Fundamentals Of Anatomy & Physiology 9th Edition Test Bank Frederic H. Martini

<< Gender Race and Class in Media A Critical Reader 4th Edition by Gail Dines Jean M. Humez Test Bank Fundamentals of Respiratory care 10th edition by Albert , James test bank >>
Product Code: 222
Availability: In Stock
Price: $24.99
Qty:     - OR -   Add to Wish List
Add to Compare

Fundamentals Of Anatomy & Physiology 9th Edition Test Bank Frederic H. Martini

Description

Fundamentals of Anatomy and Physiology, 9e (Martini)
Chapter 6 Osseous Tissue and Bone Structure

Multiple-Choice Questions

1) Which of following is a function of the skeletal system?
A) body support
B) calcium homeostasis
C) protection of internal organs
D) blood cell production
E) All of the answers are correct.
Answer: E
Learning Outcome: 6-1
Blooms Taxonomy: Knowledge

2) Which of the following are not components of the skeletal system?
A) tendons
B) bones
C) ligaments
D) cartilage
E) other tissues that connect bones
Answer: A
Learning Outcome: 6-1
Blooms Taxonomy: Knowledge

3) Which of the following bones is classified as irregular in shape?
A) patella
B) frontal
C) vertebra
D) metatarsal
E) ulna
Answer: C
Learning Outcome: 6-2
Blooms Taxonomy: Knowledge

4) The tip of a long bone is called the
A) epiphysis.
B) diaphysis.
C) epiphyseal plate.
D) metaphysis.
E) lamella.
Answer: A
Learning Outcome: 6-2
Blooms Taxonomy: Knowledge

5) The carpal bones are examples of ________ bones.
A) long
B) short
C) flat
D) irregular
E) sesamoid
Answer: B
Learning Outcome: 6-2
Blooms Taxonomy: Knowledge

6) A rib is an example of a ________ bone.
A) long
B) short
C) flat
D) sutural
E) sesamoid
Answer: C
Learning Outcome: 6-2
Blooms Taxonomy: Knowledge

7) Bones that develop within tendons are called ________ bones.
A) irregular
B) sesamoid
C) sutural
D) Wormian
E) tendon
Answer: B
Learning Outcome: 6-2
Blooms Taxonomy: Knowledge

8) Small, oddly shaped bones that fill gaps between bones of the skull are called ________ bones.
A) irregular
B) sesamoid
C) sutural
D) sagittal
E) tendon
Answer: C
Learning Outcome: 6-2
Blooms Taxonomy: Knowledge

9) ________ bones develop inside tendons, commonly near the knees, hands, and feet.
A) Irregular
B) Sesamoid
C) Short
D) Long
E) Flat
Answer: B
Learning Outcome: 6-2
Blooms Taxonomy: Knowledge
10) The humerus is an example of a(n) ________ bone.
A) long
B) short
C) flat
D) irregular
E) sesamoid
Answer: A
Learning Outcome: 6-2
Blooms Taxonomy: Knowledge

11) The large proximal projection on the femur is termed the
A) ramus.
B) trochanter.
C) tuberosity.
D) tubercle.
E) condyle.
Answer: B
Learning Outcome: 6-2
Blooms Taxonomy: Knowledge

12) A hole through a bone is termed a
A) ramus.
B) foramen.
C) linea.
D) tubercle.
E) facet.
Answer: B
Learning Outcome: 6-2
Blooms Taxonomy: Knowledge

13) The smooth, rounded articular process of a bone is termed a
A) crest.
B) ridge.
C) head.
D) condyle.
E) trochlea.
Answer: D
Learning Outcome: 6-2
Blooms Taxonomy: Knowledge

14) A shallow depression on a bone is termed a
A) fossa.
B) sulcus.
C) facet.
D) fissure.
E) line.
Answer: A
Learning Outcome: 6-2
Blooms Taxonomy: Knowledge
15) The region of a long bone between the end and the shaft is known as the ________.
A) diaphysis
B) epiphysis
C) osseophysis
D) metaphysis
E) medullary cavity
Answer: D
Learning Outcome: 6-2
Blooms Taxonomy: Knowledge

16) Which of the following labels best matches osteocyte?
A) stem cell
B) dissolves matrix
C) mature bone cell
D) secretes organic matrix
Answer: C
Learning Outcome: 6-3
Blooms Taxonomy: Knowledge

17) Bone is composed of ________ percent cells.
A) 25
B) 10
C) 2
D) 15
E) 50
Answer: C
Learning Outcome: 6-3
Blooms Taxonomy: Knowledge

18) Cells that secrete the organic components of the bone matrix are called
A) osteocytes.
B) osteoprogenitor cells.
C) osteoblasts.
D) osteoclasts.
E) chondrocytes.
Answer: C
Learning Outcome: 6-3
Blooms Taxonomy: Knowledge

