Fundamentals of Nursing 4th ed By Delaune Ladner-Test Bank

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Fundamentals of Nursing 4th ed By Delaune Ladner-Test Bank

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WITH ANSWERS
Fundamentals of Nursing 4th ed By Delaune Ladner-Test Bank

CHAPTER 2: NURSING THEORY

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. The nurse realizes that an appropriate example of a nursing theory is:
a. deep breathing in the postoperative period makes people healthier.
b. self-care is ideal.
c. nursing care is needed when people are affected by limitations that do not allow them to meet their self-care needs.
d. optimum health is the only ideal state.

 

 

ANS:  C

The choice nursing care is needed when people are affected by limitations that do not allow them to meet their self-care needs explains a set of concepts and propositions that provide an orderly way to view phenomena which is the definition of a theory. The other choices do not provide an orderly way to view phenomena but rather are propositions which propose a relationship between concepts.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Analysis         REF:   Components of the Theoretical Framework

 

  1. The nurse is going to use a theory from another discipline. Which of the following would the nurse select?
a. Self-care deficit theory
b. Science of unitary human beings
c. Theory of human caring
d. Theory of human development.

 

 

ANS:  D

The nursing profession uses theories from other disciplines. Examples of non-nursing theories include basic human needs, theory of human development, and the general adaptation syndrome theory. Self-care deficit theory, the theory of the science of unitary human beings, and the theory of human caring are all examples of nursing theories.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Application    REF:   Use of Theories from Other Disciplines

 

  1. The nurse is utilizing the metaparadigm of nursing when planning care for a client. The metaparadigm of nursing focuses on:
a. the person, health, and the environment.
b. pathophysiology and the curing of disease.
c. physicians, patients, and pathophysiology.
d. community, biology, and curing.

 

 

ANS:  A

The metaparadigm elements of nursing are person, environment, health, and nursing. The metaparadigm of nursing do not include the pathophysiology and curing of disease, physicians, patients, community, biology, or curing.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Application    REF:   Metaparadigm of Nursing

 

  1. The nurse is going to use a theory for planning client care that supports the simultaneity paradigm. This type of paradigm views the person as:
a. a combination of biological, psychological, social, and spiritual features.
b. being in constant interaction with the environment to accomplish goals and maintain balance.
c. needing nursing goals that focus on health promotion, care and cure of the sick, and prevention of illness.
d. more than, and different from, the sum of the parts.

 

 

ANS:  D

In the simultaneity paradigm, whole means unitary, and the unitary human has characteristics that are different from the parts and cannot be understood by a knowledge of the parts. Nursing goals in the simultaneity paradigm focus on the quality of life from the persons perspective. The other choices describe the totality paradigm.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Analysis         REF:   Paradigms in Nursing

 

  1. Which of the following theories from nurse theorists should be used if the nurse is planning care according to the simultaneity paradigm?
a. Jean Watson c. Dorothea Orem
b. Imogene King d. Sister Callista Roy

 

 

ANS:  A

Nurse theorists who developed theories that follow the simultaneity paradigm include Jean Watson, Martha Rogers, Rosemarie Parse, and Margaret Newman. Nurse theorists whose theories that follow the totality paradigm include Imogene King, Dorothea Orem, Sr. Callista Roy, Betty Neuman, and Madeleine Leininger.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Application    REF:   Paradigms in Nursing, Figure 2-2

 

  1. The nurse is studying the history of Florence Nightingale and realizes that which of the following statements is true about Nightingale as a nursing theorist?
a. She believed that formal education was not needed for nurses.
b. She developed principles of nursing that fit the modern definition of a theory.
c. She considered nursing to be a calling.
d. She stressed the importance of caring for the ill person rather than caring for the illness.

