Fundamentals of Nursing 4th ed By Delaune Ladner Test Bank

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Fundamentals of Nursing 4th ed By Delaune Ladner Test Bank

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WITH ANSWERS
Fundamentals of Nursing 4th ed By Delaune Ladner

CHAPTER 2: NURSING THEORY

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. The nurse realizes that an appropriate example of a nursing theory is:
a. deep breathing in the postoperative period makes people healthier.
b. self-care is ideal.
c. nursing care is needed when people are affected by limitations that do not allow them to meet their self-care needs.
d. optimum health is the only ideal state.

 

 

ANS:  C

The choice nursing care is needed when people are affected by limitations that do not allow them to meet their self-care needs explains a set of concepts and propositions that provide an orderly way to view phenomena which is the definition of a theory. The other choices do not provide an orderly way to view phenomena but rather are propositions which propose a relationship between concepts.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Analysis         REF:   Components of the Theoretical Framework

 

  1. The nurse is going to use a theory from another discipline. Which of the following would the nurse select?
a. Self-care deficit theory
b. Science of unitary human beings
c. Theory of human caring
d. Theory of human development.

 

 

ANS:  D

The nursing profession uses theories from other disciplines. Examples of non-nursing theories include basic human needs, theory of human development, and the general adaptation syndrome theory. Self-care deficit theory, the theory of the science of unitary human beings, and the theory of human caring are all examples of nursing theories.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Application    REF:   Use of Theories from Other Disciplines

 

  1. The nurse is utilizing the metaparadigm of nursing when planning care for a client. The metaparadigm of nursing focuses on:
a. the person, health, and the environment.
b. pathophysiology and the curing of disease.
c. physicians, patients, and pathophysiology.
d. community, biology, and curing.

 

 

ANS:  A

The metaparadigm elements of nursing are person, environment, health, and nursing. The metaparadigm of nursing do not include the pathophysiology and curing of disease, physicians, patients, community, biology, or curing.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Application    REF:   Metaparadigm of Nursing

 

  1. The nurse is going to use a theory for planning client care that supports the simultaneity paradigm. This type of paradigm views the person as:
a. a combination of biological, psychological, social, and spiritual features.
b. being in constant interaction with the environment to accomplish goals and maintain balance.
c. needing nursing goals that focus on health promotion, care and cure of the sick, and prevention of illness.
d. more than, and different from, the sum of the parts.

 

 

ANS:  D

In the simultaneity paradigm, whole means unitary, and the unitary human has characteristics that are different from the parts and cannot be understood by a knowledge of the parts. Nursing goals in the simultaneity paradigm focus on the quality of life from the persons perspective. The other choices describe the totality paradigm.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Analysis         REF:   Paradigms in Nursing

 

  1. Which of the following theories from nurse theorists should be used if the nurse is planning care according to the simultaneity paradigm?
a. Jean Watson c. Dorothea Orem
b. Imogene King d. Sister Callista Roy

 

 

ANS:  A

Nurse theorists who developed theories that follow the simultaneity paradigm include Jean Watson, Martha Rogers, Rosemarie Parse, and Margaret Newman. Nurse theorists whose theories that follow the totality paradigm include Imogene King, Dorothea Orem, Sr. Callista Roy, Betty Neuman, and Madeleine Leininger.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Application    REF:   Paradigms in Nursing, Figure 2-2

 

  1. The nurse is studying the history of Florence Nightingale and realizes that which of the following statements is true about Nightingale as a nursing theorist?
a. She believed that formal education was not needed for nurses.
b. She developed principles of nursing that fit the modern definition of a theory.
c. She considered nursing to be a calling.
d. She stressed the importance of caring for the ill person rather than caring for the illness.

