Groups Process And Practice 10th Edition by Marianne Schneider Corey -Test Bank
Groups Process And Practice 10th Edition by Marianne Schneider Corey -Test Bank
- Those who are just beginning to lead groups are typically overwhelmed by:
*a. the problems they face.
- providing a safe, nurturing and open environment.
- getting members to establish relationships with each other.
- maintaining adequate control, authority and leadership.
- The self-assessment of group leadership skills will help a beginning leader identify:
- recent educational aspects of training that are less likely to be forgotten.
- which will make them less likely to experience burnout.
*c. their areas of strengths and weaknesses as a group leader.
- less preconceived notions and biases.
- Jasmine is leading her first group. Things are not going according to plan. As prolonged periods of silence follow, one after another, she must learn:
- Ways in which to eliminate these uncomfortable moments
- Measures to take to keep conversation going
*c. That silence, though uncomfortable, is to be expected
- That she must speak when silence prevails
- Those new to group work often ask themselves questions. Which of the following would NOT be one of them?
*a. What should I do if my parents attend?
- What if I dont like one of the group members?
- What should I do if a group member is not participating at all?
- Will I be able to address cultural issues and be sensitive to diversity in my group?
- In training group workers using a co-leadership model, the authors find it is useful to __________ so they can discuss what the trainees are actually doing as they facilitate a group.
- record the trainees to point out their flaws and
*b. observe the trainees as they co-lead
- continually interrupt
- ignore any issues
- A behavior in which a group counselor addresses issues by setting an example of himself or herself is known as:
- Exemplary leadership
- Leading by example
- The chance of __________ can be reduced by working with a coleader.
- Self-revelation on the part of the counselor should be used with group members:
- Often, as it is a particularly effective tool for getting clients to open up
*c. Spontaneously and only as the situation calls for it
- Never; it detracts from the clients issues that should remain the paramount focus of therapeutic sessions
- You always take Jennys side. Youre a racist! I cant believe somebody as dumb as you could become a therapist! As the group leader, its time for you to respond; all eyes are on you. Which describes the best way to respond?
- The situation calls for you to respond forcefully
- Only with a firm response can you maintain authority
*c. The situation demands a non-defensive response
- A warning should be issued, whereby a repeated outburst will result in removal from the group
- By means of cultural influences, asking an African-American to tone things down can often be construed by the party as all of the following EXCEPT:
*d. Appropriate only if the counselor is of the same race
- Ideally, __________ informs your practice, and practice refines your approach to group work.
- When utilizing __________ in groups, it is particularly important to gauge the members non-verbal reactions.
- The verbal reiteration of what a second individual has stated for purposes of clarification and so the other person can see that both of you understand the point is known as:
- Therapeutic repetition
- Anthony states: Since the accident left me paralyzed, Im unable to walk. Imagine what its like being a productive worker one day and being at home confined to a wheelchair now! Which of the following is an appropriate reaction of the counselor utilizing the principle of clarifying?
- Anthony, you really sound as if you are at wits end.
- You seem to sound angry and frustrated at not being able to work anymore. This is a normal reaction to someone in your situation.
- A lot has changed Anthony. Youve been injured and can no longer work. Well help you get better.
*d. Anthony, not only have you been severely injured. You are now left paralyzed. Your life has been altered in many ways, and I sense the frustration which you are feeling.
- Alan and Arturo, members of a counseling group, have expressed similar feelings of inadequacy following divorce. Sensing this, the leader attempts to foster a line of communication regarding the commonality of the issue between these members. This attempt to build cohesiveness and interaction is known as:
- Mutual support
- Isabella continually refers to Kyle in what often proves to be lengthy tangents regarding her college years. The name itself evokes a high degree of passion. The group leader can/should:
- Cut off the conversation as being irrelevant
- Ask the counselee politely to return to the here and now
*c. Ask the counselee how this person relates to present issues
- Ask the counselee to break confidentiality in order to discuss personal aspects of Kyle
- A factor to be aware of when terminating a group is the leaders own history with __________.
- A stated disadvantage of the co-leadership model is:
- Differences in power and privilege among leaders
- Increased burnout
- Studies have determined that group therapy is:
*a. Equally or, in some cases more, effective than individual therapy
- Less effective than individual therapy, though more financially feasible
- Less effective than individual therapy though more popular
- Equal in effectiveness when compared to group therapy
- __________ of a co-leader and time devoted to meeting together are essential.
