Guyton And Hall Textbook of Medical Physiology -12e by John E. Hall Test Bank

<< GROUPS PROCESS AND PRACTICE 9TH EDITION by Marianne Schneider Corey -Test Bank Handbook Of Informatics for Nurses & Healthcare Professionals 5th Edition by Toni Lee Hebda Test Bank >>
Product Code: 222
Availability: In Stock
Price: $24.99
Qty:     - OR -   Add to Wish List
Add to Compare

Guyton And Hall Textbook of Medical Physiology -12e by John E. Hall Test Bank

Description

WITH ANSWERS
Guyton And Hall Textbook of Medical Physiology -12e by John E. Hall Test Bank

Hall: Guyton and Hall Textbook of Medical Physiology, 12th Edition

 

Chapter 02: The Cell and Its Functions

 

Test Bank

 

Refer to the following list to answer questions 1-3:

 

  1. Nucleolus
  2. Nucleus
  3. Agranular endoplasmic reticulum
  4. Granular endoplasmic reticulum

E.     Golgi apparatus

  1. Endosomes
  2. Peroxisomes
  3. Lysosomes
  4. Cytosol

 

Identify the cellular location for each of the following steps involved in the synthesis and packaging of a secreted protein.

 

  1. Initiation of translation.

 

ANS: I

 

  1. Protein sorting and packaging.

 

ANS: E

 

  1. Gene transcription.

 

ANS: B

 

  1. Which of the following is true for both pinocytosis and phagocytosis?
  1. Involves the recruitment of actin filaments
  2. Occurs spontaneously and non-selectively
  3. Permits the uptake of bacterium into the cytosol
  4. Is only observed in macrophages and neutrophils
  5. Does not require ATP

 

ANS: A

 

  1. The cell membrane is LEAST permeable to which of the following?
  1. Sodium
  2. Oxygen
  3. Ethanol
  4. Carbon Dioxide
  5. Water

 

ANS: A

 

  1. The term glycocalyx refers to:
  1. The negatively charged carbohydrate chains that protrude into the cytosol from glycolipids and integral glycoproteins
  2. The negatively charged carbohydrate layer on the outer cell surface
  3. The layer of anions aligned on the cytosolic surface of the plasma membrane
  4. The large glycogen stores found in fast muscles
  5. A mechanism of cell-cell attachment

 

ANS: B

 

  1. Proteins are sorted for their delivery to lysosomes, secretory vesicles and the plasma membrane in the:
  1. Golgi apparatus
  2. smooth endoplasmic reticulum
  3. nucleus
  4. endocytotic vesicle

 

ANS: A

 

  1. Ubiquinone, an electron acceptor in the electron transport chain (oxidative phosphorylation), is found in the:
  1. Inner mitochondrial membrane
  2. Mitochondrial matrix
  3. Outer mitochondrial membrane
  4. Nucleus

 

ANS: A

 

  1. The citric acid cycle or Krebs cycle, takes place in the:
  1. Mitochondrial matrix
  2. Inner mitochondrial membrane
  3. Outer mitochondrial membrane
  4. Inner mitochondrial space

 

ANS: A

 

  1. Which of the following processes is NOT ATP-dependent?
  2. Ciliary movement
  3. Positive chemotaxis
  4. Movement of carbon dioxide across a lipid bilayer
  5. Endocytosis
  6. Smooth muscle contraction

 

ANS: C

 

  1. This cytoskeletal element plays a role in certain forms of cell movement and is an essential component of the mitotic spindle:
  2. Phospholipids
  3. Glycocalyx
  4. F-actin
  5. Microtubules
  6. Clathrin

 

ANS: D

 

  1. Lipid synthesis occurs in the:
  2. Trans-Golgi network
  3. Granular or rough endoplasmic reticulum
  4. Agranular or smooth endoplasmic reticulum
  5. Nucleus
  6. Lysosome

 

ANS: C

 

  1. This cytoskeletal element plays a role in certain forms of cell movement and is an essential component of the mitotic spindle:
  2. Phospholipids
  3. Glycocalyx
  4. F-actin
  5. Microtubules
  6. Clathrin

 

ANS: D

 

  1. The abnormal cleavage of mannose residues during the post-translational processing of glycoproteins has been shown to result in the development of a lupus-like autoimmune disease in mice. The abnormal cleavage is due to a mutation of the enzyme a-mannosidase II.

