. E) stratum spinosum.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  5-1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

6) Water loss due to evaporation of fluid that has penetrated through the skin is termed ________ perspiration.

  1. A) sensible
  2. B) insensible
  3. C) latent
  4. D) active
  5. E) inactive

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  5-1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

7) The layer of the epidermis that contains abundant desmosomes is the

  1. A) stratum corneum.
  2. B) stratum lucidum.
  3. C) stratum germinativum.
  4. D) stratum granulosum.
  5. E) stratum spinosum.

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  5-1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

8) The layer of the skin that provides a barrier against bacteria as well as chemical and mechanical injuries is the

  1. A) dermis.
  2. B) subcutaneous layer.
  3. C) epidermis.
  4. D) stratum corneum.
  5. E) sebum layer.

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  5-1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

9) Characteristics of the epidermis include:

  1. A) multilayered
  2. B) flexible
  3. C) contains desmosomes
  4. D) serves as UV radiation protection
  5. E) All of the answers are correct.

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  5-1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

10) All of the following are true of epidermal ridges, except that they

  1. A) extend into the dermis.
  2. B) contain increased numbers of free nerve endings.
  3. C) cause ridge patterns on the surface of the skin.
  4. D) produce patterns that are determined genetically.
  5. E) interconnect with the dermal papillae.

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  5-1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

11) ________ are cells in the epidermis that are part of the immune system.

  1. A) Dendritic cells
  2. B) Basal cells
  3. C) Merkel cells
  4. D) Squamous cells
  5. E) Melanocytes

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  5-1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

12) Water loss from insensible perspiration

  1. A) is negligible.
  2. B) is too small to be measured reliably.
  3. C) is approximately 0.5 liters a day.
  4. D) always exceeds sensible perspiration.
  5. E) depends on apocrine sweat glands.

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  5-1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

 

 

13) The epidermis of the skin is composed of which type of tissue?

  1. A) keratinized stratified squamous epithelium
  2. B) simple squamous epithelium
  3. C) transitional epithelium
  4. D) areolar connective tissue
  5. E) nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  5-1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

14) The layer of stem cells that constantly divide to renew the epidermis is the

  1. A) stratum corneum.
  2. B) stratum germinativum.
  3. C) papillary layer.
  4. D) basal lamina.
  5. E) stratum granulosum.

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  5-1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

15) The protein that reduces water loss at the skin surface is

  1. A) eleidin.
  2. B) collagen.
  3. C) mucin.
  4. D) keratin.
  5. E) melanin.

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  5-1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

16) Thin skin contains ________ layer(s) of keratinocytes, and thick skin contains ________ layers.

  1. A) 1; 2
  2. B) 2; 3
  3. C) 3; 4
  4. D) 4; 5
  5. E) 5; 6

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  5-1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

 

17) While walking barefoot on the beach, Joe stepped on a thorn that penetrated through the sole of his foot to the dermis. How many layers of epidermis did the thorn penetrate?

  1. A) 1
  2. B) 2
  3. C) 3
  4. D) 4
  5. E) 5

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  5-1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Application

18) The primary pigments contained in the epidermis are

  1. A) carotene and xanthophyll.
  2. B) carotene and melanin.
  3. C) melanin and chlorophyll.
  4. D) xanthophyll and melanin.
  5. E) melanin and chromatin.

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  5-2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

19) An albino individual lacks the ability to produce

  1. A) melanin.
  2. B) keratin.
  3. C) carotene.
  4. D) perspiration.
  5. E) eleidin.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  5-2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

20) All of the following are true of the pigment melanin, except that it

  1. A) decreases in concentration within cells during exposure to the sun.
  2. B) is usually some shade of brown or black.
  3. C) protects DNA from the damaging effects of UV radiation.
  4. D) is produced from the amino acid tyrosine.
  5. E) is produced by cells called melanocytes.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  5-2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

 

21) Cyanosis signifies that a patient

  1. A) has had too much sun.
  2. B) has been kept out of the sun.
  3. C) has an allergic reaction.
  4. D) has oxygen-starved skin.
  5. E) has been exposed to cyanide.

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  5-2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

22) Jaundice is indicated by

  1. A) a reddish skin coloration.
  2. B) a yellowish skin coloration.
  3. C) an orange skin coloration.
  4. D) a bluish skin coloration.
  5. E) a brown skin coloration.

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  5-2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

23) Exposure to ultraviolet light (sunlight) causes the skin to darken by increasing the production of

  1. A) hemoglobin.
  2. B)
  3. C)
  4. D)
  5. E)

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  5-2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

24) The ________ in keratinocytes protects the epidermis and dermis from the harmful effects of sunlight.

  1. A) sebum
  2. B) hemoglobin
  3. C) melanin
  4. D) carotene
  5. E) keratin

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  5-2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

 

25) Which of the following is not an effect of ultraviolet radiation?

  1. A) increased activity by melanocytes
  2. B) production of cholecalciferol within epidermal cells
  3. C) wrinkles
  4. D) chromosomal damage in germinative cells or melanocytes
  5. E) vitiligo

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  5-3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

26) An important vitamin that is formed in the skin when it is exposed to sunlight is

  1. A) vitamin A.
  2. B) vitamin B.
  3. C) vitamin C.
  4. D) vitamin D.
  5. E) vitamin E.

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  5-3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

27) Types of skin cancers include

  1. A) squamous cell carcinoma.
  2. B) malignant melanoma.
  3. C) basal cell carcinoma.
  4. D) actinic keratosis.
  5. E) A, B, and C

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  5-3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

28) Which of the following statements about rickets is not true?