- Continuing education
*b. Careful selection
- Different theoretical perspectives
- Clinical training
- After each group session, its a good idea to reflect on the experience by:
*a. writing down the things you were thinking but chose not to say or some of the feelings you had throughout the group.
- thinking about how the group went without writing anything down.
- relying on the group members to remember what happened.
- video recording every session to be able to watch them again.
- __________ is appropriate when people are facing a crisis, when they are facing frightening experiences, when they attempt constructive changes and yet feel uncertain about these changes, and when they are struggling to overcome old patterns that are limiting.
- Forcing a group member to share
- Because the practice of group counseling is growing rapidly, it is essential that group leaders
- older adults.
- new in the profession.
*c. both competent and ethical.
- Extremely experienced.
- During research, the theoretical model for group therapy most often investigated by international researchers was:
*a. cognitive behavior therapy.
- reality therapy.
- psychoanalytic therapy.
- Adlerian therapy.
- Abundant research indicates the centrality of __________ as a primary factor in successful
therapy, and this is inextricably intertwined with the outcome of psychotherapy.
- the person of the member
- the supervision
- the members family history
*d. the person of the therapist
- Which of the following countries emphasizes inpatient group therapy?
- Some students have shared that when leaders are __________ it can help to make them more
approachable and less intimidating.
- The importance of the __________ is a well-established critical component of effective therapy.
*a. therapeutic alliance
- therapist education
- leader manipulation
- member storytelling
- It is important to maintain a sense of respect for group members when using __________;
avoid language that diminishes their suffering or devalues them as people.
- listening skills
- __________ in the emerging field of interpersonal neurobiology confirms that healing
changes can occur in the brain when clients experience a warm, nonjudgmental, empathic
relationship with a caring counselor.
- Computer technology
- Medical technology
*c. Brain-imaging technology
- Cancer technology
- It is useful to systematically gather and use formal client feedback to do all of the following
- inform treatment
- guide treatment
- evaluate treatment
*d. prove treatment
- A sincere interest in the welfare of others is essential in a group leader. Your main job in the
group is to help members get what they are coming for, not to get in their way. This
- Willingness to model
*c. Goodwill, genuineness, and caring
- __________ means that you reveal enough of yourself to give the participants a sense of who
you are as a person
- Active listening
- Goodwill genuineness, and caring
- Willingness to interrupt
- The feedback between coleaders can be both __________; exchanging perceptions can
enhance their ability to function effectively as coleaders.
*a. supportive and challenging
- appreciated and non-challenging
- non-supportive and non-challenging
- unappreciated and unneeded
- __________ does not entail domination of members or manipulation of them toward the
- Willingness to model
*d. Personal power
- Some mistakes students often make as they begin their co-leadership duties include all of the
- Having a plan or goal for the group but not communicating that to their co-leader.
*b. Sitting across from one another and making continuous eye contact with their co-leader.
- Taking turns leading rather than co-facilitating.
- Remaining quiet and letting the coleader do most of the work.
- Courage is demonstrated through your willingness to do all of the following EXCEPT:
- to be vulnerable at times, admitting mistakes and imperfections and taking the same risks you expect group members to take.
- to confront others but to stay present with them as you work out conflicts.
*c. to not act on your beliefs and hunches.
- to be emotionally affected by others and to draw on your experiences to identify with them.
- __________ involves being affected by others pain, struggles, and joys.
- Willingness to model
- Creating a group climate that fosters interpersonal norms that will lead to therapeutic
interactions among members, such as all of the following EXCEPT:
- Collecting data directly from members about their group experience is a significant part of
- empirically-based research.
*b. practice-based evidence.
- empirically-based evidence.
- practice-based research.
- Which of the following is true of counseling groups?
- They are never highly structured.
- They are aimed at curing personality problems.
*c. They focus on interpersonal relations among the mem-bers.
- They require diagnosis for the members.
- Which of the following is NOT true of group counseling?
- It focuses on a particular type of problem.
- It can be carried out in institutional settings.
- Group members often determine the focus.
*d. It deals with treatment of psychotic disorders.
- Psychoeducational groups are designed to
- foster accomplishment of identified work goals.
- help members go through difficult life transitions.