19) ________ are squamous stem cells that develop into osteoblasts.
A) Osteoclasts
B) Osteocytes
C) Osteomedullary cells
D) Osteoprogenitor cells
E) Squamous osteons
Answer: D
Learning Outcome: 6-3
Blooms Taxonomy: Knowledge
20) Through the action of osteoclasts,
A) new bone is formed.
B) an organic framework is formed.
C) bony matrix is dissolved.
D) osteoid is calcified.
E) fractured bones regenerate.
Answer: C
Learning Outcome: 6-3
Blooms Taxonomy: Knowledge

21) The space occupied by an osteocyte is called a
A) Volkmanns canal.
B) lacuna.
C) trabecula.
D) Haversian canal.
E) Venetian canal.
Answer: B
Learning Outcome: 6-3
Blooms Taxonomy: Knowledge

22) Which of the following chemicals is not present in bone?
A) calcium phosphate
B) collagen fibers
C) calcium carbonate
D) chondroitin sulfate
E) hydroxyapatite
Answer: D
Learning Outcome: 6-3
Blooms Taxonomy: Comprehension

23) ________ account(s) for almost two-thirds of the weight of bone.
A) Water
B) Calcium carbonate
C) Collagen fibers
D) Fluoride
E) Calcium phosphate
Answer: E
Learning Outcome: 6-3
Blooms Taxonomy: Knowledge

24) ________ cells are located in the inner cellular layer of the periosteum.
A) Osteocyte
B) Osteoclast
C) Osteoid
D) Osteoprogenitor
E) Chondroblast
Answer: D
Learning Outcome: 6-3
Blooms Taxonomy: Knowledge

25) The ________ interactions allow bone to be strong, somewhat flexible, and highly resistant to shattering.
A) collagen-fiber
B) protein-crystal
C) mineral-crystal
D) protein-protein
E) hydroxyapatite-crystal
Answer: B
Learning Outcome: 6-3
Blooms Taxonomy: Comprehension

26) The most abundant cell type in bone is
A) osteoclasts.
B) osteoblasts.
C) osteolytes.
D) osteoprogenitor cells.
E) osteocytes.
Answer: E
Learning Outcome: 6-3
Blooms Taxonomy: Comprehension

27) The lacunae of osseous tissue contain
A) blood cells.
B) osteocytes.
C) chondroblasts.
D) bone marrow.
E) capillaries.
Answer: B
Learning Outcome: 6-3
Blooms Taxonomy: Comprehension

28) How would removing hydroxyapatite from bone matrix affect the physical properties of a bone?
A) The bone would be less flexible.
B) The bone would be stronger.
C) The bone would be more brittle.
D) The bone would be more flexible.
E) The bone would be less compressible.
Answer: D
Learning Outcome: 6-3
Blooms Taxonomy: Comprehension

29) The narrow passageways that contain cytoplasmic extensions of osteocytes are called
A) central canals.
B) lacunae.
C) canaliculi.
D) medullary cavities.
E) foramina.
Answer: C
Learning Outcome: 6-3
Blooms Taxonomy: Knowledge

30) The central canal of an osteon contains
A) bone marrow.
B) osteocytes.
C) concentric lamellae.
D) blood vessels.
E) lacunae.
Answer: D
Learning Outcome: 6-4
Blooms Taxonomy: Knowledge

31) The interconnecting tiny arches of bone tissue found in spongy bone are called
A) osteons.
B) trabeculae.
C) concentric lamellae.
D) interstitial lamellae.
E) lacunae.
Answer: B
Learning Outcome: 6-4
Blooms Taxonomy: Knowledge

32) The type of bone that is adapted to withstand stresses that arrive from many directions is ________ bone.
A) spongy
B) osteon
C) compact
D) lamellar
E) irregular
Answer: A
Learning Outcome: 6-4
Blooms Taxonomy: Knowledge

33) The structural units of mature compact bone are called
A) lacunae.
B) osteocytes.
C) osteons.
D) canaliculi.
E) lamellae.
Answer: C
Learning Outcome: 6-4
Blooms Taxonomy: Knowledge

34) Fat is stored within the
A) medullary cavity.
B) metaphysis.
C) spongy bone.
D) epiphysis.
E) diaphysis.
Answer: A
Learning Outcome: 6-4
Blooms Taxonomy: Knowledge

35) Which of the following is a characteristic of bone?
A) The bone matrix is very dense and contains deposits of calcium salts.
B) The matrix of the bone contains osteoclasts.
C) Narrow channels pass through the matrix to allow for muscle attachment.
D) The matrix of bone is mostly collagen with very little calcium.
E) For strength, compact bone is organized into a meshwork of matrix called trabeculae.
Answer: A
Learning Outcome: 6-4
Blooms Taxonomy: Comprehension

36) In relationship to the diaphysis of a long bone, the osteons are
A) radial.
B) anterior.
C) parallel.
D) proximal.
E) diagonal.
Answer: C
Learning Outcome: 6-4
Blooms Taxonomy: Comprehension

