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Test Bank Fundamentals Nursing 9th Edition Berman
Organize these events in chronological order, beginning with the earliest (1) and ending with the most recent (5):
Standard Text: Click and drag the options below to move them up or down.
Choice 1. The Order of Deaconesses opens a small hospital in Kaiserswerth, Germany.
Choice 2. The Knights of St. Lazarus dedicate themselves to the care of people with leprosy, syphilis, and chronic skin conditions
Choice 3. Harriet Tubman provides care to slaves fleeing on the Underground Railroad.
Choice 4. The Cadet Nurse Corps is established.
Choice 5. Florence Nightingale administers to soldiers during the Crimean War.
In alignment with the contributions of Florence Nightingale, the Vietnam Womens Memorial was established to honor which of the following?
1. The memory of Ms. Nightingale
2. Those who brought a human touch to the suffering and dying
3. The image of the angel of mercy
4. Surgical advancements and the use of anesthetic agents
Public health and health promotion roles for nurses are components of nursing envisioned by which of the following nurse leaders?
1. Clara Barton
2. Lillian Wald
3. Mary Brewster
4. Florence Nightingale
Which of the following nurse leaders campaigned for the legislation that allows nurses, rather than physicians, to control the nursing profession?
1. Mary Breckinridge
2. Lavinia Dock
3. Margaret Higgins Sanger
4. Virginia Henderson
Which of the following themes are common in the definitions of nursing? (Select all that apply.)
_______ Client centered
_______ Goal directed according to the needs of the client
_______ Diagnosis and treatment of disease
_______ An art
_______ A science
The term patient usually implies that the person is:
1. Seeking assistance because of illness.
2. Proactive in his or her health care needs.
3. A collaborator in his or her care.
4. Using a service or commodity.
A nurse has decided to focus on educating the community about health promotion and wellness. Which of the following would be an example of this?
1. Initiating prenatal and infant care
2. Holding classes on prevention of sexually transmitted disease
3. Implementing an exercise class for clients who have had a stroke
4. Teaching a class about home accident prevention
Nursing students offer free occult blood screening at a community health fair. This activity would be an example of which area of nursing practice?
1. Promoting health and wellness
2. Illness prevention
3. Restoring health
A new graduate has starting working in a state other than the one in which the nursing education program was located. Which of the following should this nurse consult in order to understand the implications of this change of venue?
1. American Nurses Association (ANA)
2. National League for Nursing (NLN)
3. National Council of State Boards of Nursing (NCSBN)
4. Nurse State Practice Act
A seasoned nurse who acts as a mentor for a new graduate is practicing which of the standards of professional performance?
A high school graduate is considering entering a nursing program that offers a baccalaureate degree. Which of the following is the entity that accredits baccalaureate programs (or higher)?
1. NLN (National League for Nursing)
2. CCNE (Commission on Collegiate Nursing Education)
3. NCLEX (National Council Licensure Examination)
4. NCSBN (National Council of State Boards of Nursing)
If the RN has several LPNs on the shift to supervise, which of the following responsibilities will fall to the RN?
1. Evaluating the care provided to the client
2. Administering scheduled injectable medications
3. Performing complex dressing changes
4. Supervising unlicensed client care providers (such as a nurses aide)
Several nurse educators are working together to promote articulation agreements between prospective nursing programs in their state. Funding for this type of program was made possible by which of the following?
1. Pew Health Professions Commission
2. Goldmark report
3. Brown report
4. Colleagues in Caring
A nurse faculty member is speaking to prospective students to the BSN program at their educational institution. Which of the following is a major incentive for students to select a BSN program over an ADN program?
1. Ability to work in critical care areas
2. Easier transition to graduate school
3. Better opportunity for career advancement
4. Liberal arts education
The ANAs proposal for entry level for professional practice initiated debate among nurses. Which of the following would be most at risk if the ANA proposal were implemented?
1. An RN with an associate degree who has a head nurse position
2. An RN with a BSN who is a staff nurse
3. An RN with a diploma who works overtime
4. An RN with an associate degree who is currently in school
Although Florence Nightingale demonstrated the importance of research in nursing care as early as 1854, the research approach did not take hold in nursing until the beginning of the 20th century. Put these events in chronological order, starting with the earliest (1) and proceeding to the most recent (4):
Standard Text: Click and drag the options below to move them up or down.