 

 

ANS:  D

Nightingales writings stressed the importance of caring for the ill person rather than caring for the illness. She considered nursing to be both an art and a science and believed that nurses should be formally educated. Nightingale did not develop a theory of nursing as theory is defined today so her principles do not fit the modern definition of a theory. Nightingale did believe that nursing was a calling; however, this has nothing to do with her being viewed as a nursing theorist.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Analysis         REF:   Florence Nightingale

 

  1. The nurse is planning to use the nursing theory that defines a person as an adaptive systema whole comprised of parts that function as a unity for some purpose. Which nurse theorist created this theory?
a. Martha Rogers c. Jean Watson
b. Sister Callista Roy d. Myra Levine

 

 

ANS:  B

Sister Callista Roy defines a person as an adaptive systema whole comprised of parts that function as a unity for some purpose. Rogers defines a person as a unified irreducible whole that is more than the sum of the parts. Watson defines the person as possessing three spheres: mind, body, and soul. Levine defines the person as being who the person knows himself to be.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Application

REF:   Table 2-2 Summary of Selected Nursing Theorists Major Concepts

 

  1. The nurse is planning to utilize the nursing theory that supports the paradigm shift occurring in nursing today. The theory that supports this paradigm shift was developed by which of the following?
a. Imogene King c. Sister Callista Roy
b. Rosemarie Parse d. Betty Neuman

 

 

ANS:  B

According to Parse, there are currently two paradigms in nursing: the totality paradigm and the simultaneity paradigm. Each of these paradigms has different definitions of concepts and propositions that state how these concepts are related. King, Roy, and Neumans theories all fall under the totality paradigm.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Application    REF:   Paradigms in Nursing

 

  1. The nurse, studying caring, is particularly interested in the theorist who believes health is associated with the degree of congruence between the self as perceived and the self as experienced. Which nursing theorist made this statement?
a. Jean Watson c. Florence Nightingale
b. Martha Rogers d. Rosemarie Parse

 

 

ANS:  A

Watson stated that health refers to unity and harmony within the mind, body, and soul and that health is also associated with the degree of congruence between the self as perceived and the self as experienced. Rogers believed that health is defined by the culture or the individual. Nightingale identified health as a state of well-being and using ones powers to the fullest extent. Parse identified health as an open process of becoming that encompasses a lived experience, synthesis of values, and rhythmic process of being or becoming.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Analysis

REF:   Table 2-2 Summary of Selected Nursing Theorists Major Concepts

 

  1. The nurse, interested in the concept of energy fields, should study which of the following theorists who views woman and her environment as energy fields?
a. Hildegard Peplau c. Martha Rogers
b. Jean Watson d. Myra Levine

 

 

ANS:  C

Rogers defined environment as an irreducible pandimensional energy field identified by pattern and integral with a given human field. Watson defined environment as an exchange between internal and external variables. Peplau defined environment as external factors and significant others. Levine defined the environment as being the context in which the person lives her life.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Application

REF:   Table 2-2 Summary of Selected Nursing Theorists Major Concepts

 

  1. The nurse is applying the principles of conservation when providing care to a client. Which theorist identified four principles of conservation?
a. Myra Levine c. Martha Rogers
b. Dorothea Orem d. Rosemarie Parse

 

 

ANS:  A

According to Levine, there are four principles of conservation which are: conservation of energy; conservation of structural integrity; conservation of personal integrity; and conservation of social integrity. Neither Orem, Rogers, nor Parse identified principles of conservation.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Application    REF:   Contemporary Nursing Theories

 

  1. The nurse is utilizing Dorothea Orems nursing model when planning client care. In this model, the role of the nurse is to:
a. influence the clients development in achieving an optimal level of self-care.
b. promote the clients adaptive behaviors by manipulating stimuli.
c. identify and help the individual respond to stressors.
d. help clients develop patterns of living that accommodate environmental changes.

 

 

ANS:  A

Dorothea Orem developed the self-care deficit theory of nursing which has three theories: theory of self-care, theory of self-care deficit, and theory of nursing systems. The other choices are not parts of Orems nursing theory.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Application    REF:   Contemporary Nursing Theories

 

  1. The nurse is reviewing a theory for the conceptual framework. A conceptual framework is a:
a. statement that proposes a relationship between concepts.
b. structure that links global concepts together and represents the unified whole of a larger reality.
c. set of concepts and propositions that provide an orderly way to view phenomena.
d. set of complex mental formulations of ones perceptions of the world.