37) The femur can withstand ________ times the body weight without breaking.
A) 3
B) 5 to 10
C) 8
D) 10 to 15
E) 30
Answer: D
Learning Outcome: 6-4
Blooms Taxonomy: Knowledge
38) ________ marrow is found between the trabeculae of spongy bone.
A) Blue
B) Yellow
C) White
D) Gray
E) Red
Answer: E
Learning Outcome: 6-4
Blooms Taxonomy: Knowledge

39) The lining of the medullary cavity is called the
A) endosteum.
B) periosteum.
C) epimysium.
D) perimysium.
E) perichondrium.
Answer: A
Learning Outcome: 6-4
Blooms Taxonomy: Knowledge

40) ________ bone reduces the weight of the skeleton and reduces the load on muscles.
A) Short
B) Irregular
C) Spongy
D) Compact
E) Long
Answer: C
Learning Outcome: 6-4
Blooms Taxonomy: Knowledge

41) The layers of bone tissue immediately deep to the periosteum are
A) circumferential lamellae.
B) osteoid plates.
C) trabeculae.
D) concentric lamellae.
E) epiphseal ridges.
Answer: A
Learning Outcome: 6-4
Blooms Taxonomy: Knowledge

42) Which statement is true regarding calcium in bone matrix?
A) Calcium is found in crystals called hydroxyapatite.
B) Calcium is secreted by osteoblasts into the matrix.
C) Once deposited, calcium cannot be removed from bone.
D) Calcium provides flexibility to the bone matrix.
E) Calcium is the organic part of the matrix.
Answer: A
Learning Outcome: 6-4
Blooms Taxonomy: Comprehension
43) The trabeculae of spongy bone
A) are organized parallel to the long axis of the bone.
B) are organized along stress lines.
C) are composed mostly of cartilage.
D) will collapse under stress.
E) are concentrated in the cortex of the diaphysis.
Answer: B
Learning Outcome: 6-4
Blooms Taxonomy: Comprehension

Figure 6-1 Bone Tissue
Use Figure 6-1 to answer the following questions:

44) Which structure is termed an osteon?
A) 1
B) 2
C) 3
D) 4
E) 5
Answer: B
Learning Outcome: 6-4
Blooms Taxonomy: Knowledge
45) Which structure is characteristic of spongy bone?
A) 1
B) 2
C) 3
D) 4
E) 5
Answer: E
Learning Outcome: 6-4
Blooms Taxonomy: Knowledge

46) The structure labeled 3 is the result of which process?
A) bone cells adding matrix between existing osteons
B) surface growth of bone
C) remodeling of compact bone
D) remodeling of spongy bone
E) osteoporosis
Answer: C
Learning Outcome: 6-4
Blooms Taxonomy: Comprehension

47) Identify the structures labeled 4.
A) concentric lamellae
B) circumferential lamellae
C) interstitial lamellae
D) trabeculae
E) periosteum
Answer: A
Learning Outcome: 6-4
Blooms Taxonomy: Knowledge

48) Where would osteoclasts be most active?
A) 1
B) 2
C) 3
D) 4
E) 5
Answer: E
Learning Outcome: 6-4
Blooms Taxonomy: Comprehension

49) The articular cartilage of a typical long bone is composed of what type of cartilage?
A) elastic cartilage
B) synovial cartilage
C) hyaline cartilage
D) fibrocartilage
E) osseous cartilage
Answer: C
Learning Outcome: 6-5
Blooms Taxonomy: Knowledge

50) The deposition of calcium salts in bone tissues is referred to as
A) hardening.
B) ossification.
C) calcification.
D) osteogenesis.
E) remodeling.
Answer: B
Learning Outcome: 6-5
Blooms Taxonomy: Knowledge

51) Which of the following is formed by intramembranous ossification?
A) roof of the skull
B) carpal bones
C) femur
D) clavicle
E) the roof of the skull and the clavicle
Answer: E
Learning Outcome: 6-5
Blooms Taxonomy: Knowledge

52) Endochondral ossification begins with the formation of a(n)
A) fibrous connective-tissue model.
B) cartilage model.
C) membranous model.
D) calcified model.
E) osteoblasts model.
Answer: B
Learning Outcome: 6-5
Blooms Taxonomy: Knowledge

53) The following are important steps in the process of endochondral ossification.
1. Enlarged chondrocytes die.
2. Osteoblasts replace calcified cartilage with spongy bone.
3. Chondrocytes enlarge and the surrounding matrix begins to calcify.
4. Blood vessels invade the perichondrium.
5. Perichondrial cells become osteoblasts and produce a thin shell of bone.