 

 

ANS:  D

Nightingales writings stressed the importance of caring for the ill person rather than caring for the illness. She considered nursing to be both an art and a science and believed that nurses should be formally educated. Nightingale did not develop a theory of nursing as theory is defined today so her principles do not fit the modern definition of a theory. Nightingale did believe that nursing was a calling; however, this has nothing to do with her being viewed as a nursing theorist.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Analysis         REF:   Florence Nightingale

 

  1. The nurse is planning to use the nursing theory that defines a person as an adaptive systema whole comprised of parts that function as a unity for some purpose. Which nurse theorist created this theory?
a. Martha Rogers c. Jean Watson
b. Sister Callista Roy d. Myra Levine

 

 

ANS:  B

Sister Callista Roy defines a person as an adaptive systema whole comprised of parts that function as a unity for some purpose. Rogers defines a person as a unified irreducible whole that is more than the sum of the parts. Watson defines the person as possessing three spheres: mind, body, and soul. Levine defines the person as being who the person knows himself to be.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Application

REF:   Table 2-2 Summary of Selected Nursing Theorists Major Concepts

 

  1. The nurse is planning to utilize the nursing theory that supports the paradigm shift occurring in nursing today. The theory that supports this paradigm shift was developed by which of the following?
a. Imogene King c. Sister Callista Roy
b. Rosemarie Parse d. Betty Neuman

 

 

ANS:  B

According to Parse, there are currently two paradigms in nursing: the totality paradigm and the simultaneity paradigm. Each of these paradigms has different definitions of concepts and propositions that state how these concepts are related. King, Roy, and Neumans theories all fall under the totality paradigm.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Application    REF:   Paradigms in Nursing

 

  1. The nurse, studying caring, is particularly interested in the theorist who believes health is associated with the degree of congruence between the self as perceived and the self as experienced. Which nursing theorist made this statement?
a. Jean Watson c. Florence Nightingale
b. Martha Rogers d. Rosemarie Parse

 

 

ANS:  A

Watson stated that health refers to unity and harmony within the mind, body, and soul and that health is also associated with the degree of congruence between the self as perceived and the self as experienced. Rogers believed that health is defined by the culture or the individual. Nightingale identified health as a state of well-being and using ones powers to the fullest extent. Parse identified health as an open process of becoming that encompasses a lived experience, synthesis of values, and rhythmic process of being or becoming.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Analysis

REF:   Table 2-2 Summary of Selected Nursing Theorists Major Concepts

 

  1. The nurse, interested in the concept of energy fields, should study which of the following theorists who views woman and her environment as energy fields?
a. Hildegard Peplau c. Martha Rogers
b. Jean Watson d. Myra Levine

 

 

ANS:  C

Rogers defined environment as an irreducible pandimensional energy field identified by pattern and integral with a given human field. Watson defined environment as an exchange between internal and external variables. Peplau defined environment as external factors and significant others. Levine defined the environment as being the context in which the person lives her life.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Application

REF:   Table 2-2 Summary of Selected Nursing Theorists Major Concepts

 

  1. The nurse is applying the principles of conservation when providing care to a client. Which theorist identified four principles of conservation?
a. Myra Levine c. Martha Rogers
b. Dorothea Orem d. Rosemarie Parse

 

 

ANS:  A

According to Levine, there are four principles of conservation which are: conservation of energy; conservation of structural integrity; conservation of personal integrity; and conservation of social integrity. Neither Orem, Rogers, nor Parse identified principles of conservation.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Application    REF:   Contemporary Nursing Theories

 

  1. The nurse is utilizing Dorothea Orems nursing model when planning client care. In this model, the role of the nurse is to:
a. influence the clients development in achieving an optimal level of self-care.
b. promote the clients adaptive behaviors by manipulating stimuli.
c. identify and help the individual respond to stressors.
d. help clients develop patterns of living that accommodate environmental changes.

 

 

ANS:  A

Dorothea Orem developed the self-care deficit theory of nursing which has three theories: theory of self-care, theory of self-care deficit, and theory of nursing systems. The other choices are not parts of Orems nursing theory.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Application    REF:   Contemporary Nursing Theories

 

  1. The nurse is reviewing a theory for the conceptual framework. A conceptual framework is a:
a. statement that proposes a relationship between concepts.
b. structure that links global concepts together and represents the unified whole of a larger reality.
c. set of concepts and propositions that provide an orderly way to view phenomena.
d. set of complex mental formulations of ones perceptions of the world.