 

 

ANS:  B

Theories are formulated by linking concepts together. A conceptual framework is a structure that links global concepts together and represents the unified whole of a larger reality. A proposition is a statement that proposes a relationship between concepts. A theory is a set of concepts and prepositions that provide an orderly way to view phenomena. A paradigm is a set of complex mental formulations of ones perceptions of the world.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Analysis         REF:   Components of the Theoretical Foundation

 

  1. The nursing activity that best demonstrates Nightingales theory of nursing is:
a. taking the client to the hospital chapel in a wheelchair.
b. manipulating the clients energy fields through therapeutic touch.
c. working with a community group to improve air quality in the city.
d. working with the client to identify their needs and formulate mutual goals.

 

 

ANS:  C

Nightingales theory included the principles of sanitation and the relationship between environment and health. A persons health was the direct result of environmental influences such as cleanliness, light, pure water, pure air, and efficient drainage. The other choices are not parts of Nightingales theory of nursing.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Application    REF:   Selected Nursing Theories: Florence Nightingale

 

  1. The nurse is participating in a nursing research study. Nursing research is best defined as a:
a. concept that provides a framework for thought in which to examine situations.
b. method of study that clarifies beliefs, values, and goals in nursing.
c. systematic application of formalized methods for generating valid and dependable information about nursing practice.
d. field of study that includes the biological, physical, and behavioral sciences.

 

 

ANS:  C

Nursing research is the systematic application of formalized methods for generating valid and dependable information about the phenomena of concern to the discipline of nursing. A discipline is a field of study that includes the biological, physical, and behavioral sciences. A theory can be defined as being either a concept that provides a framework for thought in which to examine situations or a method of study that clarifies beliefs, values, and goals in nursing.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Application    REF:   Components of the Theoretical Foundation

 

  1. The nurse is planning to utilize Peplaus nursing theory since it provides a perspective from which to view complex situations and direct interventions. Peplaus theory would be considered:
a. micro-range theory. c. nursing theory.
b. grand theory. d. middle-range theory.

 

 

ANS:  D

Middle-range theories views complex situations more narrowly to help direct interventions. A grand theory is composed of concepts representing global and extremely complex phenomena. A nursing theory provides a framework for thought in which to examine situations. A micro-range theory explains a specific phenomenon of concern to the discipline of nursing.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Application    REF:   Scope of Theories

 

  1. The nurse is assisting a client to perform activities that contribute to the clients health that the client would do unassisted if able. The nurse is implementing the theory of which nursing theorist?
a. Dorothea Orem c. Virginia Henderson
b. Martha Rogers d. Hilda Peplau

 

 

ANS:  C

Virginia Henderson believed that the unique function of the nurse is to assist the client in the performance of those activities that contribute to health that would be performed unassisted if the client were able. Peplaus theory focused on the development of the nurse-client relationship. Orems theory focused on self-care and self-care deficits. Rogers theory of nursing focused on energy fields.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Application    REF:   Early Nursing Theories

 

  1. The nurse, assessing a client for stressors, is implementing which of the following nursing theorists hypothesis, which focused on the wellness of the client system in relation to environmental stressors and reactions to stressors?
a. Hilda Peplau c. Joyce Travelbee
b. Betty Neuman d. Sister Callista Roy

 

 

ANS:  B

Betty Neumans systems model focuses on the wellness of the client system in relation to environmental stressors and reactions to stressors. Peplaus theory focused on the development of the nurse-client relationship. Travelbees theory focused on existentialism. Roys theory focuses on adaptation and coping mechanisms.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Application    REF:   Contemporary Nursing Theories

 

  1. The nurse is demonstrating empathy while establishing a rapport with a client. Which nursing theorist was most influenced by the philosophy of existentialism and developed the ideas of empathy and rapport?
a. Joyce Travelbee c. Myra Levine
b. Dorothea Orem d. Jean Watson

 

 

ANS:  A

Travelbee was influenced by the philosophy of existentialism and extensively developed the ideas of sympathy, empathy, and rapport in which the nurse relates to the uniqueness of others. Levines theory focused on conservation. Orems theory focused on self-care and self-care deficits. Watsons theory focuses on human caring and can be linked to Travelbees theory.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Application    REF:   Early Nursing Theories

 

  1. The theorists who were influenced by existentialism developed theories that would most likely be categorized as fitting in with:
a. the nursing process. c. the totality paradigm.
b. the simultaneity paradigm. d. the Unitarian paradigm.