- remediate in-depth psychological problems.
*d. provide members with targeted education on a variety of psychological issues or informational deficits.
- Which of the following is NOT a difference between group counseling and group therapy?
- It deals primarily with conscious problems.
- It is not aimed at major personality changes.
- It is not concerned with treating psychotic disorders.
*d. It includes more than one person.
- Which group work specialist is most likely to teach members to cope with an immediate life crisis or developmental life event, with the goal of preventing an array of educational and psychological disturbances?
- task facilitation
- The group leadership skill of active listening includes all the following EXCEPT
- sensing underlying messages.
*b. the ability to formulate your next response while listen-ing.
- noting gestures and changes in expression.
- being sensitive to discrepancies between a members words and body language.
- The group leadership skill of clarification does NOT involve which of the following?
*a. focusing on key apparent issues
- sorting out confused and conflicting feelings
- asking open-ended questions in order to understand what a group member is saying
- a tool that can be valuable in the initial stages of an en-counter
- The group leadership skill of summarizing is useful during all of the following EXCEPT:
- when the group process gets bogged down.
- in arriving at a decision on where to go next.
- at the end of a session.
*d. at the beginning of a session.
- The group leadership skill of interpreting involves all of the following EXCEPT:
- offering possible explanations for certain behaviors or symptoms.
- helping a member move beyond an impasse.
*c. discouraging members from making their own interpretations.
- presenting an interpretation in the form of a hypothesis or hunch.
- Which of the following is FALSE when the group leadership skill of questioning is used appropriately?
*a. Why questions help a member experience intense feelings.
- The member is directed to heighten feelings of the moment.
- Questions that remove people from themselves are avoided.
- Questioning is overused by many group leaders.
- The use of support as a leadership skill is inappropriate
- when a member is venturing into frightening territory.
- when a member is engaging in new behavior in a group.
- when a member asks for support.
*d. before a member has had the opportunity to fully experience a conflict or painful feelings.
- Which of the following is NOT considered an advantage of the co-leadership model?
- Leader burnout can be reduced.
- If one leader must be absent, the group can proceed with the other leader.
- Countertransference can be more easily recognized and dealt with.
*d. It decreases the need for leaders to be fully present and listen actively if they are working with another leader.
- Which of the following is NOT a co-leader action that could be potentially harmful for both the group members and the leaders?
- not meeting together regularly
- creating cliques
- not trusting or respecting each other
*d. having the ability to decide to work together
- __________ is a process of presenting basic information about a group to potential group participants to assist them in deciding whether to enter the group and how to participate in it.
- Advanced directive
*c. Informed consent
- Psychological risk
- Which of the following factor is NOT as important to consider when deciding who is qualified to lead a particular group?
- the type of group
*b. whether or not the prospective leader has a Ph.D. degree
- the limitations of the prospective leader
- the prospective leaders knowledge competencies
- Which of the following would NOT be a reason for encourag-ing prospective group leaders to have their own individual therapy?
- to explore their motivations for becoming a group leader
*b. to meet state requirements for competency
- to understand the impact their character traits will have on others
- to address any unfinished business in their lives
- to explore ways they can fully utilize their strengths
- Which of the following does NOT describe how involvement in a therapeutic group as a member be helpful to beginning group leaders?
- It is a more appropriate place to examine their own problems.
- They can empathize with what it is like to be a group member.
- It can serve as a valuable learning experience for under-standing group process.
*d. It can make the beginning leader professionally capable of leading any type of group.
- Which of the following would NOT be considered one of a group members rights?
- protection from verbal or physical as-saults
*b. complete confidentiality
- knowing the leaders qualifications
- help from the group leader in developing personal goals
- Which of the following is NOT considered a psychological risk of participating in a therapeutic group?
*a. Members may grow and change in a healthy manner.
- Scapegoating may occur.
- Members may experience major disruptions in their lives.
- Members may end up feeling vulnerable and defenseless.
- Which of the following statements is NOT true as it pertains to the ethical issue of confidentiality?
- At various stages in the groups development the leader should stress the importance of maintaining confiden-tiality.
- Group members may test the leaders in subtle ways to see if the leaders will indeed keep confidentiality.
*c. When confidentiality is broken it is invariably the result of malicious gossip.