Choice 1. The National Center for Nursing Research was created.
Choice 2. The National Institute for Nursing Research was created.
Choice 3. The journal Nursing Research was established.
Choice 4. End-of-life/palliative care research was conducted.
Some nursing students have been given an assignment to develop a research question from a quantitative approach. Which of the following would be an example of a quantitative research question in the clinical area?
1. How do siblings react to a new baby of a second marriage after divorce of their parents?
2. What dressing selections work best for a wound dehiscence?
3. What support do terminal cancer clients find least beneficial in hospice care?
4. Does expression of client spirituality affect recovery time?
A client has agreed to participate in a research study. Which of the following would constitute risk of harm to this client?
1. Withholding information about the study
2. Suggesting that participation would greatly benefit the clients financial situation
3. Giving the client false information about his or her participation
4. Providing the clients name as a participant in the study
A nursing instructor is researching the implementation of assigning study guides for homework points and the effect this has on the students test grades. The instructor reports group data for published research. This is an example of which of the rights in research?
1. Right of full disclosure
2. Right of confidentiality
3. Right of self-determination
4. Risk of harm
A nurse researcher is exploring and formulating research problems. Which of the following criteria should the nurse researcher consider in this process? (Select all that apply.)
______ Interest to the researcher
Nursing students have been assigned to develop their own theory of nursing. Which of the following would they include in their theory, often referred to as the metaparadigm for nursing?
1. Society, medicine, nursing, and biology
2. Patient, facility, health, and nursing
3. Organization, discipline, nursing, and client
4. Client, environment, health, and nursing
Nursing students have been studying the stability model of nurse theorists. This view can be described as which of the following? (Select all that apply.)
______ Stress/adaptation framework
______ Martha Rogerss theory
______ Caring/complexity framework
______ Callista Roys theory
______ Systems framework
Nursing students are researching how cultural practices affect the dying process of terminal cancer clients. For their research, they most likely will explore which of the following?
1. Critical theory
2. Midlevel theories
3. Grand theories
4. Stability models
A nurse is caring for a client with a severe head trauma. Each shift, the nurse pays attention to the lighting, atmosphere, and surroundings the client is exposed to. The nurse is functioning according to the assumptions of which nursing theorist?
1. Dorothea Orem
2. Martha Rogers
3. Florence Nightingale
4. Jean Watson
Nursing staff members from an acute psychiatric unit have been asked to establish a nurse theorist they can easily identify with in their practice. Understanding the importance of developing a therapeutic relationship between themselves and their clients, especially in this unit, which theorist would they most likely be drawn to?
1. Florence Nightingale
2. Hildegard Peplau
3. Jean Watson
4. Dorothea Orem
During a hospital stay, the client has taken control of her recovery and rehabilitation and is utilizing available resources for her needs. This describes which level of Peplaus model?
Which of the following nurse theorists focused her theory on 14 fundamental needs of individuals?
1. Dorothea Orem
2. Florence Nightingale
3. Martha Rogers
4. Virginia Henderson
A nurse has implemented the use of noncontact therapeutic touch. Which theorist applied the concept surrounding this intervention?
1. Florence Nightingale
2. Martha Rogers
3. Virginia Henderson
4. Rosemarie Parse
The nurse is teaching health and wellness principles to junior high students. According to Orems theory, which category of self-care requisite are these students experiencing?
3. Health deviation
According to Orems self-care deficit theory, people are assisted through which of the following methods of helping? (Select all that apply.)
1. Balancing rest
5. Preventing hazards to life
A client was given the wrong dose of medication and died. The case is being tried in court and similar cases are used by the court in comparison to arrive at a decision. What doctrine is being applied here?
1. Common law
2. Public law
3. Administrative law
4. Stare decisis
The student nurse is studying the various applications of law to understand the regulations surrounding nursing practice in the state. What is the type of law that implements and enforces the nurse practice act of any given state?
1. Statutory law
2. Administrative law
3. Common law
4. Public law
The admitting nurse explains the process of signing forms to allow for the clients insurance company to be billed for services. If the insurance fails to pay for services, the client is responsible for payment. This is an example of which of the following?
1. Contract law
2. Tort law
3. Statutory law
4. Administrative law
A nurse forgets to put the call light within the clients reach and then leaves the room. The client reaches for it and falls out of bed. The nurse could be charged with which of the following?