Based on your understanding of the processing of membrane proteins, you would predict this enzyme to be localized to the:

  1. Nucleus
  2. Cytosol
  3. Golgi apparatus
  4. Lysosomes
  5. Peroxisomes

 

ANS: C

 

  1. The observation that abnormal cleavage of mannose residues from glycoproteins causes an autoimmune disease in mice is most consistent with the role of which of the following structures in the normal immune response?
  1. Cytoskeleton
  2. Glycocalyx
  3. Peroxisomes
  4. Lysosomes
  5. Microtubules

 

ANS: B

 

  1. A pure phospholipid bilayer is most permeable to:
  1. Sodium
  2. Calcium
  3. Chloride
  4. Water
  5. Oxygen

 

ANS: E

 

Hall: Guyton and Hall Textbook of Medical Physiology, 12th Edition

 

Chapter 16: The Microcirculation and Lymphatic System: Capillary Fluid Exchange, Interstitial Fluid, and Lymph Flow

 

Test Bank

 

  1. Which one of the following substances in plasma does not contribute to plasma colloid osmotic pressure?
  2. Globulins
  3. Fibrinogen
  4. Albumin
  5. NaCl

 

ANS: D

 

  1. A decrease in arteriole diameter would most likely result in which of the following sets of changes in a microcirculatory bed?

Interstitial Hydrostatic            Capillary Hydrostatic              Lymph

            Pressure                                   Pressure                                   Flow

  1.                                                                                          
  2.                                              
  3.                                              
  4.                                              
  5.                                              
  6.                                              

 

ANS: D

 

  1. A decrease in which one of the following would tend to decrease filtration rate across a capillary wall?
  2. Plasma colloid osmotic pressure
  3. Hydraulic conductivity of the wall
  4. Plasma albumin concentration
  5. Interstitial hydrostatic pressure
  6. Arteriole resistance

 

ANS: B

 

  1. Utilizing the data below, calculate the filtration coefficient for the capillary bed. (in mL/min/mmHg):

Plasma colloid osmotic pressure = 30

Capillary hydrostatic pressure = 40

Interstitial hydrostatic pressure = 5

Interstitial colloid osmotic pressure = 5

Filtration rate = 150 mL/min

Venous hydrostatic pressure = 10 mmHg

  1. 10
  2. 15
  3. 20
  4. 25
  5. 30

 

ANS: B

 

  1. An increase in which one of the following would tend to decrease lymph flow?
  2. Hydraulic conductivity of the capillary wall
  3. Plasma colloid osmotic pressure
  4. Capillary hydrostatic pressure
  5. Precapillary arteriole diameter
  6. Interstitial colloid osmotic pressure

 

ANS: B

 

  1. Utilizing the data below, calculate the rate of net fluid movement (in mL/min) across the capillary wall.

Plasma colloid osmotic pressure = 40 mmHg

Capillary hydrostatic pressure = 10 mmHg

Venous hydrostatic pressure = 5 mmHg

Arterial pressure = 80 mmHg

Interstitial hydrostatic pressure = 5 mmHg

Interstitial colloid osmotic pressure = 5 mmHg

Filtration coefficient = 10 mL/min/mmHg

  1. 100 (Filtration)
  2. 200 (Reabsorption)
  3. 200 (Filtration)
  4. 300 (Filtration)
  5. 300 (Reabsorption)

 

ANS: E

 

  1. Listed below are the hydrostatic and oncotic pressures across a muscle capillary wall.

Venous hydrostatic pressure = 5 mmHg

Arterial pressure = 100 mmHg

Capillary hydrostatic pressure = 35 mmHg

Plasma colloid osmotic pressure = 25 mmHg

Interstitial colloid osmotic pressure = 10 mmHg

Interstitial hydrostatic pressure = -5 mmHg

What is the net filtration pressure (in mmHg) for fluid movement across the capillary wall?