  1. A) is usually genetic
  2. B) leads to weak bones
  3. C) leads to skeletal deformity
  4. D) prevented by vitamin D
  5. E) prevented by sunlight

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  5-3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

 

29) Children in northern regions experience months of inadequate sunlight exposure on the skin.  To prevent possible abnormal bone development, what essential organic nutrient is necessary in the diet?

  1. A) vitamin C
  2. B) calcium
  3. C) cholecalciferol
  4. D) protein
  5. E) melanin

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  5-3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

30) Epidermal growth factor exerts which of these effects on the epidermis?

  1. A) promotes cell division
  2. B) stimulates keratin synthesis
  3. C) accelerates tissue repair
  4. D) speeds up glandular function
  5. E) All of the answers are correct.

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  5-4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

31) The layer of the skin that contains the blood vessels and nerves that are closest to the surface of the skin is the ________ layer.

  1. A) papillary
  2. B) reticular
  3. C) epidermal
  4. D) subcutaneous
  5. E) hypodermal

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  5-5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

32) The layer of the skin that contains bundles of collagen and elastic fibers responsible for the strength of the skin is the ________ layer.

  1. A) papillary
  2. B) reticular
  3. C) epidermal
  4. D) subcutaneous
  5. E) hypodermal

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  5-5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

 

33) The protein that permits stretching and recoiling of the skin is

  1. A) collagen.
  2. B) melanin.
  3. C) keratin.
  4. D) elastin.
  5. E) carotene.

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  5-5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

34) Skin inflammation that primarily involves the papillary layer is termed

  1. A) papillitis.
  2. B) dermatitis.
  3. C) epidermatitis.
  4. D) superficialis.
  5. E) melanocytis.

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  5-5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

35) A surgical incision parallel to the lines of cleavage

  1. A) closes and heals with relatively little scarring.
  2. B) has a tendency to reopen.
  3. C) heals slower than incisions made perpendicular to the lines of cleavage.
  4. D) does not affect the healing process.
  5. E) requires no sutures.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  5-5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

36) While assessing a patient, you discover that after pinching the skin on the back of the hand, it remains peaked. This is a sign of

  1. A) hydration intoxication.
  2. B) water intoxication.
  3. C) dehydration.
  4. D) advanced skin cancer.
  5. E) malfunctioning elastin.

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  5-5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

 

37) Stretch marks occur when

  1. A) the skin is stretched in normal movements.
  2. B) surgical incisions are made perpendicular to the skins lines of cleavage.
  3. C) the skin is so extensively stretched that its elastic limits are exceeded.
  4. D) athletes overextend a muscle.
  5. E) the hair follicles cease to produce hairs.

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  5-5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

Figure 5-1  The Components of the Integumentary System

Use Figure 5-1 to answer the following questions:

 

38) From what structure does sensible perspiration occur?

  1. A) 6
  2. B) 7
  3. C) 8
  4. D) 9
  5. E) 10

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  5-1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

39) Which layer is the primary barrier against environmental hazards?

  1. A) 1
  2. B) 2
  3. C) 3
  4. D) 4
  5. E) 5

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  5-1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

40) Which layer contains most of the accessory structures?

  1. A) 1
  2. B) 2
  3. C) 3
  4. D) 4
  5. E) 5

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  5-1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

41) An intradermal injection is administered into which layer?

  1. A) 1
  2. B) 2
  3. C) 3
  4. D) 4
  5. E) 5

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  5-5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

42) Which tissue is located in the region labeled 2?

  1. A) stratified squamous epithelium
  2. B) areolar connective tissue
  3. C) adipose tissue
  4. D) cartilage and blood
  5. E) reticular connective tissues

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  5-5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

 

43) All of the following are true of the subcutaneous layer, except it

  1. A) contains many blood vessels.
  2. B) permits independent movement of deeper structures.
  3. C) contains large amounts of adipose tissue.
  4. D) is attached to the dermis by a basement membrane.
  5. E) is well supplied with nerves that pass into the skin.

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  5-6

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

44) Accessory structures of the skin include all of the following, except

  1. A) hair follicles.
  2. B) sebaceous glands.
  3. C) sweat glands.
  4. D) epidermis.
  5. E) nails.

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  5-7

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

45) The layer of hard keratin that coats the hair is termed the

  1. A) medulla.
  2. B) cuticle.
  3. C) hair bulb.
  4. D) root.
  5. E) shaft.

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  5-7

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

46) Variations in hair color reflect differences in the pigment produced by

  1. A) keratinocytes.
  2. B) melanocytes.
  3. C) dermal papillae.
  4. D) soft keratin.
  5. E) carotene cells.

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  5-7

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

 

47) Lanugo is found

  1. A) on a fetus.
  2. B) on the scalp.
  3. C) on the palms of the hands.
  4. D) on the soles of the feet.
  5. E) on the palms of the hands and on the soles of the feet.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  5-7

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

48) If the papilla of a hair follicle is destroyed,

  1. A) the hair produced by the follicle will change from terminal to vellus.
  2. B) the color of the hair will become lighter.
  3. C) the texture of the hair will become coarser.
  4. D) the hair matrix will lose its blood supply.
  5. E) hair production will not be affected.

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  5-7

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

49) Which statement about hairs is false?