- Group leaders should inform members that there are limits to confidentiality
- Perhaps the best way to avoid a malpractice suit is
- promising the client that the group will help him to be successful in accomplishing all of his goals.
- guaranteeing confidentiality
- using group exercises that are not grounded in a rationale
*d. having a sincere interest in doing what is going to benefit the client
- to avoid mentioning potential risks of group work
- Which of the guidelines below were NOT presented in the text to help you to make sound decisions as a group leader?
- Take time to reflect on your personal identity.
- Become familiar with the established codes of ethics.
*c. Challenge yourself by taking on projects that are outside your scope of competence.
- Give members the ground rules that will govern group activities.
- When using techniques in a group setting, it is important to remember that
- their purpose is always to stir up emotions
*b. they should be grounded in some theoretical framework.
- if they are ineffective, it is because of the members re-sis-tances.
- one should use solution-focused strategies whenever possible given their widespread appeal.
- Which of the following statements is true concerning the role of the leaders values in the group?
- It is important for leaders to volunteer information on their own values concerning any issue that surfaces
- It is important for leaders to keep their values to them-selves to avoid swaying members.
*c. Expressed values are less likely to interfere with group process than values that are hidden
- It is unethical for group leaders to expose their values in the group setting
- Concerning a leaders responsibility to secure informed consent of group members, the ASGWs Best Practice Guidelines states that all of the following informa-tion should be provided in writing EXCEPT for information
- on the nature and purposes of the group.
- on confidentiality and the exceptions to confidentiality.
- on the role and responsibility of group members and leaders.
*d. regarding every technique that might be introduced
- To avoid inadvertent breeches of confidentiality, group leaders should
*a. provide members with ways to talk about their experiences without identifying
other group members.
- establish and strictly enforce a zero tolerance policy for those who violate confidentiality by dismissing them from the group.
- punish violaters of confidentiality with the silent treatment.
- require members who breech confidentiality to pay a steep fine.
- Regarding the ethical issue of the freedom to withdraw from a group, which statement is FALSE?
- Members ultimately have the right to withdraw from a group.
- Procedures for leaving a group should be explained to all members during the initial group session.
*c. It is the sole responsibility of the group leader to determine whether a group experience is productive or counterproductive for each group member.
- Leaders should discuss the possible risks involved in leaving a group prematurely.
- Which of the following captures the essence of informed consent?
- having members sign a contract before joining a group
*b. telling members in some detail about the nature and pur-pose of the group
- having members decide upon all the activities of the group
- making sure that groups will always be composed of vol-untary membership
- Confidentiality in groups is
- a legal right of every member.
- something that members can be guaranteed.
*c. something that members cannot be guaranteed.
- an absolute that can never be broken for any reason.
- What can safely be said on the issue of psychological risks in groups?
- In a well-designed group, there really are no psychologi-cal risks.
*b. Since groups can be catalysts for change, they also in-volve risks.
- Members can be given guarantees that a group will not involve risks.
- There are risks only when members are not properly screened.
- Regarding the ethical use of techniques, which statement is FALSE?
- Any technique that is not working should be abandoned.
- It is important for leaders to use techniques they have some knowledge about, preferably those they have received supervision in using.
*c. Reluctant members should be pressured into participating in all group exercises for the sake of the cohesion of the group.
- Techniques are used with consideration for the members background.
- Using a theoretical framework to guide your practice as a group leader is important for all ofthe following reasons EXCEPT:
*a. it tells you exactly what to do in every session
- it helps to define both your role and the members roles in a group.
- it provides a frame of reference for understanding and evaluating the world of the client
- it helps you to select appropriate techniques in meeting the goals of the members.
- In developing and conceptualizing your integrative approach to counseling, you are advised to consider all of the following EXCEPT:
- interpersonal strengths
- life experiences
*d. other esteem
- Which of the terms below is often used to refer to a conceptual or theoretical creation beyond a mere blending of techniques?
- technical integration
*b. theoretical integration
- conceptual synthesis
- technical synthesis
- In challenging members to think about the early decisions they made and in paying attention to members self-talk, the leaders are drawing from approaches in the ______________ domain.