 

 

ANS:  B

Existentialism is defined as a movement that is centered on individual existence in an incomprehensible world and the role that free will plays in it and searches to find meaning in lifes experiences. In the simultaneity paradigm, whole means unitary and the unitary human has characteristics that are different from the parts and cannot be understood by a knowledge of the parts. Nursing goals in the simultaneity paradigm focus on the quality of life from the persons perspective. In the totality paradigm, the person is in constant interaction with the environment to accomplish goals and maintain balance. The nursing process consists of assessment, planning, implementation, and evaluation. The Unitarian paradigm does not fit into the discipline of nursing.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Analysis         REF:   Paradigms in Nursing

 

  1. The nurse is talking with a client in efforts to strengthen the new relationship. Which nursing theorist defined the concepts and stages involved in the development of the nurse-client relationship?
a. Madeleine Leininger c. Imogene King
b. Betty Neuman d. Hildegard Peplau

 

 

ANS:  D

Peplau defined the concepts and stages involved in the development of the nurse-client relationship. Leiningers theory focuses on cultural diversity. Neumans model focuses on the wellness of the client system in relation to environmental stressors and reactions to stressors. Kings theory focuses on general systems.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Application    REF:   Early Nursing Theories

 

  1. The nurse is planning culturally competent care for a client. Which nursing theorist is best known for emphasizing the importance of cultural competency in nursing care?
a. Hildegard Peplau c. Betty Neuman
b. Madeline Leininger d. Imogene King

 

 

ANS:  B

Leiningers theory of cultural care diversity was first published in 1978; it provides specific interventions to assist people of diverse cultures. Peplaus theory focused on the development of the nurse-client relationship. Neumans theory focused on environmental stressors and the reactions to stressors. Kings module focused on general systems.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Application

REF:   Contemporary Nursing Theories

 

  1. The nurse, applying culture care diversity theory, is implementing the concept of repatterning and restructuring. This means the nurse is:
a. accepting and complying with the clients cultural beliefs.
b. adapting his beliefs and values to the clients beliefs.
c. planning and negotiating to accommodate to the clients food preferences and religious practices.
d. becoming knowledgeable enough about the clients culture to adjust nursing care as needed.

 

 

ANS:  D

Within Leiningers theory of cultural care diversity, one intervention is cultural care repatterning or restructuring. This means the nurse is knowledgeable about cultural care and develops ways to adjust care as needed. The intervention of cultural care preservation or maintenance means the nurse accepts and complies with the clients cultural beliefs. The intervention of cultural care accommodation or negotiation means the nurse plans and negotiates to accommodate to the clients food preferences and religious practices. Adapting the nurses beliefs and values to the clients beliefs is not a part of cultural care diversity theory.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Application    REF:   Contemporary Nursing Theories

 

  1. The nurse is studying client assessment data in efforts to formulate applicable nursing diagnoses. Which nurse theorist was instrumental in defining client problems that served as a foundation for the development of nursing diagnoses?
a. Joyce Travelbee c. Virginia Henderson
b. Faye Abdellah d. Josephine Paterson

 

 

ANS:  B

Abdellah expanded on Hendersons 14 needs and supported the idea that nursing research would be the key factor in helping nursing to emerge as a true profession. The research done regarding the needs has served as a foundation for the development of what is now known as nursing diagnoses. Travelbee developed the ideas of sympathy, empathy, and rapport. Henderson defined basic human needs as the foundation of nursing care. Paterson developed a theory that was based upon the humanistic and existential basis of nursing practice. Patersons theory was not popular and did not gain application in nursing.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Application    REF:   Early Nursing Theories

 