  1. A) Eyebrows are terminal hairs.
  2. B) Terminal hairs are in the axilla.
  3. C) Vellus hairs are on the limbs of children until puberty.
  4. D) A terminal hair can detach but remain in the hair follicle as a club hair.
  5. E) Club hairs are ingrown hairs.

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  5-7

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

50) When the arrector pili muscles contract,

  1. A) goose bumps are formed.
  2. B) hairs are shed.
  3. C) sweat is released from sweat glands.
  4. D) shivering occurs.
  5. E) the skin changes color.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  5-7

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

 

51) Each of the following statements concerning hair is true, except one. Identify the exception.

  1. A) The medulla is the soft core of the hair.
  2. B) The cortex of the hair is composed of hard keratin.
  3. C) Terminal hairs are heavy and more darkly pigmented than other types of hair.
  4. D) Club hair is hair that has ceased growing.
  5. E) Scalp hairs grow constantly throughout life.

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  5-7

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

52) A common cause of dandruff is

  1. A) inflammation around sebaceous glands.
  2. B) lack of sebaceous glands.
  3. C) too many sebaceous glands.
  4. D) inactive apocrine glands.
  5. E) inactive eccrine glands.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  5- 8

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

53) Glands that discharge an oily secretion into hair follicles are ________ glands.

  1. A) ceruminous
  2. B) apocrine sweat
  3. C) merocrine sweat
  4. D) sebaceous
  5. E) mammary

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  5- 8

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

54) The ________ glands in the axilla become active at the time of puberty.

  1. A) ceruminous
  2. B) apocrine sweat
  3. C) merocrine sweat
  4. D) sebaceous
  5. E) axillary

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  5-8

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

55) Sensible perspiration is produced by ________ glands.

  1. A) ceruminous
  2. B) apocrine sweat
  3. C) merocrine sweat
  4. D) sebaceous
  5. E) mammary

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  5- 8

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

56) Earwax is produced by  ________ glands.

  1. A) sebaceous
  2. B) apocrine sweat
  3. C) merocrine sweat
  4. D) ceruminous
  5. E) eccrine sweat

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  5- 8

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

57) Merocrine sweat contains ________ to protect against bacteria.

  1. A) metabolic wastes
  2. B) water
  3. C) penicillin
  4. D) dermicidin
  5. E) organic nutrients

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  5-8

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

58) The highest concentration of merocrine sweat glands is found

  1. A) in the axillae.
  2. B) on the chest.
  3. C) on the palms of the hands.
  4. D) on the upper back.
  5. E) surrounding the genitals.

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  5-8

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

59) Each of the following statements concerning sebaceous glands and sebum is true, except one. Identify the exception.

  1. A) Most sebaceous glands are coiled tubular glands.
  2. B) Most sebaceous glands open into hair follicles.
  3. C) Sebum functions to lubricate the hair and skin.
  4. D) Sebum can function as an antibiotic.
  5. E) Acne involves inflammation of sebaceous glands.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  5-8

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

60) ________ sweat glands are widely distributed across the body surface, ________ glands are located wherever hair follicles exist, and ________ sweat glands are found only in a few areas.

  1. A) Sebaceous; merocrine; apocrine
  2. B) Apocrine; merocrine; sebaceous
  3. C) Merocrine; sebaceous; apocrine
  4. D) Merocrine; apocrine; sebaceous
  5. E) Apocrine; sebaceous; merocrine

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  5-8

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

61) Which of the following happens if body temperature rises above normal?

  1. A) Circulation in the skin decreases.
  2. B) Sweat gland activity decreases.
  3. C) Evaporative cooling stops.
  4. D) Blood flow to the skin increases.
  5. E) The activity of melanocytes increases.

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  5-8

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

62) Merocrine sweat glands

  1. A) are compound alveolar glands.
  2. B) produce organic secretions that are metabolized by bacteria to produce body odor.
  3. C) secrete a watery fluid directly onto the surface of the skin.
  4. D) increase in number and activity with aging.
  5. E) primarily function in lubricating the hairs.

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  5-8

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

63) All of the following are true of perspiration produced by merocrine sweat glands, except that it

  1. A) is more than 99 percent water.
  2. B) contains electrolytes and waste products.
  3. C) helps cool the body when it evaporates.
  4. D) helps to prevent bacteria from colonizing the skin.
  5. E) produces the body odor characteristic of sweating.

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  5-8

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

64) The nail body covers the

  1. A) nail root.
  2. B) nail bed.
  3. C) lunula.
  4. D) free edge.
  5. E) hyponychium.

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  5-9

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

65) Nail production occurs at the nail

  1. A) body.
  2. B) bed.
  3. C) root.
  4. D) cuticle.
  5. E) hyponychium.

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  5-9

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

66) The cuticle around a nail is the

  1. A) eponychium.
  2. B) hyponychium.
  3. C) free edge.
  4. D) perinychium.
  5. E) lunula.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  5-9

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

 

67) The stratum corneum just under the free-edge of a nail is the

  1. A) hyponychium.
  2. B) lunula.
  3. C) eponychium.
  4. D) nail root.
  5. E) cuticle.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  5-9

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

68) A child who skins his knee in a fall has a(n)

  1. A) abrasion.
  2. B) laceration.
  3. C) puncture.
  4. D) incision.
  5. E) contusion.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  5-10

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

69) In a penetrating wound, ________ divide to produce mobile cells that repair the dermis.