  1. 0
  2. 5
  3. 10
  4. 15
  5. 25

 

ANS: E

 

  1. A decrease in which one of the following would tend to increase filtration rate across a capillary wall?
  2. Arterial pressure
  3. Hydraulic conductivity of the wall
  4. Interstitial albumin concentration
  5. Capillary hydrostatic pressure
  6. Arteriole resistance

 

ANS: E

 

  1. Which of the following set of changes would be expected to increase the net movement of sodium across a muscle capillary wall?

Wall Permeability        Wall Surface Area                   Concentration Difference

to Sodium                                                                   Across Wall

  1.                                                                                
  2.                                                                                
  3.                                                                                
  4.                                                                                
  5.                                                                                
  6.                                                                                
  7.                                                                                
  8.                                                                                

 

ANS: A

 

  1. A healthy 20-year-old medical student has an exercise stress test. Which of the following sets of changes would be expected to occur in the students skeletal muscles during exercise?

Vascular                      Capillary                                  Lymph

Resistance                   Hydrostatic Pressure               Flow

  1.                                                                                
  2.                                                                                
  3.                                                                                
  4.                                                                                
  5.                                                                                
  6.                                                                                
  7.                                                                                
  8.                                                                                

ANS: G

 

  1. Plasma colloid osmotic pressure:
  1. Is less than interstitial colloid osmotic pressure
  2. Decreases by 50% in the muscle capillaries as blood flows from the arteriole end to the venous end
  3. Is primarily caused by the presence of substances in the plasma such as sodium and potassium
  1. Increases in response to an increase in plasma albumin concentration

 

ANS: D

 

  1. A 65-year-old woman has a 20-year history of alcoholism and liver disease. He visits his physician complaining of swelling of his extremities. A decrease in which of the following is one of the most likely cause of the ascites?
  1. Capillary hydrostatic pressure
  2. Arteriole conductance
  3. Interstitial hydrostatic pressure
  4. Plasma colloid osmotic pressure
  5. Interstitial colloid osmotic pressure

 

ANS: D

 

  1. An increase in which one of the following would tend to decrease filtration rate across a capillary wall?
  1. Arteriole diameter
  2. Hydraulic conductivity of the wall
  3. Interstitial albumin concentration
  4. Capillary hydrostatic pressure
  5. Plasma colloid osmotic pressure

 

ANS: E

 

  1. An increase in which of the following would tend to decrease lymph flow?
  1. Interstitial hydrostatic pressure
  2. Plasma colloid osmotic pressure
  3. Capillary hydrostatic pressure
  4. Interstitial colloid osmotic pressure
  1. Capillary hydraulic permeability

 

ANS: B

Hall: Guyton and Hall Textbook of Medical Physiology, 12th Edition

 

Chapter 32: Red Blood Cells, Anemia and Polycythemia

 

Test Bank

 

Bleeding time (template) 27 minutes
Erythrocyte count Male: 4.35.9 million/uL
  Female: 3.55.5 million/uL
Hematocrit Male: 4153%
  Female: 3646%
Hemoglobin, blood Male: 13.517.5 g/dL
  Female: 12.016.0 g/dL
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin 25.434.6 pg/cell
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration 3136% Hb/cell
Mean corpuscular volume 80100 fL
Reticulocyte count 0.51.5% of red cells
   