4. Criminal intent
Before a case goes to court, the attorney will make an effort to understand and obtain all the facts surrounding a situation-for example, other staff who were working with the client, anyone who might have had access to the clients information, and the clients mental status and condition. This is referred to as which of the following?
1. Burden of proof
4. Civil action
Before the nurse can apply for re-licensure, the state board of nursing requires a specific number of hours of continuing education in nursing in-service or education. This practice best exemplifies which of the following?
Which of the following entities must accredit or approve all nursing programs in its jurisdiction?
1. State board of nursing
The nurse carries out a medication order, incorrectly written by the physician and subsequently filled by the pharmacist. Who, in this situation, is legally liable for the action?
The doctrine that holds the hospital responsible as well as the nurse in cases of professional malpractice is which of the following?
1. Contractual relationship
2. Stare decisis
3. Respondeat superior
4. Res ipsa loquitur
A client is to undergo an invasive procedure by a physician. The client is questioning some of the terminology in the consent form. Which of the following is the appropriate response by the nurse?
1. Just sign the form, and Ill make sure your physician talks to you before he begins the procedure.
2. Ill explain whatever you dont understand.
3. You should have asked your physician when he was in here.
4. Ill call your physician back in the room to answer your questions.
A student is attending a school with a high first-time pass rate on the NCLEX. A belief that the nursing student has about faculty in the program could be expressed as which of the following? Faculty:
1. Expect high academic standards from their students.
2. Are concerned with job placement of their graduates.
3. Are most concerned with the successful licensure of each student.
4. Work hard to make sure students are successful.
A nurse manager has a staff nurse who observes certain religious holidays. The manager tries to make sure that these observances can be met if possible. The manager is practicing which of the following values?
1. Human dignity
2. Social justice
Parents of a terminally ill child have decided to remove their child from life support, a decision that has met with little positive support. The nurse practices the value of autonomy through which of the following?
1. Showing respect for the family
2. Respecting the parents decision
3. Referring the parents to social services
4. Asking to be assigned to a different client
A nurse is working with a local agency to provide care to the inadequately insured by helping to staff an after-hours clinic. This nurse is demonstrating which of the following professional values?
1. Human dignity
3. Social justice
A nurse mistakenly gave a client who was NPO a morning breakfast tray. After realizing the mistake, the nurse notified the physician as well as the client; explained the consequences of this mistake, which included a delay in the clients scheduled procedure; and documented the situation in the clients medical record. This nurse demonstrates which of the following?
3. Social justice
4. Human dignity
A pregnant client says her main concern is that her baby will be born healthy, even though she admits to drinking alcohol on a regular basis. This client is struggling with which of the following?
1. Values transmission
2. Values clarification
A client who has been blinded as result of an injury informs the rehabilitation staff that she plans to return to her counseling practice and will continue to work on a full-time basis. This client is demonstrating which aspect of values clarification?
A client has been complaining of pain, even though the nurse has given the client the maximum amount of medication as ordered by the physician. Which of the following demonstrates the nurses respect for the clients autonomy?
1. Telling the client that he will have to tough it out
2. Calling the physician for further orders
3. Telling co-workers that this client has no pain tolerance
4. Believing the client is drug seeking
A client has chosen to discontinue hemodialysis. His family is not supportive of his decision. The nurse who uses the theory of principles-based reasoning would make which of the following statements?
1. This client is of sound mind and is capable of making his own decisions regarding health care. It really is his decision to make.
2. I need to try and help the family understand the clients decision so they can work through this situation together.
3. This clients health is so deteriorated that the treatment is not saving his life. It is prolonging the ultimate outcome, which is his death.
4. The client understands his decision and the advanced stage of his disease. If he quits treatment, he will die.
The administration of a hospital, along with nursing services, is planning to incorporate a struggling private clinic into the infrastructure of the hospital. Although relocating the clinic may cause transportation difficulty for some clients, keeping the clinic running will allow current employees as well as clients the continued benefit of the service. This is a specific example of which theory?
1. Teleological theory
2. Deontological theory
4. Caring theory
Healthy People 2010 has two primary goals. Which of the following is in alignment with one of the goals?
1. Providing free screening to schoolchildren
2. Opening a wellness clinic
3. Developing better insurance controls
4. Developing new pharmacological treatments
A group of nurses are working to open a clinic that focuses on health promotion. Which of the following is an example of a health promotion activity?