  1. A) granulation cells
  2. B) dendritic cells
  3. C) macrophages
  4. D) fibroblasts
  5. E) muscle cells

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  5-10

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

70) The type of burn that may require a skin graft is a

  1. A) first-degree burn.
  2. B) second-degree burn.
  3. C) third-degree burn.
  4. D) partial-thickness burn.
  5. E) epidermal burn.

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  5-10

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

 

71) If a fair-skinned person is sunburned, why does his or her skin turn red?

  1. A) The blood flow to the skin increases.
  2. B) The number of red melanocytes in the skin increases.
  3. C) Melanocytes increase production of red pigments.
  4. D) The blood supply to the skin decreases.
  5. E) Increased heat causes the skin to turn red.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  5-10

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

72) Skin can regenerate effectively even after considerable damage has occurred because

  1. A) the epidermis of the skin has a rich supply of small blood vessels.
  2. B) stem cells persist in both epithelial and connective-tissue components of the skin even after injury.
  3. C) fibroblasts in the dermis can give rise to new germinal cells in the epidermis.
  4. D) contraction in the area of the injury brings cells of adjacent strata together.
  5. E) cells of the stratum germinativum cannot migrate to other positions in the skin.

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  5-10

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

73) The following are stages in the regeneration of skin following an injury.

  1. blood clot/scab formation
  2. cellular migration
  3. epidermis covers granulation tissue
  4. epidermis covers scar tissue

The correct order for these events is:

  1. A) 1, 2, 3, 4
  2. B) 4, 3, 2, 1
  3. C) 4, 3, 1, 2
  4. D) 3, 4, 1, 2
  5. E) 2, 4, 1, 3

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  5-10

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

74) Scar tissue is the result of

  1. A) large numbers of collagen fibers and relatively few blood vessels in the injured area.
  2. B) increased numbers of epidermal layers in the area of the injury.
  3. C) a thickened stratum germinativum in the area of the injury.
  4. D) increased numbers of fibroblasts in the injured area.
  5. E) a lack of sebaceous glands in the injured area.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  5-10

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

 

75) During repair of the integument, fibroblasts follow areas of new capillary growth and produce ________ tissue.

  1. A) scar
  2. B) epithelial
  3. C) granulation
  4. D) pus
  5. E) keloid

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  5-10

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

76) Treatment of full-thickness burns includes which of the following?

  1. A) replacing fluids
  2. B) increasing caloric intake
  3. C) preventing infection
  4. D) assisting tissue repair
  5. E) All of the answers are correct.

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  5-10

Blooms Taxonomy:  Application

 

77) Charlie is badly burned in an accident. When he reaches the emergency room, the examining physician finds that he can remove entire hair follicles from Charlies arm when he gently pulls on a hair with his forceps. Charlie is suffering from a(n)

  1. A) first-degree burn.
  2. B) second-degree burn.
  3. C) third-degree burn.
  4. D) partial-thickness burn.
  5. E) epidermal burn.

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  5-10

Blooms Taxonomy:  Application

 

78) A full-thickness burn injury can be life threatening. A physician treating a burn victim would likely order all of the following, except

  1. A) IV (intravenous) fluids and electrolytes.
  2. B) ice packs applied to the burn area.
  3. C) a high-calorie diet.
  4. D) skin grafts.
  5. E) antibiotics.

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  5-10

Blooms Taxonomy:  Application

 

 

79) The effects of aging on the skin include

  1. A) a decline in the activity of sebaceous glands.
  2. B) increased production of vitamin D.
  3. C) thickening of the epidermis.
  4. D) an increased blood supply to the dermis.
  5. E) an increased number of sweat glands.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  5-11

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

80) Wrinkles in elderly individuals are the result of

  1. A) increased production of epidermis.
  2. B) loss of elastic filaments in the reticular layer of the dermis.
  3. C) increased keratinization of the epidermis.
  4. D) the loss of glands and hair follicles from the skin.
  5. E) decreased thickness of the dermis.

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  5-11

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

81) Why would an elderly person be more prone to skin infections than a younger person?

  1. A) Skin repairs take longer in the elderly.
  2. B) The epidermis is thinner in the elderly.
  3. C) There are fewer dendritic cells in the skin of the elderly.
  4. D) Basal cell activity is reduced in the elderly.
  5. E) All of the answers are correct.

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  5-11

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

Short Answer Questions

 

82) Accumulations of fluid within the epidermis or between the epidermis and the dermis are called _______.

Answer:  blisters

Learning Outcome:  5-1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

83) Rapid water loss from burned skin is an extreme form of ________ perspiration.

Answer:  insensible

Learning Outcome:  5-1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

 

84) The pigment found in vegetables that can make the skin appear orange or yellow is called ________.

Answer:  carotene

Learning Outcome:  5-2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

85) Melanin is produced by melanocytes within the stratum ________.

Answer:  germinativum

Learning Outcome:  5-2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

86) The skin appearance that results from dark-red hemoglobin is called ________.

Answer:  cyanosis

Learning Outcome:  5-2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

87) Four signs useful for determining if a suspicious mark on the skin is melanoma follow the ABCD mnemonic. Identify what each letter abbreviates.

Answer:  A is asymmetry; B is border; C is color; and D is diameter.

Learning Outcome:  5-3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

88) A deficiency disease that illustrates the effect of integumentary system function on the structure of the skeletal system is ________.

Answer:  rickets

Learning Outcome:  5-3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

89) The most dangerous type of skin cancer is termed ________.