 

 

ANS:  B

Theories are formulated by linking concepts together. A conceptual framework is a structure that links global concepts together and represents the unified whole of a larger reality. A proposition is a statement that proposes a relationship between concepts. A theory is a set of concepts and prepositions that provide an orderly way to view phenomena. A paradigm is a set of complex mental formulations of ones perceptions of the world.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Analysis         REF:   Components of the Theoretical Foundation

 

  1. The nursing activity that best demonstrates Nightingales theory of nursing is:
a. taking the client to the hospital chapel in a wheelchair.
b. manipulating the clients energy fields through therapeutic touch.
c. working with a community group to improve air quality in the city.
d. working with the client to identify their needs and formulate mutual goals.

 

 

ANS:  C

Nightingales theory included the principles of sanitation and the relationship between environment and health. A persons health was the direct result of environmental influences such as cleanliness, light, pure water, pure air, and efficient drainage. The other choices are not parts of Nightingales theory of nursing.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Application    REF:   Selected Nursing Theories: Florence Nightingale

 

  1. The nurse is participating in a nursing research study. Nursing research is best defined as a:
a. concept that provides a framework for thought in which to examine situations.
b. method of study that clarifies beliefs, values, and goals in nursing.
c. systematic application of formalized methods for generating valid and dependable information about nursing practice.
d. field of study that includes the biological, physical, and behavioral sciences.

 

 

ANS:  C

Nursing research is the systematic application of formalized methods for generating valid and dependable information about the phenomena of concern to the discipline of nursing. A discipline is a field of study that includes the biological, physical, and behavioral sciences. A theory can be defined as being either a concept that provides a framework for thought in which to examine situations or a method of study that clarifies beliefs, values, and goals in nursing.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Application    REF:   Components of the Theoretical Foundation

 

  1. The nurse is planning to utilize Peplaus nursing theory since it provides a perspective from which to view complex situations and direct interventions. Peplaus theory would be considered:
a. micro-range theory. c. nursing theory.
b. grand theory. d. middle-range theory.

 

 

ANS:  D

Middle-range theories views complex situations more narrowly to help direct interventions. A grand theory is composed of concepts representing global and extremely complex phenomena. A nursing theory provides a framework for thought in which to examine situations. A micro-range theory explains a specific phenomenon of concern to the discipline of nursing.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Application    REF:   Scope of Theories

 

  1. The nurse is assisting a client to perform activities that contribute to the clients health that the client would do unassisted if able. The nurse is implementing the theory of which nursing theorist?
a. Dorothea Orem c. Virginia Henderson
b. Martha Rogers d. Hilda Peplau

 

 

ANS:  C

Virginia Henderson believed that the unique function of the nurse is to assist the client in the performance of those activities that contribute to health that would be performed unassisted if the client were able. Peplaus theory focused on the development of the nurse-client relationship. Orems theory focused on self-care and self-care deficits. Rogers theory of nursing focused on energy fields.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Application    REF:   Early Nursing Theories

 

  1. The nurse, assessing a client for stressors, is implementing which of the following nursing theorists hypothesis, which focused on the wellness of the client system in relation to environmental stressors and reactions to stressors?
a. Hilda Peplau c. Joyce Travelbee
b. Betty Neuman d. Sister Callista Roy

 

 

ANS:  B

Betty Neumans systems model focuses on the wellness of the client system in relation to environmental stressors and reactions to stressors. Peplaus theory focused on the development of the nurse-client relationship. Travelbees theory focused on existentialism. Roys theory focuses on adaptation and coping mechanisms.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Application    REF:   Contemporary Nursing Theories

 

  1. The nurse is demonstrating empathy while establishing a rapport with a client. Which nursing theorist was most influenced by the philosophy of existentialism and developed the ideas of empathy and rapport?
a. Joyce Travelbee c. Myra Levine
b. Dorothea Orem d. Jean Watson

 

 

ANS:  A

Travelbee was influenced by the philosophy of existentialism and extensively developed the ideas of sympathy, empathy, and rapport in which the nurse relates to the uniqueness of others. Levines theory focused on conservation. Orems theory focused on self-care and self-care deficits. Watsons theory focuses on human caring and can be linked to Travelbees theory.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Application    REF:   Early Nursing Theories

 

  1. The theorists who were influenced by existentialism developed theories that would most likely be categorized as fitting in with:
a. the nursing process. c. the totality paradigm.
b. the simultaneity paradigm. d. the Unitarian paradigm.