1. Teaching biofeedback techniques for stress reduction
2. Providing immunization clinics
3. Evaluating regional industrial centers for environmental pollution
4. Teaching smoking cessation classes to adolescents
A client is in the end stages of cancer. By which type of service would this client best be served?
2. Health restoration
3. Acute care
4. Palliative care
Several nurses are looking for an agency to sponsor a program that would meet the needs of a community group lacking in health promotion education. The nurses should seek help from which of the following?
1. State health department
2. Local health department
3. Local hospital
4. Federal government
A nurse has begun working in a hospital that provides services in all specialty areas (medical, surgical, pediatrics, obstetrics). This hospital is classified as which of the following?
1. General hospital
2. Specialty hospital
3. Long-term care hospital
4. Short-term hospital
A client is being discharged from an acute hospital following an extensive illness. The client continues to require IV antibiotics, is not able to complete ADLs (activities of daily living) without assistance, and has no family available to assist in the recovery phase. The nurse should make a recommendation for this client to:
1. Stay in the hospital until the client is fully capable of self-care.
2. Remain in the hospital until the antibiotic course is completed.
3. Be discharged to an extended care facility.
4. Go to a nursing home.
An elderly client has no family in the same community, lives alone in a small house, and is having greater difficulty with mobility due to advanced osteoarthritis. Cognitively, this client is alert, is able to manage her own business matters, and does her own cooking, but does not enjoy cooking for one. The home health nurse who visits has noticed that the client is losing weight and does not have as much energy or interest in activities as on previous visits. The nurse should recommend that the client:
1. See a psychiatrist since the client appears depressed.
2. Check out joint replacement options for the osteoarthritis.
3. Start thinking about long-term care.
4. Consider moving to an assisted living facility.
The spouse of a client diagnosed with Stage I/II Alzheimers disease must continue to work full-time. The spouse tells the occupational health nurse that the client has started to wander outside the house, forgets to turn off the stove after preparing food, and tries to drive the car if the client finds the keys. The nurse should recommend which of the following?
1. Long-term care placement for the client
2. That the spouse should consider early retirement
3. Placing the client in an adult day-care environment
4. Considering increasing the clients medications to slow the progress of the disease
A client has just been referred to hospice care, and the spouse asks the hospice nurse why the client needs the change in services. The response by the nurse is:
1. So we can see if theres any way to improve your spouses life.
2. There is no need for acute care any longer.
3. Its best for your spouse to be cared for at home.
4. Hospice care is cheaper than acute care.
A client has been recovering after an injury that left him partially paralyzed. The client is a young adult and intent on living independently, as before the injury. The best referral for this client would be to which of the following?
1. Paramedical technologist
2. Physical therapist
3. Occupational therapist
4. Case manager
The ANA recommended several changes for health care reform. How many of them have been implemented since 1991?
Primary health care is incorporated into five major principles. Which of the following apply?
A nurse educator is explaining primary health care (PHC) and the extension of its boundaries beyond traditional health care services. Issues related to PHC include which of the following?
1. Distribution and participation
2. Environment, agriculture, and housing
3. Consumerism and governmental subsidies
4. Low life expectancies and high mortality rates among children
After a community was hit by a tornado, the nurses of the local Red Cross Chapter helped to make sure people had adequate food and clothing. Which function of community were these nurses focused on restoring?
1. Social control
2. Social interparticipation
3. Mutual support
4. Distribution of goods and services
A nurse is helping to set up an elder social group at a local senior center where residents can come to play cards or participate in structured activities three times a week. This nurse is working in which function of community?
2. Social control
3. Social interparticipation
4. Mutual support
When explaining the difference between community and population, the nurse educator uses which of the following as an example for population?
1. Commuters on the subway
2. A grade school class
3. Graduating nursing students
4. A group of employees at a local plant
When completing a community assessment, the community health nurse will take several aspects into account. What is the first stage of this assessment?
1. Learn about the people in the community.
2. Understand the major illnesses present in the community.
3. Identify the boundaries of the community.
4. Make sure resources are available in the community.
A nurse is completing a community assessment and must understand where the main health facilities are located and how many residents in the community are welfare recipients. The best source for this information would be which of the following?