Answer:  malignant melanoma

Learning Outcome:  5-3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

90) Vitamin D3 is important for proper ________ development.

Answer:  bone

Learning Outcome:  5-3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

91) Skin cancer that starts in the stratum germinativum is called ________.

Answer:  basal cell carcinoma

Learning Outcome:  5-3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

 

92) A bruise turns black and blue because of ________ in the dermis.

Answer:  broken blood vessels

Learning Outcome:  5-5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

93) The drug ________ increases dermal blood flow and makes the skin red.

Answer:  tretinoin (Retin-A)

Learning Outcome:  5-5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

94) Fine hairs (like velvet) that lack pigment and cover much of the body surface are called ________.

Answer:  vellus hairs

Learning Outcome:  5-7

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

95) Coarse pigmented hairs are called ________.

Answer:  terminal hairs

Learning Outcome:  5-7

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

96) The substance called sebum is commonly known as ________.

Answer:  skin oil

Learning Outcome:  5-8

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

97) In the condition known as erythema, the skin takes on a(n) ________ color.

Answer:  reddish

Learning Outcome:  5-10

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

98) A thickened area of scar tissue that is covered by a shiny, smooth epidermal surface is called a(n) ________.

Answer:  keloid

Learning Outcome:  5-10

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

99) A fibrin clot that is formed over a skin wound is called a(n) ________.

Answer:  scab

Learning Outcome:  5-10

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

100) The combination of fibrin clot, fibroblasts, and extensive capillary network that is formed in injured skin is called ________.

Answer:  granulation tissue

Learning Outcome:  5-10

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

101) If epithelial cell migration cannot cover a wound, ________ may be required.

Answer:  skin grafts

Learning Outcome:  5-10

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

102) A bacterial infection that is often fatal in burn patients is called ________.

Answer:  sepsis

Learning Outcome:  5-10

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

Essay Questions

 

103) Many medications can be administered transdermally by applying patches that contain the medication to the surface of the skin. These patches can be attached anywhere on the skin except the palms of the hands and the soles of the feet. Why?

Answer:  Thick skin slows the rate of diffusion of the medication and thus decreases its effectiveness. In addition, excessive sweat formed on the palms of the hands and soles of the feet would make the patch fall off more readily.

Learning Outcome:  5-1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Application

104) Explain why the rate of dehydration is greater when a person is immersed in seawater than when in fresh water.

Answer:  Salty ocean water is very hypertonic compared to bodily fluids, while fresh lake water is very hypotonic. Hence, in the sea, due to osmosis water will leave the body, accelerating the rate of dehydration. In fresh water, water will be gained.

Learning Outcome:  5-1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

105) In a condition known as sunstroke, the victim appears flushed, the skin is warm and dry, and the body temperature rises dramatically. Explain these observations based on what you know concerning the role of the skin in thermoregulation.

Answer:  When the body temperature increases, more blood flow is directed to the vessels of the skin. The red cells in the blood give the skin a redder-than-usual color and account for the victims flushed appearance. The skin is dry because the sweat glands are not producing sweat (avoiding further dehydration). Without evaporation cooling, not enough heat is dissipated from the skin, the skin is warm, and the body temperature rises.  This situation represents positive feedback operating in a disease state.

Learning Outcome:  5-1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Application

 

 

106) A new mother notices that her 6-month-old infant has a yellow-orange complexion. Fearful that the child may have jaundice, she takes him to her pediatrician. After examining the child and learning about the infants diet, the pediatrician declares him perfectly healthy and advises the mother to watch the childs diet. What is likely the cause for the change in skin color?

Answer:  The infant probably has a fondness for vegetables that are high in carotene, such as sweet potatoes, squash, and carrots. It is not uncommon for parents to feed babies what they will eat best. If the child consumes large amounts of carotene, the yellow-orange pigment will be stored in the skin, producing a yellow-orange skin color.

Learning Outcome:  5-2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Application

 

107) Why is regional infection or inflammation of the skin usually very painful?

Answer:  Inflammation of the skin is painful because sensory receptors are abundant in the skin. Changes associated with swelling stimulate the sensory receptors, resulting in a painful sensation.

Learning Outcome:  5-5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

108) Why is a subcutaneous injection with a hypodermic needle a useful method of administering drugs?

Answer:  The subcutaneous layer has a limited capillary supply and contains no vital organs; thus, the potential for tissue damage is reduced.

Learning Outcome:  5-6

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

109) Explain why warm, dry climates feel cooler than warm, humid climates, even though the air temperatures are the same.

Answer:  In arid environments, sensible perspiration evaporates from the skin more rapidly than in humid climates, where the air is already saturated with water. This carries heat away from the skin rapidly, leading to a cool sensation. In humid regions, the sweat does not evaporate as readily, and thus the bodys cooling mechanism is hampered.

Learning Outcome:  5-8

Blooms Taxonomy:  Application

 

110) Why is scab formation important in wound healing?

Answer:  Scabs temporarily restore epidermal integrity, restricting further entry of microorganisms. They also prevent the loss of fluids, maintaining internal fluid balance, and protect the delicate granulation tissue during tissue recovery.

Learning Outcome:  5-10

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

 

111) Vanessas 80-year-old grandmother sets her thermostat at 26C (80F) and wears a sweater on balmy spring days. When asked why, the grandmother says she feels cold. What is a possible cause for her feeling cold?

Answer:  Most elderly people have poor blood flow to the skin. Thus, their skin becomes cold. This triggers thermal receptors in the skin to signal cold skin. The brain interprets this as a cold body temperature.