 

 

ANS:  B

Existentialism is defined as a movement that is centered on individual existence in an incomprehensible world and the role that free will plays in it and searches to find meaning in lifes experiences. In the simultaneity paradigm, whole means unitary and the unitary human has characteristics that are different from the parts and cannot be understood by a knowledge of the parts. Nursing goals in the simultaneity paradigm focus on the quality of life from the persons perspective. In the totality paradigm, the person is in constant interaction with the environment to accomplish goals and maintain balance. The nursing process consists of assessment, planning, implementation, and evaluation. The Unitarian paradigm does not fit into the discipline of nursing.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Analysis         REF:   Paradigms in Nursing

 

  1. The nurse is talking with a client in efforts to strengthen the new relationship. Which nursing theorist defined the concepts and stages involved in the development of the nurse-client relationship?
a. Madeleine Leininger c. Imogene King
b. Betty Neuman d. Hildegard Peplau

 

 

ANS:  D

Peplau defined the concepts and stages involved in the development of the nurse-client relationship. Leiningers theory focuses on cultural diversity. Neumans model focuses on the wellness of the client system in relation to environmental stressors and reactions to stressors. Kings theory focuses on general systems.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Application    REF:   Early Nursing Theories

 

  1. The nurse is planning culturally competent care for a client. Which nursing theorist is best known for emphasizing the importance of cultural competency in nursing care?
a. Hildegard Peplau c. Betty Neuman
b. Madeline Leininger d. Imogene King

 

 

ANS:  B

Leiningers theory of cultural care diversity was first published in 1978; it provides specific interventions to assist people of diverse cultures. Peplaus theory focused on the development of the nurse-client relationship. Neumans theory focused on environmental stressors and the reactions to stressors. Kings module focused on general systems.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Application

REF:   Contemporary Nursing Theories

 

  1. The nurse, applying culture care diversity theory, is implementing the concept of repatterning and restructuring. This means the nurse is:
a. accepting and complying with the clients cultural beliefs.
b. adapting his beliefs and values to the clients beliefs.
c. planning and negotiating to accommodate to the clients food preferences and religious practices.
d. becoming knowledgeable enough about the clients culture to adjust nursing care as needed.

 

 

ANS:  D

Within Leiningers theory of cultural care diversity, one intervention is cultural care repatterning or restructuring. This means the nurse is knowledgeable about cultural care and develops ways to adjust care as needed. The intervention of cultural care preservation or maintenance means the nurse accepts and complies with the clients cultural beliefs. The intervention of cultural care accommodation or negotiation means the nurse plans and negotiates to accommodate to the clients food preferences and religious practices. Adapting the nurses beliefs and values to the clients beliefs is not a part of cultural care diversity theory.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Application    REF:   Contemporary Nursing Theories

 

  1. The nurse is studying client assessment data in efforts to formulate applicable nursing diagnoses. Which nurse theorist was instrumental in defining client problems that served as a foundation for the development of nursing diagnoses?
a. Joyce Travelbee c. Virginia Henderson
b. Faye Abdellah d. Josephine Paterson

 

 

ANS:  B

Abdellah expanded on Hendersons 14 needs and supported the idea that nursing research would be the key factor in helping nursing to emerge as a true profession. The research done regarding the needs has served as a foundation for the development of what is now known as nursing diagnoses. Travelbee developed the ideas of sympathy, empathy, and rapport. Henderson defined basic human needs as the foundation of nursing care. Paterson developed a theory that was based upon the humanistic and existential basis of nursing practice. Patersons theory was not popular and did not gain application in nursing.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Application    REF:   Early Nursing Theories

 