- If an experienced group therapist invites members to share a significant story, it is safe to say that she is
*a. using a technique
- making a mistake by inviting storytelling
- using their stories as a stalling device while she thinks of her next intervention
- not making productive use of group time
- In order to practice in a multiculturally competent manner, leaders who have adopted any of the major theoretical orientations should do all of the following EXCEPT:
- consider all dimensions of a members identity including age, gender, sexual orientation, ability, and religious affiliation
- introduce exercises in an invitational and optional manner
- validate and understand members experiences with racism, discrimination, and oppression before challenging them to respond differently
*d. only consider a members age and gender
- Which of the therapeutic approaches below does NOT stress the role of thinking and doing and is NOT action-oriented?
- cognitive therapy
- behavior therapy
*c. Gestalt therapy
- reality therapy
- The _________________ approach views people as being significantly influenced by unconscious motivation and early childhood experiences.
- Which of the following techniques is NOT associated with the psychoanalytic approach?
- maintaining the analytic framework
- free association
- dream analysis
*d. paradoxical interventions
- Adlerians place emphasis on the family constellation as a key factor in influencing ones
*a. style of life
- quality world
- psychosexual development
- A key goal of an Adlerian group is
- increasing insight into ones irrational behaviors and unconscious dynamics.
*b. fostering social interest, or facilitating a sense of connectedness with others
- changing self-defeating thinking
- creating new conditions for learning
- Using ________________________, the client acts out or dramatizes past, present, or anticipated life situations and roles to gain deeper understanding, to explore feelings and achieve emotional release, and to develop new ways of coping with problems.
- expressive arts therapy
- narrative therapy
- the existential approach
- Rather than thinking about techniques, ________________ therapists think more in terms of experiments.
- brief solution-focused
- The cognitive behavioral approaches have all of the following attributes in common EXCEPT:
- a collaborative relationship between the group member and the therapist
- a focus on changing cognitions to produce desired changes in affect and behavior
- a generally time-limited and educational treatment focusing on specific and structured target problems
*d. a focus on the past
- The overall goal of choice theory/reality therapy is to help people find better ways to meet their needs for
- self-esteem and self-control
*b. survival, love and belonging, power, freedom, and fun
- social interest
- psychosocial development
- A group composed of elementary school children might be kept to __________ students.
- 1 to 2
*b. 3 to 4
- 6 to 8
- 10 to 12
- When attempting to organize and begin a group in an agency setting, it is important to
*a. be aware of the politics involved in the setting in which you work
- give up the idea if no one else on staff seems excited about it.
- expect the support and encouragement of your co-work-ers
- all of the above
- Which of the following statements is NOT true in terms of re-cruiting group members?
- How a group is announced influences the way it will be received.
- How a group is announced influences the kind of people who will join it.
*c. One of the best methods is the commercialized approach, as opposed to a professional approach.
- One source of referrals is your colleagues in the agency where you work
- __________ is possible, even in cases where members attend only a few times, but a high level of activity is demanded of inpatient group therapists.
- A detailed established goal
- Social justice
- Which of the following is NOT appropriate for the preliminary screening session?
- allowing the applicant to interview the group leader
*b. focusing the session only on the personal history of the applicant
- encouraging the applicant to form a judgment about the group and the leader
- determining whether the applicant is motivated to change
- Which of the following is FALSE about holding a pre-group ses-sion for all candidates?
*a. The leader cannot outline any reasons for the group
- An outline of possible topics for exploration can be given
- Group members can meet one another and the leaders
- Questions about the group can be answered
- Certain types of members can sap a groups energy for pro-ductive work. These do NOT include
- hostile and aggressive people
*b. people without relationship concerns or problems
- people who monopolize
- people who act out
- Prospective group members need to be given all of the following information about the group that they are thinking of joining EXCEPT:
- expected outcomes
*d. guaranteed outcomes
- Which of the following is the best procedure to follow when informing a person that they have NOT been accepted as a member in your group?
- Have all applicants meet and then read the names of those selected.
*b. Discuss the reasons for this decision with the particular person, taking care to be honest and sensitive, and pro-viding them with an appropriate referral.
- Inform them of your decision by means of a letter
- Have your secretary call them
- Which of the following statements is NOT true as it relates to the composition of a group (heterogeneous vs. homoge-neous)?
*a. Personal growth groups tend to be homogeneous.
- A heterogeneous group is best when a microcosm of the outside social structure is desired.
- The composition of the group depends on the particular goals of that group.