Learning Outcome:  5-11

Blooms Taxonomy:  Application

 

Fundamentals of Anatomy and Physiology, 9e (Martini)

Chapter 15  Neural Integration I: Sensory Pathways and the Somatic Nervous System

 

Multiple-Choice Questions

 

1) The term general senses refers to sensitivity to all of the following, except

  1. A) temperature.
  2. B) taste.
  3. C) touch.
  4. D) vibration.
  5. E) pain.

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  15-1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

2) Which of the following is not one of the special senses?

  1. A) hearing
  2. B) smell
  3. C) taste
  4. D) vibration
  5. E) vision

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  15-1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

3) The general senses

  1. A) involve receptors that are relatively simple in structure.
  2. B) are located in specialized structures called sense organs.
  3. C) are localized to specific areas of the body.
  4. D) cannot generate action potentials.
  5. E) include taste and smell.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  15-1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

4) Gustatory receptors are sensitive to dissolved chemicals but insensitive to light. This is due to

  1. A) receptor specificity.
  2. B) accessory cells.
  3. C) the fact that they are interoceptors.
  4. D) receptor potentials.
  5. E) the labeled line.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  15-2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

5) In order for a sensation to become a perception,

  1. A) it must received by the somatosensory cortex.
  2. B) the individual must vocalize about it.
  3. C) it must arrive over fast-conducting nerve fibers.
  4. D) the other senses must be silent.
  5. E) it must received by the pulvinar nucleus of the thalamus.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  15-2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

6) Which of the following can contribute to receptor specificity?

  1. A) the structure of the receptor cell
  2. B) characteristics of the receptor cell membrane
  3. C) accessory cells that function with the receptor
  4. D) accessory structures and tissues that shield the receptors from other stimuli
  5. E) All of the answers are correct.

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  15-2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

7) Examples of sensory stimuli include

  1. A) touch.
  2. B) warmth.
  3. C) pain.
  4. D) vibration.
  5. E) All of the answers are correct.

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  15-2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

8) Sensory transduction can involve which of the following?

  1. A) a stimulus altering the permeability of a receptor membrane
  2. B) change in the flow of ions across the sensory membrane
  3. C) the production of a receptor potential
  4. D) inhibition of neurotransmitter release
  5. E) All of the answers are correct.

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  15-2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

 

9) Central adaptation refers to

  1. A) the decline in activity of peripheral receptors when stimulated.
  2. B) a characteristic of phasic receptors.
  3. C) inhibition of nuclei located along a sensory pathway.
  4. D) increases in conscious perception of a sensory stimulus.
  5. E) a change in motor receptivity of a neuron.

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  15-2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

10) A receptor potential may

  1. A) increase neurotransmitter release.
  2. B) decrease neurotransmitter release.
  3. C) be a hyperpolarization.
  4. D) be a depolarization.
  5. E) All of the answers are correct.

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  15-2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

11) Peripheral adaptation ________ the number of action potentials that reach the CNS.

  1. A) decreases
  2. B) increases
  3. C) stabilizes
  4. D) neutralizes
  5. E) amplifies

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  15-2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

12) A labeled line is

  1. A) a translation of complex sensory information.
  2. B) a link between a receptor and a cortical neuron.
  3. C) a reduction in sensitivity.
  4. D) a stimulation that produces action potentials.
  5. E) an adjustment for sensitivity adaptation.

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  15-2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

 

13) Sensory encoding of the perceived location of a stimulus depends on

  1. A) the frequency of action potentials.
  2. B) which labeled line is active.
  3. C) the specific location of the cortical neuron that is stimulated.
  4. D) the specific sensitivity of the peripheral receptor.
  5. E) the number of receptors stimulated.

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  15-2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

14) Our perception of our environment is imperfect for all of the following reasons, except that

  1. A) humans lack receptors for every possible stimulus.
  2. B) receptors respond in an all-or-nothing manner.
  3. C) not all sensations lead to a perception.
  4. D) abnormal receptor function can produce sensations that have no basis in fact.
  5. E) our receptors have limited sensitivity.

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  15-2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

15) A receptor that contains many mechanically-gated ion channels would function best as a

  1. A) tactile receptor.
  2. B) chemoreceptor.
  3. C) nociceptor.
  4. D) thermoreceptor.
  5. E) light receptor.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  15-3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

16) A fast-adapting mechanoreceptor in the papillary layer of the dermis that responds to fine touch is a

  1. A) tactile (Merkel) disc.
  2. B) root hair plexus.
  3. C) free nerve ending.
  4. D) Ruffini corpuscle.
  5. E) tactile (Meissner) corpuscle.

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  15-3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

 

17) Which of the following is sometimes called prickling pain?

  1. A) mechanical damage
  2. B) chemicals
  3. C) extremes of temperature
  4. D) fast pain
  5. E) fast and slow pain

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  15-3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

18) All of the following are true of a prickling pain sensation, except that they

  1. A) are carried by type A fibers.
  2. B) reach the CNS quickly.
  3. C) are fast adapting.
  4. D) receive conscious attention.
  5. E) often trigger somatic reflexes.

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  15-3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

19) Endorphins can reduce perception of sensations initiated by

  1. A) nociceptors.
  2. B) mechanoreceptors.
  3. C) thermoreceptors.
  4. D) chemoreceptors.
  5. E) proprioceptors.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  15-3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

20) Thermoreceptors

  1. A) are found within the dermis.
  2. B) are free nerve endings.
  3. C) for cold are structurally indistinguishable from those for warm.
  4. D) are more numerous for cold than for warm temperatures.
  5. E) All of the answers are correct.