  1. The nurse is helping a client adapt to stressors that have caused ineffective coping. Which nursing theorist sees the person as an adaptive system who may need assistance with adaptation when stressors and ineffective coping occur?
a. Martha Rogers c. Sister Callista Roy
b. Betty Neuman d. Faye Abdellah

 

 

ANS:  C

Roys theory defines a person as an adaptive system that is in constant interaction with the environment. Nursing provides the assistance with adaptation when stressors and ineffective coping occur. Abdellah supported nursing research and studied client needs that serve as the foundation for the development of nursing diagnoses. Neumans model focuses on environmental stressors and reactions to stressors. Rogers theory identifies the person as an energy field.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Application    REF:   Theories for the New Worldview of Nursing

 

  1. The nurse is assessing a client for her current quality of life. Which nurse theorist defined the concept of quality of life?
a. Rosemarie Parse c. Hildegard Peplau
b. Virginia Henderson d. Madeline Leininger

 

 

ANS:  A

Parses theory is of human becoming and the human-universe-health process. The goal of nursing from this perspective is quality of life. Henderson identified basic human needs as the basis for nursing care. Peplau developed the theory to support the nurse-client relationship. Leiningers theory focuses on cultural care diversity.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Application

REF:   Theories for the New Worldview of Nursing

 

  1. The nurse is participating in a nursing research study based upon a particular nurse theory. The nurse is ultimately helping to develop:
a. standardized nursing care plans. c. nursing practice standards.
b. protocols. d. client discharge criteria.

 

 

ANS:  C

Nursing practice, theory, and research are interdependent. Nursing theory development and nursing research activities are directed toward developing nursing practice standards. The nurse is not helping to develop standardized nursing care plans, protocols, or client discharge criteria.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Analysis

REF:   Figure 2-1 Nursing Practice, Nursing Theory, Nursing Research

 

  1. The nurse is using conversation with a client in efforts to optimize the clients resources. The nursing theory that the nurse is implementing is:
a. Environmental theory. c. Conservation theory.
b. Science of unitary beings theory. d. Transcultural caring theory.

 

 

ANS:  C

In the Conservation theory, the nurse uses conversation aimed at optimizing the clients resources. In the Environmental theory, the nurse facilitates healing and restores health by manipulating the clients environment. In the Science of Unitary Beings theory, nursing is the creative use of science for human betterment. In the Transcultural Caring theory, caring is the central unifying domain for nursing knowledge and practice.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Application

REF:   Table 2-2 Summary of Selected Nursing Theorists Major Concepts

 

  1. The nursing student is studying the question what do nurses do? Which nurse theorist focused on answering this question?
a. Imogene King c. Martha Rogers
b. Dorothea Orem d. Madeline Leininger

 

 

ANS:  B

Orems theory of nursing systems attempts to answer the question What do nurses do? This was the original question that prompted the development of Orems theory. The other theorists did not attempt to answer the question What do nurses do?

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Application    REF:   Contemporary Nursing Theories

 

  1. The nurse providing care to a client in the intensive care unit is working with a variety of medical devices and providing treatments in order to support the clients changing physiological needs. The one concept that the nurse strives to preserve while facing these challenges is the notion of:
a. caring. c. sympathy.
b. empathy. d. balance.

 

 

ANS:  A

Knowledge, information, and technology in health care and nursing are growing at unprecedented rates. In the face of these advances and challenges, nursing strives to preserve the notion of caring in health care. Empathy and sympathy may or may not be achieved when providing care to a client in the intensive care unit. Balance may or may not be achieved while providing care to a client in the intensive care unit.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Application    REF:   Continuing Evolution of Nursing Theory

CHAPTER 12: LEGAL AND ETHICAL RESPONSIBILITIES

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. The nurse is reviewing the different types of laws. An example of administrative law that affects nursing is:
a. civil rights acts. c. nurse practice acts.
b. substance abuse laws. d. negligence laws.