The correct order for these events is
A) 3, 1, 5, 4, 2
B) 1, 3, 5, 4, 2
C) 1, 5, 3, 4, 2
D) 2, 3, 1, 5, 4
E) 3, 1, 4, 5, 2
Answer: E
Learning Outcome: 6-5
Blooms Taxonomy: Comprehension
54) Secondary ossification centers occur
A) in the diaphysis.
B) at the periosteum.
C) in the epiphyses.
D) in the metaphyses.
E) in dermal bones.
Answer: C
Learning Outcome: 6-5
Blooms Taxonomy: Knowledge

55) Intramembranous ossification begins with differentiation of ________ cells.
A) osteoclast
B) osteoprogenitor
C) mesenchymal
D) osteoblast
E) osteocyte
Answer: C
Learning Outcome: 6-5
Blooms Taxonomy: Knowledge

56) Which of the following statements about Marfans syndrome is false?
A) results in short, stubby fingers
B) results from a mutation
C) affects connective tissue genes
D) affects epiphyseal cartilages
E) may also cause cardiovascular problems
Answer: A
Learning Outcome: 6-5
Blooms Taxonomy: Knowledge

57) Bone growth in length occurs by mitosis of
A) concentric lamellae.
B) cartilage cells in the epiphyseal side of the metaphysis.
C) growth of trabeculae.
D) osteoblasts in the endosteum.
E) cartilage cells in the diaphyseal side of the metaphysis.
Answer: B
Learning Outcome: 6-5
Blooms Taxonomy: Comprehension

58) Intramembranous ossification
A) produces flat bones as in the bones of the roof of the skull.
B) explains how a juveniles bone can grow in length.
C) occurs in the diaphysis of a long bone.
D) occurs inside a bag of cartilage.
E) occurs in all bones before birth.
Answer: A
Learning Outcome: 6-5
Blooms Taxonomy: Knowledge
59) Primary ossification centers develop in long bones in the
A) proximal epiphysis.
B) periosteum.
C) metaphysis.
D) distal epiphysis.
E) diaphysis.
Answer: E
Learning Outcome: 6-5
Blooms Taxonomy: Knowledge

60) Bone tissue formation begins when osteoblasts secrete
A) collagen fibers.
B) mesenchyme.
C) silica.
D) hydroxyapatite.
E) calcium.
Answer: A
Learning Outcome: 6-5
Blooms Taxonomy: Comprehension

61) Suppose that epiphyseal lines appear in a 10-year-olds long bones. Which of the following statements is therefore true?
A) The epiphyseal plates have ossified and further growth in length is not possible.
B) Administraton of growth hormone will stimulate future bone growth in length.
C) Osteoclasts will dissolve the metaphysis so length growth can continue until adulthood.
D) More growth will occur during the teenage years as sex hormones stimulate rebuilding of growth plates.
E) Intramembranous ossification will enable further growth in length.
Answer: A
Learning Outcome: 6-5
Blooms Taxonomy: Comprehension

62) During appositional growth
A) bones grow longer.
B) bones grow wider.
C) bone is replaced by cartilage.
D) the epiphysis fuses with the diaphysis.
E) osteoblasts are overwhelmed by osteocytes.
Answer: B
Learning Outcome: 6-5
Blooms Taxonomy: Comprehension
63) When the epiphyseal plate is replaced by bone,
A) puberty begins.
B) interstitial bone growth begins.
C) appositional bone growth begins.
D) long bones have reached their adult length.
E) the bone becomes more brittle.
Answer: D
Learning Outcome: 6-5
Blooms Taxonomy: Comprehension

64) When cartilage is produced at the epiphyseal side of the metaphysis at the same rate as bone is deposited on the opposite side, bones
A) grow longer.
B) grow wider.
C) become shorter.
D) become more porous and weaker.
E) become thicker.
Answer: A
Learning Outcome: 6-5
Blooms Taxonomy: Comprehension

65) Accelerated closure of the epiphyseal plates could be caused by
A) high levels of vitamin D.
B) too much calcium in the diet.
C) elevated levels of estrogen.
D) too little thyroxine.
E) an excess of growth hormone.
Answer: C
Learning Outcome: 6-5
Blooms Taxonomy: Comprehension

66) When production of sex hormones increases at puberty, epiphyseal plates
A) get wider.
B) become narrower.
C) increase slowly.
D) accelerate rapidly, but mostly in thickness.
E) are hardly affected.
Answer: B
Learning Outcome: 6-5
Blooms Taxonomy: Comprehension
67) The following are major steps in the process of intramembranous ossification:
1. Clusters of osteoblasts form osteoid that becomes mineralized.
2. Osteoblasts differentiate within mesenchymal connective tissue.
3. Spicules of bone radiate out from the ossification centers.
4. Mesenchymal cells aggregate.