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  15-3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

 

21) Receptors that monitor the position of joints belong to the category called

  1. A) nociceptors.
  2. B) chemoreceptors.
  3. C) baroreceptors.
  4. D) proprioceptors.
  5. E) thermoreceptors.

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  15-3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

22) Mechanoreceptors that respond to changes in blood pressure are called

  1. A) nociceptors.
  2. B) baroreceptors.
  3. C) chemoreceptors.
  4. D) proprioceptors.
  5. E) thermoreceptors.

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  15-3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

23) Tactile receptors composed of capsules that surround a core of collagen fibers intertwined with dendrites are called

  1. A) Ruffini corpuscles.
  2. B) lamellated corpuscles.
  3. C) tactile (Meissner) corpuscles.
  4. D) tactile discs.
  5. E) root hair plexuses.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  15-3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

24) A tactile receptor composed of highly coiled dendrites that are surrounded by modified Schwann cells and a fibrous capsule is a

  1. A) lamellated corpuscle.
  2. B) Ruffini corpuscle.
  3. C) tactile (Meissner) corpuscle.
  4. D) tactile (Merkel) disc.
  5. E) root hair plexus.

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  15-3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

 

25) A very large, fast-adapting tactile receptor that is composed of a single dendrite enclosed by concentric layers of collagen is a

  1. A) Ruffini corpuscle.
  2. B) lamellated corpuscle.
  3. C) tactile (Meissner) corpuscle.
  4. D) tactile (Merkel) disc.
  5. E) root hair plexus.

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  15-3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

26) Sensations of burning or aching pain

  1. A) are carried by type A fibers.
  2. B) reach the CNS quickly.
  3. C) cause a generalized activation of the reticular formation and the thalamus.
  4. D) are well localized.
  5. E) are fast adapting.

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  15-3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

27) Bladder fullness is to ________ as blood pH is to ________.

  1. A) nociceptors; thermoreceptors
  2. B) baroreceptors; chemoreceptors
  3. C) baroreceptors; nociceptors
  4. D) chemoreceptors; nociceptors
  5. E) baroreceptors; thermoreceptors

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  15-3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

28) A highly sensitive tactile receptor composed of dendritic processes of a single myelinated fiber that makes contact with specialized cells of the stratum germinativum is a

  1. A) lamellated corpuscle.
  2. B) tactile (Meissner) corpuscle.
  3. C) Ruffini corpuscle.
  4. D) tactile (Merkel) disc.
  5. E) root hair plexus.

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  15-3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

 

29) A fast-adapting tactile receptor that monitors movements across the body surface is a

  1. A) tactile (Merkel) disc.
  2. B) lamellated corpuscle.
  3. C) tactile (Meissner) corpuscle.
  4. D) Ruffini corpuscle.
  5. E) root hair plexus.

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  15-3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

30) A sensory receptor characterized peripherally as a free nerve ending and centrally uses  glutamate and/or substance P as neurotransmitters, would most likely be a

  1. A) chemoreceptor.
  2. B) mechanoreceptor.
  3. C) thermoreceptor.
  4. D) nociceptor.
  5. E) free receptor.

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  15-3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

31) ________ receptors are ________ times more numerous than ________ receptors.

  1. A) Warm; three or four; cold
  2. B) Thermoreceptors; three or four; cold
  3. C) Cold; three or four; warm
  4. D) Thermoreceptors; three or four; temperature
  5. E) Cold; 10; warm

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  15-3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

32) Mechanoreceptors might detect which of the following sensations?

  1. A) pressure
  2. B) touch
  3. C) vibration
  4. D) muscle length
  5. E) All of the answers are correct.

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  15-3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

 

33) Pain is to ________ as cold is to ________.

  1. A) nociceptors; thermoreceptors
  2. B) baroreceptors; chemoreceptors
  3. C) baroreceptors; nociceptors
  4. D) chemoreceptors; nociceptors
  5. E) baroreceptors; thermoreceptors

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  15-3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

34) If a friend is talking about someone she knows who lost his special senses, you would correct her when you hear her mention ________, because it is not a special sense.

  1. A) smell
  2. B) sight
  3. C) balance
  4. D) cold
  5. E) hearing

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  15-3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

35) Tactile discs are to ________ as tactile corpuscles are to ________.

  1. A) Wilms; Meissner
  2. B) Merkel; Meissner
  3. C) Meissner; Merkel
  4. D) Pacinian; Merkel
  5. E) pain; pressure

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  15-3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

36) ________ are receptors in the aorta that monitor the blood pressure.

  1. A) Chemoreceptors
  2. B) Nociceptors
  3. C) Baroreceptors
  4. D) Proprioceptors
  5. E) Hair cells

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  15-3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

 

37) Which of the following kinds of information do fine-touch and light-pressure mechanoreceptors provide?

  1. A) location of the stimulus
  2. B) shape of the stimulus
  3. C) texture of the stimulus
  4. D) movement of the stimulus
  5. E) All of the answers are correct.

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  15-3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

38) Which of the following is not a property of thermoreceptors?

  1. A) sensation conducted in same pathway as pain
  2. B) tonic response to temperature change
  3. C) found in skeletal muscle, hypothalamus, and skin
  4. D) project to reticular formation
  5. E) cold receptors outnumber warm receptors

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  15-3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

39) Tickle is to ________ as itch is to ________.