Platelet count 150,000400,000/uL
   
Leukocyte count and differential  
Leukocyte count 450011,000/uL
Neutrophils 5462%
Eosinophils 13%
Basophils 00.75%
Lymphocytes 2533%
Monocytes 37%
   
Partial thromboplastin time (activated) 2540 seconds
Prothrombin time 1115 seconds
Bleeding time 27 minutes

 

  1. A 52-year-old female with type 1 diabetes has had progressive renal failure over the past three years. She is not on dialysis and her examination shows no abnormalities. Her hemoglobin level is 9 g/dL, hematocrit is 29%, and mean corpuscular volume is 92 fL, and a blood smear shows normocytic, normochromic cells. Which of the following is the most likely cause of the anemia?
  2. Acute blood loss
  3. Pernicious anemia
  4. Sickle cell disease
  5. Erythropoietin deficiency
  6. Hemolytic anemia
  7. Polycythemia vera

 

ANS: D

 

  1. Which of the following anemias has normocytic RBCs?
  2. Hemolytic anemia
  3. Vitamin B12 deficiency
  4. Folate deficiency
  5. Anemia of chronic disease

 

ANS: A

 

Questions 3 5: Which point on the graph most closely defines the following conditions? Normal erythropoietin (EPO) levels are approximately 10.

 

  1. Olympic marathon runner.

 

ANS: D

 

  1. Polycythemia vera.

 

ANS: B

 

  1. Chronic disease.

 

ANS: E

 

  1. A healthy 3-year-old girl is brought to the emergency department because of severe uncontrolled nosebleed. She has a history of ear infections that have improved after treatment. Her temperature is elevated. She has numerous small bruises on her arms and legs. Her laboratory studies show:

Hemoglobin                      4.6 g/dL

Leukocyte count               3,000/mm3

Reticulocyte count            0.1%

Platelet count                    12,000/mm3

Which of the following is the most likely explanation for these findings?

  1. Anemia due to blood loss
  2. Aplastic anemia
  3. Sickle cell disease
  4. Mononucleosis

 

ANS: B

 

  1. In the 5 month (middle trimester) fetus hematopoiesis is most active in the:
  1. Yolk sac
  2. Spleen
  3. Liver
  4. Bone marrow

 

ANS: C

 

  1. Following the donation of a unit of blood, how long before hematocrit begins to increase?
  1. One hour
  2. Two hours
  3. 24 hours
  4. Five days
  5. Two weeks

 

ANS: DC

 

  1. How would a cell that has a diameter of 9 mm and an MCV of 106 be classified?
  2. Macrocyte
  3. Microcyte
  4. Normal
  5. Either normal or slightly microcytic

 

ANS: A

 

  1. What are the laboratory findings in polycythemia vera?
  2. Decreased hemoglobin and/or hematocrit, increased RBCs and granulocytes, decreased platelets
  3. Increased hemoglobin and/or hematocrit; increased RBCs, granulocytes, and platelets
  4. Normal hemoglobin and hematocrit, normal RBCs, increased granulocytes and platelets
  5. Increased hemoglobin and/or hematocrit, increased RBCs, decreased granulocytes and platelets

 

ANS: D

 

  1. Regarding erythropoietin, choose the correct answer:
  2. Erythropoietin is mainly secreted by the liver
  3. Injection of erythropoietin leads to a rapid increase in the number of circulating red blood cells within the next 48 hours
  4. Excessive exposure to x-rays with destruction of the bone marrow leads to an increased erythropoietin secretion
  5. Erythropoietin also acts on the spleen by decreasing red blood cell destruction

 

ANS: C

 

  1. What is the safest and least expensive treatment for patients with polycythemia vera?
  2. High altitude
  3. Decrease of iron levels
  4. Therapeutic phlebotomy
  5. Decrease of erythropoietin levels

 

ANS: C

Hall: Guyton and Hall Textbook of Medical Physiology, 12th Edition

 