The correct order for these events is:
A) 4, 1, 2, 3
B) 2, 1, 3, 4
C) 4, 2, 1, 3
D) 2, 3, 1, 4
Answer: C
Learning Outcome: 6-5
Blooms Taxonomy: Comprehension

Figure 6-2 Endochondral Ossification
Use Figure 6-2 to answer the following question(s):

68) Where does growth in length occur?
A) 1
B) 2
C) 3
D) 4
E) 5
Answer: C
Learning Outcome: 6-5
Blooms Taxonomy: Comprehension

69) What type of tissue occurs at #1?
A) elastic tissue
B) fibrocartilage
C) bone
D) hyaline cartilage
E) marrow tissue
Answer: D
Learning Outcome: 6-5
Blooms Taxonomy: Comprehension
70) What process is shown at #6?
A) primary ossification
B) secondary ossification
C) length growth
D) width growth
E) fracture repair
Answer: B
Learning Outcome: 6-5
Blooms Taxonomy: Comprehension

71) Identify the structure at #4.
A) intramembranous bone
B) spongy bone
C) hyaline cartilage
D) periosteum
E) mesenchyme
Answer: D
Learning Outcome: 6-5
Blooms Taxonomy: Comprehension

72) Identify the structure labeled 2.
A) epiphysis
B) diaphysis
C) metaphysis
D) marrow cavity
E) trabeculae
Answer: A
Learning Outcome: 6-5
Blooms Taxonomy: Comprehension

73) In normal adult bones,
A) there is no turnover of minerals.
B) a portion of the protein and mineral content is replaced each year.
C) osteoblast activity exceeds osteoclast activity, once bone has been formed.
D) osteoclasts continue to be active long after osteoblast activity ceases.
E) exercise will have no effect on bone remodeling.
Answer: B
Learning Outcome: 6-6
Blooms Taxonomy: Comprehension

74) A lack of exercise could
A) cause bones to become thicker.
B) cause bones to store more calcium.
C) result in porous and weak bones.
D) cause bones to become longer.
E) cause bones to lose their medullary cavity.
Answer: C
Learning Outcome: 6-7
Blooms Taxonomy: Knowledge
75) When stress is applied to a bone,
A) the minerals in the bone produce a weak electrical field that attracts osteoblasts.
B) osteoclast activity increases.
C) the bone becomes thin and brittle.
D) the bone compensates by becoming thinner in the region of stress.
E) it usually breaks.
Answer: A
Learning Outcome: 6-7
Blooms Taxonomy: Knowledge

76) Excessive growth hormone prior to puberty could result in
A) osteoporosis.
B) osteopenia.
C) rickets.
D) giantism.
E) dwarfism.
Answer: D
Learning Outcome: 6-7
Blooms Taxonomy: Knowledge

77) Factors that are necessary for proper bone formation include all of the following, except
A) vitamin A.
B) vitamin E.
C) vitamin C.
D) the hormone thyroxine.
E) vitamin D.
Answer: B
Learning Outcome: 6-7
Blooms Taxonomy: Knowledge

78) Where in the body does the production of precursors for the synthesis of calcitriol occur?
A) bone
B) kidneys
C) small intestine
D) liver
E) skin
Answer: E
Learning Outcome: 6-7
Blooms Taxonomy: Comprehension

79) The most abundant mineral in the human body is
A) sodium.
B) potassium.
C) phosphorus.
D) calcium.
E) hydrogen.
Answer: D
Learning Outcome: 6-8
Blooms Taxonomy: Knowledge
80) Elevated levels of calcium ion in the blood stimulate the secretion of the hormone
A) calcitonin.
B) thyroid hormone.
C) parathyroid hormone.
D) growth hormone.
E) testosterone.
Answer: A
Learning Outcome: 6-8
Blooms Taxonomy: Knowledge

81) The hormone calcitonin functions to
A) stimulate osteoclast activity.
B) decrease the rate of calcium excretion.
C) decrease the rate of calcium absorption.
D) decrease the level of calcium ion in the blood.
E) stimulate osteoblasts and inhibit osteoclasts.
Answer: D
Learning Outcome: 6-8
Blooms Taxonomy: Comprehension

82) Parathyroid hormone functions in all of the following ways, except that it
A) stimulates osteoclast activity.
B) increases the rate of calcium absorption.
C) decreases the rate of calcium excretion.
D) raises the level of calcium ion in the blood.
E) inhibits calcitonin secretion.
Answer: E
Learning Outcome: 6-8
Blooms Taxonomy: Comprehension

83) A child with rickets often has
A) oversized facial bones.
B) long fingers.
C) frequent bruises.
D) bowed legs.
E) inadequate muscle development.
Answer: D
Learning Outcome: 6-8
Blooms Taxonomy: Knowledge

84) Bone plays a central role in the regulation of blood levels of
A) potassium.
B) iron.
C) sulfate.
D) calcium.
E) sodium.
Answer: D
Learning Outcome: 6-8
Blooms Taxonomy: Knowledge
85) Hundreds of years ago explorers often died of scurvy. How can this bone-related disease be prevented?
A) Supplement the diet with more calcium from meat.
B) Increase levels of testosterone to stimulate bone repair.
C) Supplement the diet with fresh fruit rich in vitamin C.
D) Drink more water to promote bone remodeling and repair.
E) Amputate fractured limbs to prevent the spread of scurvy.
Answer: C
Learning Outcome: 6-8
Blooms Taxonomy: Comprehension