  1. The nurse is helping a client adapt to stressors that have caused ineffective coping. Which nursing theorist sees the person as an adaptive system who may need assistance with adaptation when stressors and ineffective coping occur?
a. Martha Rogers c. Sister Callista Roy
b. Betty Neuman d. Faye Abdellah

 

 

ANS:  C

Roys theory defines a person as an adaptive system that is in constant interaction with the environment. Nursing provides the assistance with adaptation when stressors and ineffective coping occur. Abdellah supported nursing research and studied client needs that serve as the foundation for the development of nursing diagnoses. Neumans model focuses on environmental stressors and reactions to stressors. Rogers theory identifies the person as an energy field.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Application    REF:   Theories for the New Worldview of Nursing

 

  1. The nurse is assessing a client for her current quality of life. Which nurse theorist defined the concept of quality of life?
a. Rosemarie Parse c. Hildegard Peplau
b. Virginia Henderson d. Madeline Leininger

 

 

ANS:  A

Parses theory is of human becoming and the human-universe-health process. The goal of nursing from this perspective is quality of life. Henderson identified basic human needs as the basis for nursing care. Peplau developed the theory to support the nurse-client relationship. Leiningers theory focuses on cultural care diversity.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Application

REF:   Theories for the New Worldview of Nursing

 

  1. The nurse is participating in a nursing research study based upon a particular nurse theory. The nurse is ultimately helping to develop:
a. standardized nursing care plans. c. nursing practice standards.
b. protocols. d. client discharge criteria.

 

 

ANS:  C

Nursing practice, theory, and research are interdependent. Nursing theory development and nursing research activities are directed toward developing nursing practice standards. The nurse is not helping to develop standardized nursing care plans, protocols, or client discharge criteria.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Analysis

REF:   Figure 2-1 Nursing Practice, Nursing Theory, Nursing Research

 

  1. The nurse is using conversation with a client in efforts to optimize the clients resources. The nursing theory that the nurse is implementing is:
a. Environmental theory. c. Conservation theory.
b. Science of unitary beings theory. d. Transcultural caring theory.

 

 

ANS:  C

In the Conservation theory, the nurse uses conversation aimed at optimizing the clients resources. In the Environmental theory, the nurse facilitates healing and restores health by manipulating the clients environment. In the Science of Unitary Beings theory, nursing is the creative use of science for human betterment. In the Transcultural Caring theory, caring is the central unifying domain for nursing knowledge and practice.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Application

REF:   Table 2-2 Summary of Selected Nursing Theorists Major Concepts

 

  1. The nursing student is studying the question what do nurses do? Which nurse theorist focused on answering this question?
a. Imogene King c. Martha Rogers
b. Dorothea Orem d. Madeline Leininger

 

 

ANS:  B

Orems theory of nursing systems attempts to answer the question What do nurses do? This was the original question that prompted the development of Orems theory. The other theorists did not attempt to answer the question What do nurses do?

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Application    REF:   Contemporary Nursing Theories

 

  1. The nurse providing care to a client in the intensive care unit is working with a variety of medical devices and providing treatments in order to support the clients changing physiological needs. The one concept that the nurse strives to preserve while facing these challenges is the notion of:
a. caring. c. sympathy.
b. empathy. d. balance.

 

 

ANS:  A

Knowledge, information, and technology in health care and nursing are growing at unprecedented rates. In the face of these advances and challenges, nursing strives to preserve the notion of caring in health care. Empathy and sympathy may or may not be achieved when providing care to a client in the intensive care unit. Balance may or may not be achieved while providing care to a client in the intensive care unit.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Application    REF:   Continuing Evolution of Nursing Theory

 

CHAPTER 20: CULTURAL DIVERSITY

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. The nurse groups people based on biological similarities. This is practice is grouping people according to:
a. race. c. culture.
b. ethnicity. d. nationality.

 

 

ANS:  A

Race refers to a grouping of people based on biological similarities. Ethnicity is a cultural groups perception of themselves. Culture refers to knowledge, beliefs, behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values, habits, customs, languages, symbols, rituals, ceremonies, and practices that are unique to a particular group of people. Nationality is a term used by some to describe the culture of origin.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Analysis         REF:   Concepts of Culture

 

  1. The nurse makes a conscious decision to not believe that ones own ethnic beliefs, customs and attitudes are correct and superior. This nurse is consciously avoiding:
a. racism. c. ethnocentrism.
b. stereotyping. d. acculturation.