- A homogeneous group is best for a specific target popu-lation with given needs
- When looking at the logistics or practical considerations of forming a group, which of the following is LEAST important to consider?
- group size
- frequency and duration of meetings
- the duration of the group
*d. the analysis of transference among group members
- Which of the following topics is NOT appropriate for discussion at the pre-group or initial session of a new group?
- expectations of leaders and members
*b. collecting a detailed history on each group member
- advantages and limitations of groups
- misconceptions and facts about groups
- Which of the following statements is NOT true as it applies to confidentiality in groups?
*a. In order to create a climate of trust, the leader should emphasize that confidentiality within the group must be absolute, without any limitations.
- It is a crucial issue in groups.
- The importance of confidentiality should be stressed many times during the course of a group.
- Limitations to confidentiality apply to groups composed of involuntary populations.
- Which of the following is NOT considered an advantage of a therapeutic group over other intervention strategies?
- Group members can learn effective social skills.
- The group setting offers support for new behavior.
*c. Groups are suited for everyone.
- Participants can explore their style of relating to others.
- In regard to open groups and closed groups, it is accurate to say that
- closed groups enable members to interact with a greater variety of people.
*b. the rapid changing of members in open groups can result in a lack of cohesion.
- in closed groups, new members are typically allowed to join every few sessions, but they are expected to remain for the duration of the group.
- most therapists find it much easier to foster cohesion in open groups than in closed groups.
- Which of the following is NOT considered a main task of group leaders during the formation of a group?
- Presenting a proposal to the proper administrators and getting the idea accepted.
*b. Developing a wide array of group techniques that will be used for each of the sessions.
- Conducting pre-group interviews for screening and orientation purposes.
- Providing potential members with relevant information necessary for them to make an informed choice about participation.
- Which of the following is NOT true about co-leader issues at the pre-group and planning stages?
*a. It is unnecessary to be in agreement concerning ethical aspects of group work.
- Cooperation and basic agreement are essential in getting the group off to a good start.
- Both leaders should have equal responsibility in forming the group and getting it going.
- Walking into a group cold, without getting acquainted with your co-leader, is to invite problems.
- Which of the following is NOT supported by research on pregroup preparation?
- Prepared members tend to engage more readily in inter-personal discussions.
- Prepared members develop a greater degree of cohesive-ness.
*c. Successful group preparation is based primarily on a be-havioral component (modeling).
- Pre-group preparation facilitates a members progress in a therapy group.
- If the goal of a group is the simulation of everyday life, then it is a good idea to have
- a homogeneous group.
*b. a heterogeneous group.
- an endogenous group.
- an androgynous group.
- During a groups initial phase, members can best build trust by
- waiting until someone takes the first risk and then open-ing up.
*b. revealing their lack of trust.
- relying on trust exercises initiated by the leader (e.g., falling backward and trusting others to catch you).
- sharing non-intimate details about themselves.
- When group members experience persistent feelings or thoughts pertaining to their here-and-now experience in the group, it is best that they
- keep these feelings or thoughts to themselves, as sharing them may interfere with the groups progress.
- ignore these feelings or thoughts, realizing that they will distract them from more important issues.
*c. reveal these feelings or thoughts to the others in the group.
- reveal details of their past so that others will know them.
- Which of the following statements is NOT true as it applies to resistance during the initial stage?
*a. Resistance is generally not common during the initial stage of a group, since members are quite willing to get personally involved quickly.
- Cultural factors may influence clients readiness to participate in a group
- Some initial resistance is to be expected in the early stage, even if people are eager to join in.
- Because resistance often arises from fearful expectations, identifying and discussing these fears will benefit the whole group.
- Which of the following statements is NOT true as it relates to the topic of self-disclosure?
*a. The most useful kind of self-disclosure is that which has been carefully thought out first.
- Appropriate self-disclosure can open doors of self-knowledge.
- Appropriate self-disclosure can encourage other mem-bers to open up.
- Appropriate self-disclosure expresses present concerns.
- Certain attitudes and action of leaders enhance the level of trust in a group. Which of the following factors is LEAST related to developing this trust?
- attending and listening
*b. direct and relentless confrontation of defenses
- genuineness and self-disclosure
- Which of the following statements is NOT true regarding ways group members can be encouraged to get more out of their experience?
- Evaluate your involvement in the group regularly.