 

 

ANS:  C

Under administrative law, state boards of nursing are given the power to further delineate the rules and regulations governing nursing as set forth in nurse practice acts. The other choices are incorrect.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Analysis         REF:   Table 12-1 Types of Public Law| Sources of Law

 

  1. Which of the following situations would be covered under criminal law?
a. The nurse injures a client while performing a procedure.
b. A clients hospitalization is prolonged because of an action on the part of the nurse.
c. The nurse breaks a clients false teeth.
d. The nurse takes narcotics from the narcotics cabinet for personal use.

 

 

ANS:  D

The nurse who takes narcotics from the narcotics cabinet for personal use would be covered under criminal law. The other choices would be covered under contract or tort law.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Analysis         REF:   Sources of Law

 

  1. The nurse is concerned that she is going to be sued for negligence. Negligence is defined as:
a. the failure of an individual to provide care that a reasonable person would ordinarily use in a similar circumstance.
b. improper discharge of professional duties or failure to meet the standards of acceptable care, which result in harm to another person.
c. an intentional and unlawful offer to touch a person in an offensive, insulting, or physically intimidating manner.
d. an obligation one has incurred or might incur through any act or failure to act.

 

 

ANS:  A

Negligence is the failure of an individual to provide care that a reasonable person would ordinarily use in a similar circumstance. Malpractice is the improper discharge of professional duties or failure to meet the standards of acceptable care, which result in harm to another person. Assault is an intentional and unlawful offer to touch a person in an offensive, insulting, or physically intimidating manner. Liability is an obligation one has incurred or might incur through any act or failure to act.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Analysis         REF:   Legal Liability in Nursing

 

  1. When a negligence case is brought against a nurse, it is necessary to prove liability. Which element is not essential for proof of liability?
a. Duty c. Injury
b. Witnesses d. Causation

 

 

ANS:  B

Proof of liability includes duty, breach of duty, injury, and causation. Witnesses are not included as proof of liability.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Analysis         REF:   Legal Liability in Nursing

 

  1. A nurse is being sued. During this suit, the reasonable person standard is being addressed. This standard asks:
a. what a reasonable nurse would do in a similar situation.
b. if the action taken was reasonable in the eyes of the plaintiff.
c. if the institutions standards were reasonable.
d. what the public considers to be a reasonable action.

 

 

ANS:  A

Courts usually apply the reasonable personal standard during a malpractice suit and this standard asks what would a reasonable nurse do in a similar situation? The other choices do not describe the reasonable person standard.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Analysis         REF:   Legal Liability in Nursing

 

  1. A nurse working in a neonatal intensive care unit is being sued. An expert witness is called. The expert witness would be:
a. a physician who specializes in neonatology.
b. the chief of nursing in the hospital.
c. a neonatal intensive care nurse.
d. a faculty member in a university school of nursing.

 

 

ANS:  C

An expert witness is a person called upon by parties in a malpractice suit who is a member of the same profession as the party being sued and who is qualified to testify about the expected behaviors performed by members of the profession in a similar situation. A neonatal intensive care nurse would be an expect witness for the nurse working in a neonatal intensive care unit. The other choices would not be expert witnesses for this situation.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Analysis         REF:   Legal Liability in Nursing

 

  1. The nurse is planning to apply restraints to a client. In which situation may the nurse legally use restraints?
a. The client states he wants to get out of bed but the doctor has ordered bed rest.
b. The client keeps asking for help to go to the bathroom and the nurse is very busy.
c. The newly admitted client is confused as to the location of his bathroom.
d. The critically ill client becomes violent and is removing IV lines and medical monitoring devices.

 

 

ANS:  D

In an emergency situation when a client becomes violent and is in imminent danger of harming self or others, the nurse may apply restraints and then immediately obtain an order from the physician. In the other situations, the nurse may be charged with false imprisonment, assault and battery, or both.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Analysis         REF:   False Imprisonment

 

  1. The hospitalized clients uncle, who is a physician, asks the nurse for the clients chart. The uncle is not the physician on the case. The best response for the nurse is to:
a. extend professional courtesy and let him see the chart.
b. ask the client for written consent before allowing the relative to see the chart.
c. tell the physician where the chart is but not actually give it to the physician.
d. call the supervisor.