 

 

ANS:  C

Ethnocentrism is the belief that ones own culture is superior to all others. Racism is discrimination toward individuals who are misperceived to be inferior due to biologic differences. Stereotyping is the expectation that all people within the same racial, ethnic, or cultural group act alike and share the same beliefs and attitudes. Acculturation is the process of assuming the characteristics of the dominant culture.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Application    REF:   Labeling and Stereotyping

 

  1. The nurse is reviewing characteristics of different cultural groups and recalls that a person from which group is most likely to make eye contact with the nurse?
a. Asian American c. African American
b. European American d. Native American

 

 

ANS:  B

Members of the European American culture believe eye contact indicates trustworthiness. With the other cultural groups listed, eye contact is either rude or disrespectful.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Analysis

REF:   Table 20-2 Application of Cultural Phenomena to Nursing Care

 

  1. The nurse recalls that an individual from which group is most likely to view health as an absence of disease or illness?
a. European American c. Hispanic American
b. Asian American d. African American

 

 

ANS:  A

Members of the European American culture usually define health as the absence of disease or illness. Asian Americans view health as a state of physical and spiritual harmony with nature. Hispanic Americans view health as a reward from God or the result of good luck. African Americans view health as harmony with nature.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Analysis

REF:   Table 20-2 Application of Cultural Phenomena to Nursing Care

 

  1. The nurse who is caring for a terminally ill infant asks the parents if they want their clergyman called to baptize the child. The parents reply that they do not believe in infant baptism. The nurse believes the infant must be baptized before it dies. Which action is most appropriate for the nurse to take?
a. Try to convince the parents to baptize the child.
b. Baptize the child.
c. Accept the directives of the parents.
d. Call the clergyman of the nurses faith to baptize the child.

 

 

ANS:  C

The nurse should use a nonjudgmental approach with the family of the terminally ill child and respect and accept the directives of the parents. The nurse should not try to convince the parents to baptize the child nor should the nurse baptize the child. The nurse should not call the clergyman of the nurses faith to baptize the child.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Application    REF:   Nonjudgmental Approach

 

  1. The nurse is giving care to a Hispanic American woman in the clients home. A curandero visits and administers herbs to the client that were not prescribed by the physician. The best action for the nurse is to:
a. inform the client that medication that is not prescribed by the physician may not be taken.
b. politely escort the curandero out of the clients home.
c. remove the herbs from the clients home.
d. recognize the clients right to different types of healing.

 

 

ANS:  D

To provide culturally sensitive care, the nurse should recognize the clients rights to different types of healing. The nurse should not tell the client that medication not prescribed by the physician may not be taken. The nurse should also not escort the curandero out of the clients home or remove the herbs from the clients home.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Application    REF:   Cultural Competence and Nursing Process

 

  1. The nurse is caring for a client who says, This is how weve always done it. The best interpretation of this is that the client:
a. is describing a cultural tradition. c. does not want new information.
b. is being resistant. d. has no need for new information.

 

 

ANS:  A

People learn about culture through traditions. When people state this is how weve always done it, they are describing cultural traditions. This statement does not imply resistance. The statement does not mean that the client does not want new information or has no need for new information.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Analysis         REF:   Concepts of Culture

 

  1. A nurse is caring for a client who is of African American heritage. The nurse assumes that the client has the same values as the nurses best friend who has a similar heritage. This is an example of:
a. ethnocentrism. c. cultural assimilation.
b. racism. d. stereotyping.

 

 

ANS:  D

Stereotyping is an expectation that all people within the same racial, ethnic, or cultural group act alike and share the same beliefs and attitudes. Ethnocentrism is the belief that ones own culture is superior to all others. Racism is discrimination directed toward individuals who are misperceived to be inferior due to biologic differences. Cultural assimilation occurs when individuals from a minority group are absorbed by the dominant culture and take on the characteristics of the dominant culture.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Application    REF:   Labeling and Stereotyping

 

  1. The nurse is caring for a female client who is Asian American. Important aspects to consider when planning care include:
a. expecting the client to verbally express disagreement or lack of understanding.
b. being flexible with time schedules.
c. expecting the client to make health care decisions.
d. liberal use of touch during conversation.