*b. Wait until a group is in its later stages before you ask for time for yourself.
- Decide beforehand what issues you want to explore dur-ing the group sessions.
- Avoid making interpretations of an abstract and intellec-tual nature.
- Many group members hold __________ that make it difficult for them to participate fully in a group experience.
*a. attitudes and expectations
- teaching and learning
- listening and clarity
- change and shame
- Which of the following is NOT typical of the feelings, reactions, and be-haviors of members who are in the initial stage of their groups progress?
*b. a high degree of cohesiveness
- a concern about being judged by others
- wondering if they will fit into the group
- All of the following statements about cohesion are true EXCEPT:
- it can be strengthened by accepting and working through conflict.
- it is related to the degree of attractiveness of the group.
*c. it can be increased by forcing all members to become active participants.
- it can be established and increased when the leadership role is shared by all group members
- Reluctance to speak out may function as
- establishment of norms which is necessary for development of group cohesion.
- development as a result of preconceived ideas about what takes place in a group.
- an implicit norm that may develop as a result of leader model-ing.
*d. a healthy boundary rather than being an expression of resistance.
- An example of a norm that is UNLIKELY to be fostered in groups is that members are
*a. encouraged to confront each other in an uncaring or tactless manner.
- encouraged to be personal and share meaningful aspects of themselves.
- encouraged to give feedback to one another.
- encouraged to focus on and express feelings.
- __________ is not the same thing as sympathy, which entails providing comfort to others
- During the early stages of a group, the central process involves
- testing and confronting the leader.
- sharing of leadership functions by the members.
*c. orientation and exploration.
- a willingness to share threatening material.
- At the initial sessions of a group, it is common to see
*b. an increase in fear.
- deeply personal self-disclosure.
- a great deal of intense conflict among the members
- Which of the following statements is NOT true regarding expres-sion of negative reactions during the early stages of a group?
- The expression of these reactions should be encouraged.
- Trust can be lost or gained by the way the leader handles the initial expression of these reactions.
- Some members may express negative reactions over trivial matters.
*d. Trust will always be gained with the expression of negative reactions.
- According to research, three constructs capture the essence of the therapeutic relationship in group treatment. They include all of the following EXCEPT:
- group climate
- Which of the following leader attitudes and actions is UNLIKELY to lead to the development of trust?
- attending and listening
- caring confrontation
*c. abrasive confrontation
- attending to nonverbal behavior
- Leaders and members demonstrate a lack of attention when they
- ask open-ended questions.
*b. are thinking about what to say next.
- listen intently.
- strive to be present.
- Which of the following behaviors blocks empathy?
*a. telling other what they should feel
- trying to understand another person subjectively
- being non-defensive
- responding to statements in a thoughtful way rather than providing pat statements
- The term that implies congruence between a persons inner experience and what they project externally is
- Which of the following statements about confrontation in the group setting is NOT true?
- Confrontation can be an act of caring.
- Trust can be greatly inhibited if confrontations are not handled appropriately.
*c. A caring confrontation involves attempting to protect a persons feelings by sharing only a portion of your re-action to them.
- Confrontation involves inviting members to examine in-congruities in their lives.
- Appropriate confrontations can increase the level of trust in a group.
- The major task to be accomplished during the initial stages of a groups development is
*a. the development of trust
- the development of group cohesion
- the development of group norms
- the working through of transference feelings
- Which of the following statements is true as it relates to the development of trust within groups?
- Although trust is an important issue in the early stages of a group, it is not the major one.
- Once trust is established, it is taken care of for the dura-tion of the group.
*c. New levels of trust must be established as the group members become more intimate
- Trust tends not to ebb and flow in groups
- When helping group members to define their personal goals, it is important to remember that
- this should be done only during the initial stages of a group
- members should not change or modify their goals dur-ing the course of their group.
*c. many people state their goals in broad terms initially.
- goal setting should be postponed until the transition stage, when members have a clearer sense of what the group can offer
- In the group context, contracts
- help people achieve hiding their true selves
- help members assume a passive and irresponsible stance.
- can NOT be renegotiated
*d. help people achieve their personal goals
- When group leaders are opening a session, it is important for them to
*a. give each member an opportunity to state what he or she wants from the upcoming session
- begin the session sharing what they had experienced over the days they were gone in detail.