1. Police department
2. City health planning board
3. County health department
4. State census data
Several student nurses are compiling information about their community and want to understand more about services to maintain and promote health. What entity would be most helpful to them?
1. Chamber of commerce
2. Public and university libraries
3. Recreational directors
4. Teachers and school nurses
Nursing students are required to attend at least two community activities related to health and wellness. What resource would best help them identify the type and time of these activities?
1. Online computer services
2. Recreational directors
3. Local newspapers
4. Telephone book
Home care nursing is a fast growing sector of the health care system. Which of the following factors have contributed to the growth of home health care? (Select all that apply.)
1. The need for custodial care
2. Third-party payers who support cost control measures
3. The increase in the older adult population
4. The decreasing need for acute care
A nursing student wants to understand the difference in care delivery between home health nursing and community nursing. Unlike the community nurse, the focus for the home health nurse is which of the following?
1. Individuals, families, and groups
2. The individual and his or her family
3. The terminally ill client and his or her family
4. The client in a home setting
Home health nurses experience a variety of challenges in caring for their clients. Unlike the acute care setting, entry into the home is ___________.
A home health client is having difficulty with the medication regimen that is prescribed by the physician. The nurse helps with this situation by consulting the pharmacist for ideas on how to improve the situation. This is an example of which of the following?
1. Hands-on care
2. Direct care
4. Indirect care
A client is currently seeing a physician who recommends that the client now see a physical therapist. The therapist sees the need to call in a nurse for a wound that is not healing, and the nurse contacts a social worker to help the client with sorting through mounting medical bills. The client will be referred to a home health care provider. Who, in this situation, must write the order to meet the legal reimbursement requirement?
3. Social worker
4. Physical therapist
The client is being seen for the first time by the home health nurse. The nurse determines that the client will need speech therapy, physical therapy, and custodial care several times a week. When can the clients care begin?
1. As soon as the nurse completes the initial assessment
2. As soon as the client agrees to the care.
3. When the physician signs the plan of care the nurse develops
4. Within 48 hours of the nurses visit
A home health client has a complicated case involving occupational therapy, respiratory therapy, a dietitian, the nurse, and a nurses aide who provides assistance with bathing, housekeeping, and grocery shopping. Who is responsible for coordinating the clients care?
3. Social worker
4. Home health agency
The home health agency in a community is operated by the state health department and financed by taxes. This is an example of which type of agency?
1. Institution based
A clients insurance company has coverage for DME. Which of the following client needs would be covered under this clause?
1. Dressings and bandages
3. A hospital bed
4. Visits by the home health nurse
Clients are entitled to home health care reimbursement if they meet certain criteria. The nurse would like to admit a client to home health care, but is worried about insurance reimbursement because the client:
1. Lives with a spouse.
2. Needs skilled care.
3. Needs intermittent care.
4. Drives a car for trips to the barber.
A nursing student is doing clinicals at a hospital implementing a new computer system. Trying to generalize the information is key, since the student nurse plans to move after graduation. This is due to the fact that:
1. Each hospital will have its own system.
2. Facilities never use the same computer system.
3. Computer standards change routinely.
4. Students are not expected to know all the details of a computer system.
A nurse manager is responsible for scheduling the staff of all units in a critical care hospital. Which of the following programs would work best for computer scheduling?
2. Word processing
3. Graphics program
A client asks the nurse about her medications and tells the nurse she has been investigating on the Internet. The nurses best response to this is:
1. Im glad youre interested in your therapy.
2. Information on the Internet cannot be trusted. You should check with your pharmacist.
3. Your physician is the one you should be asking these kinds of questions.
4. Lets look at some of the sites youve been visiting.
Nursing students are participating in an online delivery course in their nursing program. For their next assignment, they are to evaluate nursing research articles for credibility and reliability. One of the best databases to search for these articles would be which of the following?
A small nursing program has limited access to clinical sites, especially those that might contain specialty areas (cardiac intensive care, neonatal intensive care, trauma/neuro intensive care, etc.). Which of the following might be an alternative option for nurse educators to allow their students hands-on simulated clinical experience in these areas?
1. A field trip to a larger nursing institution
4. Workbook with written study guides
A nursing student is able to continue studies while visiting abroad. This students nursing program has implemented which of the following to make this possible?