 

 

ANS:  B

Nurses must obtain the clients permission before disclosing any information regarding the client. Therefore, the nurse should ask the client for written consent before allowing the relative to see the chart. The nurse should not extend professional courtesy nor tell the physician where the chart is located. The nurse does not need to contact the supervisor.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Application    REF:   Privacy and Confidentiality

 

  1. The nurse is reading about a case in which Medicare fraud is suspected. Which of the following is true about fraud?
a. It is written information given to a third party that causes damage to someones reputation.
b. It is oral information given to a third party that causes damage to someones reputation.
c. It results from a deliberate deception intended to produce unlawful gain.
d. It results from revealing confidential information without the persons permission.

 

 

ANS:  C

Fraud results from a deliberate deception intended to produce unlawful gain. Libel is written information given to a third party that causes damage to someones reputation. Slander is oral information given to a third party that causes damage to someones reputation. A HIPAA violation results from revealing confidential information without the persons permission.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Analysis         REF:   Defamation| Fraud| Privacy and Confidentiality

 

  1. A hospital refuses to allow a visitor with a seeing eye dog to enter the hospital. This violates the:
a. U.S. Constitution. c. Civil Liberties Act.
b. Good Samaritan Act. d. Americans with Disabilities Act.

 

 

ANS:  D

The Americans with Disabilities Act prohibits discrimination on the basis of disability in employment, public services, and public accommodations. Refusing to allow a visitor with a seeing eye dog to enter the hospital is not addressed within the U.S. Constitution, the Good Samaritan Act, or the Civil Liberties Act.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Analysis         REF:   The Americans with Disabilities Act

 

  1. As a result of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), which of the following must the nurse do?
a. Post clients name outside their door
b. Discuss the clients condition with any immediate family member
c. Place charts containing clients names within public view
d. Store medical records in secure areas

 

 

ANS:  D

As a result of HIPAA, posting a clients name near the room door is prohibited. Charts containing clients names cannot be within public view. Discussing the clients condition with any immediate family member is also prohibited. Medical records must be stored in secure areas.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Application    REF:   Privacy and Confidentiality

 

  1. In which situation is the nurse NOT subject to liability?
a. The nurse correctly administers first aid at the scene of an automobile accident. However, the client sustains permanent injuries.
b. The nurse performs a procedure but does not document it. The client claims injuries because the procedure was not performed.
c. The nurse performs a new procedure for which she has not received training. The client claims injuries.
d. The nurse wraps tape around a frayed electrical cord. The equipment malfunctions and the client claims injuries.

 

 

ANS:  A

The nurse who correctly administers first aid at the scene of an automobile accident is covered under the Good Samaritan Act even though the client sustains permanent injuries. The Good Samaritan Act is a law that provides protection to health care providers by ensuring immunity from civil liability when providing assistance at the scene of an emergency when the caregiver does not intentionally or recklessly cause injury to the client. The other choices would subject the nurse to liability.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Analysis         REF:   Good Samaritan Acts

 

  1. If a nurse suspects a coworker is abusing chemicals, the nurse should:
a. try to help the coworker.
b. refer the coworker to a substance abuse program.
c. report the coworker to nursing administration.
d. call the police.

 

 

ANS:  C

If a nurse suspects a coworker is abusing chemicals, the nurse has a duty to report the individual to nursing administration in a confidential manner with the goal of treatment being the priority issue. The nurse should not attempt to help the coworker or refer the coworker to a substance abuse program. The nurse should not call the police.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Application    REF:   Use of Controlled Substances

 

  1. The nurse is reviewing orders provided by a licensed physician. When is a nurse NOT obligated to follow the orders of this physician?
a. When there is not enough staff to complete all the orders
b. When the orders are given verbally
c. When the orders are written illegibly
d. When the orders would result in harm to the client

 

 

ANS:  D

Nurses are obligated to follow the orders of a licensed physician unless the orders would result in client harm. The nurse is to follow the orders of a licensed physician even if there are not enough staff to complete the orders. Nurses are obligated to follow verbal and written orders.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Analysis         REF:   Executing Prescribed Orders

 

  1. The nurse is caring for a client who is being provided with informed consent. This means the:
a. benefits and risks of the procedure are being explained to the client by the health care provider before consent is obtained.
b. consent forms are being obtained for noninvasive procedures.
c. client must be alive to give consent.
d. procedure is for a life-threatening emergency.