86) How is vitamin D (vitamin D3) related to calcium homeostasis in bone?
A) Vitamin D provides a framework for calcium in the matrix.
B) Vitamin D is regulated by osteoclast activity.
C) Vitamin D is produced by osteoblasts during endochondral ossification.
D) Vitamin D is involved in calcium absorption by the digestive tract so calcium is available for ossification and remodeling.
E) Vitamin D replaces calcium in the skeleton.
Answer: D
Learning Outcome: 6-8
Blooms Taxonomy: Comprehension

87) The disease osteomalacia causes calcium loss from the skeleton, which would result in bones that are
A) more resistant to compression.
B) stronger and heavier.
C) stronger and contain more spongy bone.
D) weaker and more flexible.
E) weaker and more brittle.
Answer: D
Learning Outcome: 6-8
Blooms Taxonomy: Comprehension

88) After a fracture of the diaphysis has healed, the thickened region that results is called the
A) epiphyseal plate.
B) external callus.
C) dense tuberosity.
D) condyle.
E) fracture facet.
Answer: B
Learning Outcome: 6-9
Blooms Taxonomy: Knowledge
89) A fracture at the ankle involving both lower leg bones is often called a ________ fracture.
A) compression
B) Pott
C) displaced
D) greenstick
E) Colles
Answer: B
Learning Outcome: 6-9
Blooms Taxonomy: Knowledge

90) While on a school skiing trip in Colorado, Heidi falls and breaks her tibia and fibula in a Pott fracture. What would you expect as a prominent part of her clinical assessment several hours after the fall?
A) hypertension
B) tachycardia
C) erythema
D) hematoma
E) cyanosis
Answer: D
Learning Outcome: 6-9
Blooms Taxonomy: Comprehension

91) Put the following steps of bone repair in correct sequence:
1. Cartilage in the external callus is replaced by bone.
2. A hematoma occurs.
3. An internal callus forms at the site of injury.
4. Osteoclasts remodel the bone at the site of repair.
A) 1, 2, 3, 4
B) 2, 1, 3, 4
C) 3, 1, 4, 2
D) 4, 2, 3, 1
E) 2, 3, 1, 4
Answer: E
Learning Outcome: 6-9
Blooms Taxonomy: Comprehension

92) Osteoclast-activating factor does all of the following, except that it
A) is released in large amounts early in life.
B) increases the number of osteoclasts.
C) increases the activity of osteoclasts.
D) produces a severe osteoporosis.
E) is released by some cancer tumors.
Answer: A
Learning Outcome: 6-10
Blooms Taxonomy: Knowledge
93) A condition in which bone becomes riddled with holes is called
A) osteopenia.
B) osteoporosis.
C) osteomyelitis.
D) osteitis.
E) osteomalacia.
Answer: B
Learning Outcome: 6-10
Blooms Taxonomy: Knowledge

94) The condition known as osteopenia
A) affects mostly women.
B) causes a gradual reduction in bone mass.
C) is caused by too much vitamin D in the diet.
D) is rarely seen as people age.
E) only affects the femur.
Answer: B
Learning Outcome: 6-10
Blooms Taxonomy: Comprehension

95) If osteoclasts are more active than osteoblasts, bones will become
A) denser.
B) thicker.
C) osteopenic.
D) stronger.
E) calcified.
Answer: C
Learning Outcome: 6-10
Blooms Taxonomy: Comprehension

96) Why does osteoporosis affect more women than men?
A) Women typically do not get enough calcium in their diet.
B) Men do not remodel the skeleton as fast as women.
C) Pregnancy causes deossification of bones in women and will lead to osteoporosis.
D) Men exercise more than women and therefore have less osteoporosis.
E) Women have a decrease in sex hormones after menopause whereas men continue to produce male sex hormones throughout adulthood.
Answer: E
Learning Outcome: 6-10
Blooms Taxonomy: Comprehension
97) Aging has what effect on the skeletal system?
A) progressive loss of processes and tuberosities
B) fusion of joints, especially syndesmoses
C) loss of calcium and collagen fibers from matrix
D) increase in the number of cranial foramina
E) increase in adipose tissue in epiphyses
Answer: C
Learning Outcome: 6-10
Blooms Taxonomy: Comprehension

98) If a tumor secretes high levels of osteoclast-activating factor, which of the following would you expect to occur as a result of this condition?
A) increases in blood levels of calcium
B) bone fragility
C) decreased bone density
D) increased osteoclast activity
E) All of the answers are correct.
Answer: E
Learning Outcome: 6-10
Blooms Taxonomy: Application

99) Mary is 50 years old and has entered menopause. During a checkup, a bone scan reveals the beginnings of osteoporosis. Her physician suggests hormone therapy. What hormone might she prescribe for her patient?
A) thyroid hormone
B) growth hormone
C) estrogen
D) parathyroid hormone
E) calcitonin
Answer: C
Learning Outcome: 6-10
Blooms Taxonomy: Application