 

 

ANS:  B

When caring for a client of the Asian American culture, the nurse should be flexible with time schedules. The client will not verbally express disagreement or lack of understanding nor will the client make health care decisions since men have the power and authority in this culture. Touch is not used during conversation within this culture.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Application

REF:   Table 20-2 Application of Cultural Phenomena to Nursing Care

 

  1. A client who is homeless has come into the emergency department complaining of foot pain. An important factor that the nurse should remember about the homeless is that:
a. government insurance is available to them.
b. the majority of them have a form of mental illness or addiction.
c. health care facilities are readily accessible for them.
d. employment is available to them when they choose to work.

 

 

ANS:  B

Many homeless people are on the streets because they have some form of mental illness or are addicted to alcohol or other drugs. The other choices are incorrect about the homeless.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Analysis         REF:   The Homeless

 

  1. A Native American client admitted to the hospital for surgery asks if his medicine man can perform a 30-minute healing ceremony prior to surgery. The nurse should:
a. tell him that such rituals are not part of the preoperative routine.
b. explain that in modern health care, there is no need for the medicine man.
c. provide the space and privacy for the ceremony.
d. request the hospital chaplain to pray with the client.

 

 

ANS:  C

To provide culturally sensitive and competent care, the nurse should provide the space and privacy for the ceremony. The nurse should not tell the client that this type of ritual is not part of the preoperative routine. The nurse should also not tell the client that there is no need for the medicine man. The nurse should not ask the hospital chaplain to pray with the client.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Application    REF:   Cultural Competence and Nursing Process

 

  1. A client tells the nurse that she prefers to have a different physician because her physician makes her feel inferior due to their biological differences. This client is describing:
a. ethnocentrism. c. acculturation.
b. stereotyping. d. racism.

 

 

ANS:  D

Racism is discrimination directed towards individuals who are misperceived to be inferior due to biologic differences. Ethnocentrism is the belief that ones own culture is superior to all others. Stereotyping is an expectation that all people within the same racial, ethnic, or cultural group act alike and share the same beliefs and attitudes. Acculturation is when people assume the characteristics of the dominant culture.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Application    REF:   Labeling and Stereotyping

 

  1. Prior to planning care for a client from a different culture, the nurse realizes that behavior affecting health is primarily affected by:
a. education. c. culture.
b. religion. d. peer pressure.

 

 

ANS:  C

Every aspect of a persons life is influenced by culture. Behavior affecting health is culturally determined. Behavior affecting health is not primarily affected by education, religion, or peer pressure.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Analysis         REF:   Introduction

 

  1. A 60-year-old African American female client does not maintain direct eye contact with the nurse during the intake interview in the health clinic. The nurse should:
a. intensify her own eye contact with the client.
b. request the client to look at her when responding to questions.
c. position herself to facilitate eye contact with the client.
d. model her own eye contact to be similar to the clients.

 

 

ANS:  D

In the African American culture, direct eye contact is viewed as being rude; therefore, the nurse should model her own eye contact to be similar to the clients. The nurse should not intensify eye contact or position herself to facilitate eye contact. The nurse should also not request that the client look at her when responding.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Application

REF:   Table 20-2 Application of Cultural Phenomena to Nursing Care

 

  1. The nurse is providing care in a community with a culturally diverse population. In order to provide culturally sensitive care, the nurse must overcome barriers, the most difficult being:
a. language barriers.
b. the clients lack of health insurance.
c. the clients poor education and low reading skills.
d. cultural insensitivity.