 

 

ANS:  A

Informed consent means that the client understands the benefits and risks of the procedure and agrees to the treatment by signing a consent form. Consent forms must be obtained for all invasive procedures and not for noninvasive procedures. The client must be mentally competent to sign the consent form and not just alive. Consent forms can be waived if the procedure is for a life-threatening emergency procedure.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Application    REF:   Informed Consent

 

  1. The client tells the nurse that she has a living will. This document:
a. provides direction regarding medical care in the event the person is unable to make decisions personally.
b. enables any competent individual to name someone to exercise decision-making authority, under specific circumstances, on the individuals behalf.
c. provides general information about an individuals personal values, beliefs, and preferences that would be useful in guiding treatment decisions made by health care professionals.
d. provides precise instructions for the type of care the client wants or does not want in a number of scenarios.

 

 

ANS:  A

A living will is a document that provides direction regarding medical care in the event that the person is unable to make decisions personally. Durable power of attorney enables any competent individual to name someone to exercise decision-making authority, under specific circumstances, on the individuals behalf. Morality provides general information about an individuals personal values, beliefs, and preferences that would be used in guiding treatment decisions made by health care professionals. Advanced care medical directive provides precise instructions for the type of care the client wants or does not want in a number of scenarios.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Analysis         REF:   Patient Self-Determination Act

 

  1. The nurse is determining the difference between ethics and morality. Morality:
a. usually reflects personal or religious beliefs.
b. is the study of rightness of conduct.
c. is rooted in the legal system.
d. reflects the political values of our society.

 

 

ANS:  A

Morality is behavior in accordance with custom or tradition and usually reflects personal or religious beliefs. Ethics examines the difference between right and wrong. The other two choices do not describe or define either morality or ethics and are incorrect.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Analysis         REF:   Concept of Ethics

 

  1. The members of the organizations ethics committee are reviewing theories that could help guide them with decision making. Which statement best describes the ethical theory of teleology?
a. It is also known as the categorical imperative.
b. It was postulated by Immanuel Kant.
c. It states that the value of a situation is determined by its consequences.
d. It states that one should act only if the action is based on a universal principle.

 

 

ANS:  C

Teleology is the ethical theory that states that the value of a situation is determined by its consequences. John Stuart Mill advocated the ethical theory of teleology. A categorical imperative means that a person should not be treated as a means to an end. Immanuel Kant postulated the deontology theory of ethics. Acting only if the action is based on a universal principle describes the deontology theory of ethics.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Analysis         REF:   Ethical Theories

 

  1. The nurse provides client care according to the obligation to do no harm to another. The ethical principle that the nurse is implementing would be:
a. autonomy. c. beneficence.
b. nonmaleficence. d. veracity.

 

 

ANS:  B

Nonmaleficence is the obligation to do or cause no harm to another. Autonomy is the respect for an individuals right to self-determination. Beneficence is the duty to do good to others and to maintain a balance between benefits and harms. Veracity is the obligation to tell the truth.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Application    REF:   Table 12-4 Overview of Ethical Principles

 

  1. The hospitals ethics committee is ensuring client care is provided according to the concept of justice. This ethical principle refers to:
a. respect for individual liberty.
b. equitable distribution of potential benefits and risks.
c. the duty to do what one has promised.
d. maintaining a balance between benefits and harms.

 

 

ANS:  B

Justice is the equitable distribution of potential benefits and risks. Autonomy is the respect for individual liberty. Fidelity is the duty to do what one has promised. Beneficence is maintaining a balance between benefits and harms.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Analysis         REF:   Table 12-4 Overview of Ethical Principles

 

  1. After being told that surgery would probably benefit the client, the client refuses to have the surgery. In accepting the clients choice of action, the nurse is acting on which ethical principle?
a. Nonmaleficence c. Veracity
b. Justice d. Autonomy

 

 

ANS:  D

Autonomy is the respect for an indiv

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