1. Classroom technology
2. Distance learning
A nurse educator has taught the same courses for the past 5 years and each year implements a few minor changes. Over this time, the educator has stored the grade data, including homework and assignment scores, in order to track trends following the implemented changes. This educator is utilizing which of the following?
2. Student record management
3. Data warehousing
4. management information system (MIS)
Electronic client data that can be retrieved by caregivers, administrators, and accreditors have the ability to improve health care by which of the following? (Select all that apply.)
1. Ability to monitor quality
2. Access warehoused data (stored data)
3. Possess greater security of client records
4. Constant availability of client health information
A client in a health care facility asks the nurse about the facilitys computerized system for keeping client information, especially confidentiality issues. Which is the best response by the nurse?
1. Dont worry, your information is always safe.
2. Information in our system requires a password to retrieve.
3. Our system was designed with a lot of input from nursing staff.
4. I can see why youre worried, with all the computer hackers out there these days.
Standard classification of terms used in health care, particularly nursing data, along with definitions would greatly benefit computer-based patient records. Which of the following are among those systems used in the United States?
______ The Omaha system
Nurses must use critical thinking in their day-to-day practice, especially in circumstances surrounding client care and wise use of resources. In which of the following situations would critical thinking be most beneficial?
1. Administering IV push meds to critically ill clients
2. Educating a home health client about treatment options
3. Teaching new parents car seat safety
4. Assisting an orthopedic client with the proper use of crutches
A rehab client has orders for active range of motion exercises to her shoulder following a stroke. The client doesnt like to do these because they are uncomfortable and she cant understand what good they will do anyway. Which of the following statements by the nurse demonstrates the critical-thinking component of creativity?
1. Youll only get worse if you dont do these exercises.
2. As soon as you get these into your routine, youll feel better.
3. Your physician wouldnt have ordered these if they werent important.
4. Heres a marker. See how many circles you can make on this board in 10 minutes.
A student nurse who claims to be very uncreative doesnt understand why it is necessary to learn and develop new ideas in the clinical area. The best response by the nurse educator is:
1. Creativity allows unique solutions to unique problems.
2. Not all your answers are going to be from your textbook.
3. Creativity makes nursing more fun.
4. Youll get bored if you dont learn to be creative.
A nurse educator assigned students an activity to implement Socratic questioning in their daily lives. Which of the following is a question about reason using this technique?
1. What makes you think cramming for a test is an ineffective way to study?
2. What other ways of studying could you implement?
3. If you didnt study for your test, what is the probability you will fail?
4. If you study all the unit outcomes, what effect will that have?
A client comes into the emergency department (ED) with a productive cough, audible coarse crackles, elevated temperature of 102.3F, chills, and body aches. The nurse identifies the problem as respiratory compromise. The nurse is using which of the following?
1. Deductive reasoning
2. Inductive reasoning
3. Socratic questioning
4. Critical analysis
A nurse is taking a health history from a client who states that he has been to numerous physicians and has had numerous laboratory tests (all of which were abnormal) and exploratory surgery, but no one is able to explain the etiology of his problem. The client also states that he has a PhD in epidemiology and he has a rare form of a neurological disorder. The nurse who utilizes critical thinking will make this statement:
1. Why dont you just tell your physician what you think you have?
2. Did you bring your prior tests and results with you, so we dont repeat anything?
3. If you know what you have, what do you want from us?
4. Describe what tests youve had and explain the symptoms of this disorder.
Critical-thinking nurses must develop which of the following specific attitudes or traits? (Select all that apply.)
______ Intellectual humility
______ Acceptance of rituals
A nurse educator has always believed that lectures with focused outlines are the best way to present theory content in class. A colleague who teaches the same group of students, but a different subject, utilizes group work and in-class activities to teach difficult content and finds that students perform as well, or better, on their tests. The first educator in this situation is starting to rethink her position. This is an example of which of the following?
A nurse who just moved from an urban area to a sparsely populated rural area understands that certain customs and practices the nurse is familiar with may be quite foreign to the people in the new area. This nurse is practicing which of the attitudes of critical thinking?
2. Insight into egocentricity
3. Intellectual humility
4. Intellectual courage to challenge the status quo and rituals
When implementing a quicker way to set up and initiate an IV while still following safe practice, a nurse is practicing which of the attitudes of critical thinking?
2. Intellectual courage to challenge the status quo or rituals
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