  1. A) pressure; heat
  2. B) baroreceptors; chemoreceptors
  3. C) touch; pain
  4. D) stretch; temperature
  5. E) thermoreceptors; nociceptors

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  15-3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

40) Chemoreceptors are located in all of the following, except

  1. A) carotid bodies.
  2. B) aortic bodies.
  3. C) in the skin.
  4. D) the organs of taste.
  5. E) the organs of smell.

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  15-3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

 

41) Which ascending tract carries the sensations for fine touch and vibration?

  1. A) corticobulbar
  2. B) corticospinal
  3. C) posterior (dorsal) column
  4. D) spinothalamic
  5. E) spinocerebellar

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  15-4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

42) The spinal tract that carries sensations from proprioceptors to the CNS is the

  1. A) fasciculus gracilis.
  2. B) fasciculus cuneatus.
  3. C) spinocerebellar.
  4. D) lateral spinothalamic.
  5. E) anterior spinothalamic.

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  15-4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

43) The spinal tract that relays information concerning pain and temperature to the CNS is the

  1. A) fasciculus gracilis.
  2. B) fasciculus cuneatus.
  3. C) posterior spinocerebellar.
  4. D) lateral spinothalamic.
  5. E) anterior spinothalamic.

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  15-4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

44) Your uncle was just diagnosed with a heart attack. One of his major symptoms is left arm pain. You are not surprised because you are familiar with the phenomenon of

  1. A) referred pain.
  2. B) phantom pain.
  3. C) psychogenic pain.
  4. D) somatic pain.
  5. E) neurogenic pain.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  15-4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

 

45) Stimulation of a neuron that terminates in the superior region of the left postcentral gyrus would produce

  1. A) a sensation in the right leg.
  2. B) a sensation in the lips.
  3. C) a muscle twitch in the right leg.
  4. D) a muscle twitch in the lips.
  5. E) both sensations and muscle twitches in the right leg.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  15-4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

46) The spinal tract that relays information concerning crude touch and pressure to the CNS is the

  1. A) fasciculus gracilis.
  2. B) fasciculus cuneatus.
  3. C) posterior spinocerebellar.
  4. D) lateral spinothalamic.
  5. E) anterior spinothalamic.

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  15-4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

47) Each of the following is an ascending tract in the spinal cord, except the

  1. A) fasciculus gracilis.
  2. B) fasciculus cuneatus.
  3. C) posterior spinocerebellar.
  4. D) reticulospinal tract.
  5. E) anterior spinothalamic.

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  15-4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

48) The afferent neuron that carries the sensation to the CNS is a ________ neuron.

  1. A) receptor
  2. B) first-order
  3. C) second-order
  4. D) third-order
  5. E) fourth-order

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  15-4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

 

49) What loss would result from cutting through the medial lemniscus on the right side?

  1. A) loss of pain sensation on the left side of the body
  2. B) loss of pain sensation on the right side of the body
  3. C) loss of fine touch sensation on the left side of the body
  4. D) loss of fine touch sensation on the right side of the body
  5. E) complete hemiplegia (paralysis) on the left side of the body

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  15-4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

50) Thalamic neurons that project to the primary sensory cortex are ________ neurons.

  1. A) receptor
  2. B) first-order
  3. C) second-order
  4. D) third-order
  5. E) fourth-order

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  15-4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

51) Which neuron delivers sensations to the CNS?

  1. A) first-order neuron
  2. B) second-order neuron
  3. C) third-order neuron
  4. D) fourth-order neuron
  5. E) sensory receptor

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  15-4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

52) Neurons from the fasciculus gracilis

  1. A) relay information directly to the cerebrum.
  2. B) decussate before entering the medial lemniscus.
  3. C) relay sensory information to the ipsilateral cerebral hemisphere.
  4. D) carry both crude and fine touch.
  5. E) process proprioception.

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  15-4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

53) We can localize sensations that originate in different areas of the body because

  1. A) sensory neurons carry only one modality.
  2. B) sensory neurons from specific body regions project to specific cortical regions.
  3. C) incoming sensory information is first processed by the thalamus.
  4. D) different types of sensory receptors produce action potentials of different sizes and shapes.
  5. E) of the many types of tactile receptors.

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  15-4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

Figure 15-1 Spinothalamic Tracts

Use Figure 15-1 to answer the following questions:

 

54) Identify the neuron labeled 3.

  1. A) lower motor neuron
  2. B) upper motor neuron
  3. C) first-order neuron
  4. D) second-order neuron
  5. E) ganglionic neuron

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  15-4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

55) Where in the spinal cord is the structure labeled 2 located?

  1. A) anterior gray horns
  2. B) dorsal root ganglion
  3. C) anterior white column
  4. D) anterior median fissure
  5. E) posterior white column

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  15-4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

56) Identify the neuron labeled 1.

  1. A) lower motor neuron
  2. B) upper motor neuron
  3. C) first-order neuron
  4. D) second-order neuron
  5. E) ganglionic neuron

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  15-4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

57) Identify the structure labeled 5.

  1. A) thalamus
  2. B) cerebral cortex
  3. C) primary motor cortex
  4. D) primary sensory cortex
  5. E) autonomic ganglion

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  15-4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

58) Which of the following is true regarding the structure labeled 6?

  1. The synapse occurs between motor neurons.
  2. The s

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