100) Mary is 50 years old and has entered menopause. During a checkup, a bone scan reveals the beginnings of osteoporosis. Her physician suggests nutritional therapy. What might she recommend for her patient?
A) vitamin C
B) vitamin D
C) calcium supplements
D) dairy products
E) All of the answers are correct.
Answer: E
Learning Outcome: 6-10
Blooms Taxonomy: Application
Short Answer Questions

101) The shaft of long bones is called the ________.
Answer: diaphysis
Learning Outcome: 6-2
Blooms Taxonomy: Knowledge

102) The narrow region between the head and shaft of a long bone is called the ________.
Answer: neck or metaphysis
Learning Outcome: 6-2
Blooms Taxonomy: Knowledge

103) A ________ is a smooth, grooved bone process shaped like a pulley.
Answer: trochlea
Learning Outcome: 6-2
Blooms Taxonomy: Knowledge

104) A small rough bump on bone where a tendon attaches is called a ________.
Answer: tuberosity
Learning Outcome: 6-2
Blooms Taxonomy: Knowledge

105) A chamber within a bone normally filled with air is a ________.
Answer: sinus
Learning Outcome: 6-2
Blooms Taxonomy: Knowledge

106) The expanded articular end of an epiphysis that is separated from the shaft by a narrower neck is termed a(n) ________.
Answer: head
Learning Outcome: 6-2
Blooms Taxonomy: Knowledge

107) A(n) ________ is a rounded passageway for passage of blood vessels and/or nerves.
Answer: foramen
Learning Outcome: 6-2
Blooms Taxonomy: Knowledge

108) The adult skeleton contains ________ major bones.
Answer: 206
Learning Outcome: 6-2
Blooms Taxonomy: Knowledge

109) In bone, the calcium phosphate forms crystals of ________.
Answer: hydroxyapatite
Learning Outcome: 6-3
Blooms Taxonomy: Knowledge
110) Stem cells that can differentiate into osteoblasts are called ________ cells.
Answer: osteoprogenitor
Learning Outcome: 6-3
Blooms Taxonomy: Knowledge

111) Cells that free calcium from bone to maintain blood calcium levels are called ________.
Answer: osteoclasts
Learning Outcome: 6-3
Blooms Taxonomy: Knowledge

112) ________ prevents damaging bone-to-bone contact within movable joints. (Note: Be sure to capitalize the first letter of your answer).
Answer: Articular cartilage
Learning Outcome: 6-3
Blooms Taxonomy: Knowledge

113) Cells that are found in small depressions on the endosteal surfaces are the ________.
Answer: osteoclasts
Learning Outcome: 6-3
Blooms Taxonomy: Knowledge

114) Cells that secrete collagen fibers are called ________.
Answer: osteoblasts
Learning Outcome: 6-3
Blooms Taxonomy: Knowledge

115) The organic component of the matrix in developing or repairing bone is called ________.
Answer: osteoid
Learning Outcome: 6-3
Blooms Taxonomy: Knowledge

116) Blood is distributed from the surface of a bone to deeper central canals through channels known as ________.
Answer: perforating canals
Learning Outcome: 6-4
Blooms Taxonomy: Knowledge

117) ________ fibers are stronger than steel when stretched. (Note: Be sure to capitalize the first letter of your answer).
Answer: Collagen
Learning Outcome: 6-4
Blooms Taxonomy: Knowledge

118) The matrix in spongy bone forms struts and arches called ________.
Answer: trabeculae
Learning Outcome: 6-4
Blooms Taxonomy: Knowledge
119) The superficial membrane of a bone is called the ________.
Answer: periosteum
Learning Outcome: 6-4
Blooms Taxonomy: Knowledge

120) During the process of ________, an existing tissue is replaced by bone.
Answer: ossification
Learning Outcome: 6-5
Blooms Taxonomy: Knowledge
121) A calcified skeletal muscle is an example of ________.
Answer: heterotopic bone formation
Learning Outcome: 6-5
Blooms Taxonomy: Knowledge

122) The process of depositing calcium into a tissue is called ________.
Answer: calcification
Learning Outcome: 6-5
Blooms Taxonomy: Knowledge

123) What type of tissue is replaced in the embryo during endochondral ossification?
Answer: hyaline cartilage
Learning Outcome: 6-5
Blooms Taxonomy: Comprehension

124) The ongoing process of tearing down and rebuilding bone matrix is called ________ .
Answer: remodeling
Learning Outcome: 6-6
Blooms Taxonomy: Knowledge

125) ________ hormones stimulate osteoblasts to produce bone matrix. (Note: Be sure to capitalize the first letter of your answer).
Answer: Sex
Learning Outcome: 6-7
Blooms Taxonomy: Knowledge

126) Damage to a bone because of extreme load, sudden impact, or stresses applied from an unusual direction is called a(n) ________.
Answer: fracture
Learning Outcome: 6-9
Blooms Taxonomy: Knowledge