 

 

ANS:  D

The nurse must overcome cultural insensitivity. Nurses care for clients who are different from themselves and must remember to determine the clients perception and significance to events. The nurse should honor each individuals differences while understanding that culture influences how clients are viewed and treated within health care settings. Nurses can obtain interpreters to assist with language barriers. Health insurance, education, and reading skills are not culturally determined and are incorrect choices.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Application    REF:   Value of Diversity

 

  1. A client tells the nurse that he realizes that he is treated differently from other members of society and that he has to learn how to stand up for himself. The nurse realizes this client is describing:
a. racism
b. ethnocentrism
c. stereotyping
d. minority group

 

 

ANS:  D

A minority group is labeled and treated differently from others in the society and are usually considered to be less powerful than the dominant group. Racism is defined as discrimination directed towards individuals who are misperceived to be inferior due to biologic differences. Ethnocentrism is the belief that ones own culture is superior to all others. Stereotyping is an expectation that all people within the same racial, ethnic, or cultural group act alike and share the same beliefs and attitudes.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Analysis         REF:   Labeling and Stereotyping

 

  1. The nurse is preparing to conduct an admission assessment on a client from a different culture. Which of the following is a characteristic of a culture?
a. Culture is inherited. c. Culture is shared.
b. Culture never changes. d. Culture is an individual experience.

 

 

ANS:  C

Culture is not static or uniform. It represents dynamic processes learned through life experiences. Culturally predetermined values and beliefs may change as new information is gained. There is much diversity among cultures. Culture is not inherited and is not an individual experience. Culture is shared.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Analysis         REF:   Culture

 

  1. A client tells the nurse that 30 years ago, when she arrived in America, she was a different person than she is today because today, she is an American! When a person develops a new cultural identity, it is called:
a. acculturation. c. assimilation.
b. ethnocentrism. d. cultural insensitivity.

 

 

ANS:  C

Assimilation occurs when individuals from a minority group are absorbed by the dominant culture and take on the characteristics of the dominant culture. Acculturation is the process of learning norms, beliefs, and behavioral expectations of a group. Ethnocentrism is the belief that ones own culture is superior to all others. Cultural insensitivity is not being aware of the needs, knowledge, beliefs, behaviors, and practices that are unique to a particular culture.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Application    REF:   Dominant Values in the United States

 

  1. An elderly client from another culture tells the nurse that he barely recognizes his grandchildren because they have all become Americans. This client is describing which of the following?
a. Acculturation c. Assimilation
b. Ethnocentrism d. Cultural insensitivity

 

 

ANS:  A

Acculturation occurs when people assume the characteristics of the dominant culture. Assimilation occurs when individuals from a minority group are absorbed by the dominant culture and take on the characteristics of the dominant culture. Ethnocentrism is the belief that ones own culture is superior to all others. Cultural insensitivity is not being aware of the needs, knowledge, beliefs, behaviors, and practices that are unique to a particular culture.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Application    REF:   Dominant Values in the United States

 

  1. When providing care to clients of the African American culture, which of the following should the nurse keep in mind as cultural phenomenon?
a. Physical closeness is avoided.
b. Direct eye contact is often viewed as being rude.
c. Families are small and structured.
d. There is a rigid concept of time.

 

 

ANS:  B

Cultural phenomenon within the African American culture includes close personal space, large extended families, and flexibility over the concept of time. Direct eye contact is often viewed as being rude.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Application

REF:   Table 20-2 Application of Cultural Phenomena to Nursing Care

 

  1. Prior to planning care for a client of the Asian American culture, the nurse should keep in mind which of the following cultural phenomenon?
a. Close, physical space is desired
b. State of physical and spiritual harmony with nature
c. Small, loosely structured family units
d. Ingest red meat on a daily basis

 

 

ANS:  B

Within the Asian American culture, health is defined as a state of physical and spiritual harmony with nature. Additional cultural phenomena includes avoiding physician contact and not desiring close physical space, family unit is very structured, and the diet consists primarily of raw fish, vegetables, and rice.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Application

REF:   Table 20-2 Application of Cultural Phenomena to Nursing Care

 

  1. The nurse, planning to assess a client from the Hispanic American culture, recalls that which of the following is NOT considered a cultural phenomenon of Hispanic Americans?
a. They tend to be verbally expressive.
b. They are very tactile and polite in

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