- only allow a couple of members to share
- focus on the first person who shares important personal information.
- Which of the following is NOT helpful in closing group ses-sions?
- stopping the group halfway through the session for members to assess their involvement
- having members evaluate their progress once they have completed half of the group sessions
*c. making sure everyone leaves the sessions feeling com-pletely comfortable
- encouraging members to give each other feedback
- In terms of the division of responsibility, which of the fol-low-ing co-leadership situations might cause problems in the group context?
- co-leaders who have compatible philosophies of leader-ship
*b. co-leaders who have divergent views on the division of responsibility
- co-leaders who have different styles of leading
- co-leaders who decide to share the responsibility equally
- Which of the following statements is NOT true as it relates to the structuring of group sessions by the leader?
*a. Unstructured groups are best for low-functioning adult inpatient groups
- It is particularly important during the initial stages of a group
- It can be both useful and inhibiting in a groups devel-opment
- Too little structure results in members becoming unduly anxious.
- Research summaries have identified which of the following guidelines for group leadership practice?
- Leaders should strive for an impersonal and detached leadership style.
- Leaders should disclose the details of their personal lives to build trust with members regardless of the type of group.
- Leaders should adopt a more controlling leadership style, especially in the beginning stages.
*d. Leaders should set and reinforce clear supportive norms as one way to establish cohesion within the group.
- Which of the following feelings and behaviors is NOT a charac-teristic of the transition stage of the group process?
- challenges to the leader
- intermember conflict
- During the transition stage, anxiety is all of the following EXCEPT:
- the result of external factors
- the result of internal factors
- Which of the following statements is NOT true concerning de-fensiveness and resistance during the transition stage?
- Resistance needs to be respected
*b. It is always counterproductive for group members to show resistance
- Not every instance of a members unwillingness to par-ticipate fully can be labeled resistance
- The leader should encourage an openness in which members express their hesitations and anxieties
- Which of the following fears are NOT common in the transition stage?
- fear of rejection
- fear of self-disclosure
- fear of being misunderstood
*d. fear of being supported
- Which of the following statements about conflict is FALSE?
*a. It is to be avoided at all costs.
- It often carries a negative connotation
- It is inevitable in all relationships and groups
- Unexplored conflict is expressed in defensive behavior.
- Which of the following are helpful guidelines for appropriate and responsible confrontations?
- One purpose of confrontation is to develop less gen-uine relationships with others
*b. Sensitivity is an important element of confrontation
- Confrontations are more effective if the focus is not on specific behaviors
- It is extremely important to have confrontation throughout the group
- Which of the following statements illustrates an ineffective confrontation?
*a. You are a phony! You are always smiling and thats not real.
- I feel uncomfortable with you because Im afraid of what you think of me.
- I find it very difficult to be open with you.
- I dont like it that I often feel inadequate when I am with you.
- When a leader is experiencing strong feelings about what he or she perceives to be resistance, a powerful intervention is to
- pay primary attention to the problem in the group
- pay primary attention to particular group members
*c. deal with his or her own feelings
- allow the feelings to dissipate on their own
- Which of the following are typically NOT reasons for nonparticipating be-havior by a group member?
- protection against oppression from the leader or other members
- lack of trust in the group
- uncertainty about how the group process works
*d. feeling superior to other group members and not wanting to waste ones time sharing
- When a member is consistently silent during group sessions, it is best to
- consistently call on that person
- invite the individual to explore what his or her silence means
*c. avoid attacking the person for his or her silence
- dismiss him/her from the group
- A member who monopolizes group time is all of the following EXCEPT:
- exhibiting a high degree of self-centeredness
- continually identifying with others
- sometimes welcomed in the early stages of a groups progress
- The problem behavior of storytelling
*a. involves relating a detailed history of ones past.
- involves talking about others lives in very little detail
- should never be allowed
- is one kind of appropriate self-disclosure.
- The problem behavior of advice giving involves
- offering a perception
- offering an opinion
*c. telling people what they should feel and do
- listening without responding
- When a group member takes on an attitude of superiority, the group leader is advised to
- ignore the members irritating behavior so as to not reinforce it.
*b. ask other members to comment on how they are affected by the members behavior.
- give the member an ultimatum to either stop the behavior or leave the group
- use humor to lessen the tension in the group
- Which of the following behaviors does NOT i