127) A(n) ________ or closed fracture does not break the skin.
Answer: simple
Learning Outcome: 6-9
Blooms Taxonomy: Knowledge
128) An open or ________ fracture projects through the skin.
Answer: compound
Learning Outcome: 6-9
Blooms Taxonomy: Knowledge

129) A(n) ________ fracture shatters the bone.
Answer: comminuted
Learning Outcome: 6-9
Blooms Taxonomy: Knowledge

130) A fracture of the bone across its long axis is called a(n) ________ fracture.
Answer: transverse
Learning Outcome: 6-9
Blooms Taxonomy: Knowledge

131) In a(n) ________ fracture one side of the shaft is split and the other side is bent.
Answer: greenstick
Learning Outcome: 6-9
Blooms Taxonomy: Knowledge

132) A(n) ________ fracture is produced by twisting stresses applied to the bone.
Answer: spiral
Learning Outcome: 6-9
Blooms Taxonomy: Knowledge

133) A transverse fracture of the wrist that may be comminuted is called a(n) ________ fracture.
Answer: Colles
Learning Outcome: 6-9
Blooms Taxonomy: Knowledge

134) A boot-top fracture that involves both lower leg bones is called a(n) ________ fracture.
Answer: Pott
Learning Outcome: 6-9
Blooms Taxonomy: Knowledge

135) The fracture of vertebrae subjected to extreme vertical stress is called a(n) ________ fracture.
Answer: compression
Learning Outcome: 6-9
Blooms Taxonomy: Knowledge

136) A(n) ________ fracture produces shattered bone fragments.
Answer: comminuted
Learning Outcome: 6-9
Blooms Taxonomy: Knowledge

137) The natural age-related loss of bone mass is called ________.
Answer: osteopenia
Learning Outcome: 6-10
Blooms Taxonomy: Knowledge

Essay Questions

138) During the growth of a long bone, how is the epiphysis forced farther from the shaft?
Answer: The chondrocytes of the epiphyseal cartilage enlarge and divide, increasing the thickness of the cartilage. On the shaft, the chondrocytes become ossified, chasing the expanding epiphyseal cartilage away from the shaft.
Learning Outcome: 6-5
Blooms Taxonomy: Comprehension

139) What is the difference between ossification and calcification.?
Answer: Ossification means specifically the conversion of connective tissue into bone tissue. Calcification means the depositing of calcium salts in any tissue, including bone.
Learning Outcome: 6-5
Blooms Taxonomy: Comprehension

140) Todd is 13 and lives in an urban apartment. He spends most of his time watching TV and eating junk food. One afternoon, during recess, he falls on the playground and breaks his leg. Although he appears to be healthy, his leg takes longer to heal than expected. What might be the cause of the longer healing time?
Answer: Assuming that there is no other disease process involved, Todds problem is probably related to his poor diet. Good nutrition is important for promoting the healing process. Insufficient quantities of protein, vitamin C, vitamin A, and vitamin D would cause the normal healing process to occur at a much slower rate. Todds inactivity may also contribute to his slower rate of healing.
Learning Outcome: 6-7
Blooms Taxonomy: Application

141) An elderly patient has a broken femur that is healing very slowly. A young resident suggests using a device that will create an electrical field in the area of the fracture to help speed the healing process. Why might this possibly help?
Answer: Osteoblasts are attracted to electrical fields produced by bone crystals when they are stressed. This is one of the reasons that trabeculae of bones are organized along stress lines. If the same type of electrical field could be duplicated at the site of the fracture, osteoblasts may be stimulated to migrate to the area and increase the rate of bone production and thus healing of the fracture.
Learning Outcome: 6-7
Blooms Taxonomy: Application

142) Would you expect to see changes in blood levels of the hormones calcitonin and PTH as a result of vitamin D3 deficiency? Explain.
Answer: A person deficient in vitamin D3 would not be able to absorb calcium effectively from the digestive tract, leading to a shortage of calcium in the blood. To maintain homeostasis, the decrease in blood calcium would trigger the release of PTH. The PTH, in turn, would stimulate osteoclasts to release enough calcium from the bone to maintain proper calcium levels in the blood. Levels of calcitonin would decrease, because release of this hormone is triggered by high blood calcium levels.
Learning Outcome: 6-8
Blooms Taxonomy: Application
143) What is osteopenia? Name and define two forms of osteopenia.
Answer: Osteopenia is a general term for reduced bone mass. Osteoporosis and osteomalacia are forms. Osteoporosis is a condition of reduced bone density, bone weakness, and pain resulting from the loss of mineral from bone with advancing age. Osteomalacia is bone weakness caused by insufficient calcium deposits. It is known as rickets in the young.
Learning Outcome: 6-10
Blooms Taxonomy: Application

Write a review

Your Name:


Your Review: Note: HTML is not translated!

Rating: Bad           Good

Enter the code in the box below:



 

Once the order is placed, the order will be delivered to your email less than 24 hours, mostly within 4 hours. 

If you have questions, you can contact us here