Chapter 48: Somatic Sensations: II. Pain, Headache, and Thermal Sensations

 

Test Bank

 

  1. The neospinothalamic tract:
  2. Transmits vibration sense
  3. Transmits proprioceptive information
  4. Transmits fast pain impulses
  5. Transmits slow pain impulses

 

ANS: C

 

  1. Stimulation of neurons in the nucleus raphe magnus:
  2. Can inhibit pain fibers at the level of the spinal cord
  3. Results in the activation of the periventricular region
  4. Results in the direct release of enkephalin from the raphe magnus neurons
  5. Both A and C are correct

 

ANS: A

 

  1. Stimulation of which brain area can modulate the sensation of pain?
  2. The superior olivary complex
  3. The locus coeruleus
  4. The periaqueductal gray
  5. The amygdala

 

ANS: C

 

  1. Which of the following sensory modalities uses unmyelinated fibers to convey information to the central nervous system?
  2. Proprioception
  3. Vision
  4. Vibration
  5. Pain

 

ANS: D

 

  1. Neurons located in which of the following areas release serotonin as their neurotransmitter?
  2. The periaqueductal gray area
  3. The interneurons of the spinal cord
  4. The periventricular area
  5. The nucleus raphe magnus

 

ANS: D

 

  1. Which of the following is paired correctly?
  2. Dorsal column system pain and temperature sensation
  3. Layers I and II of somatosensory cortex incoming signals from the thalamus
  4. Free nerve ending type C fiber
  5. Large representation on post central gyrus the foot

 

ANS: C

 

  1. The highest degree of pain localization comes from:
  2. Simultaneous stimulation of free nerve endings and tactile fibers
  3. Stimulation of free nerve endings by bradykinin
  4. Nerve fibers traveling to the thalamus by way of the paleospinothalamic tract
  5. Stimulation of type Ad fibers

 

ANS: A

 

  1. Which of the following are paired correctly?
  2. Nucleus raphe magnus b-endorphin
  3. Periaqueductal gray serotonin
  4. Enkephalin presynaptic inhibition of type Ad fibers
  5. Intracranial headache eye strain

 

ANS: C

 

  1. Massaging the skin or application of an irritant to the skin can suppress the transmission of pain signals from the corresponding body area by suppressing the sensory fibers transmitting the pain signal. Which of the following best describes this phenomenon?
  2. Release of enkephalin from local neurons in the spinal cord
  3. Pre- and post-synaptic inhibition of type C fibers by serotonin
  4. Lateral inhibition of pain fibers by tactile fibers from adjacent skin areas
  5. Activation of periaqueductal gray neurons

 

ANS: C

 

  1. The paleospinothalamic tract:
  2. Contains type Ab nerve fibers
  3. Terminates exclusively in the thalamus
  4. Transmits the fast pain sensation
  5. Terminates predominantly in the lower brain regions

 

ANS: D

 

  1. Which substance is responsible for activating pain receptors?
  2. GABA
  3. Serotonin
  4. Bradykinin
  5. b-endorphin

 

ANS: C

Hall: Guyton and Hall Textbook of Medical Physiology, 12th Edition

 

Chapter 64: Secretory Functions of the Alimentary Tract and Chapter 66: Physiology of Gastrointestinal Disorders

 

Test Bank

 

  1. How does secretin stimulate the secretion of bicarbonate from the pancreas?
  1. Closes potassium channels
  2. Closes sodium channels
  3. Decreases norepinephrine levels
  4. Increases acetylcholine levels
  5. Opens chloride channels

 

ANS: E

 

  1. A 67-year-old man has heartburn and stomach pain. Endoscopy shows several small gastric ulcers in the corpus. Biopsies were positive for pylori, which promotes gastric ulcer formation by damaging which of the following?
  1. Circular muscle layer
  2. Gastric mucosal barrier
  3. G cells
  4. Myenteric plexus
  5. Parietal cells

 

ANS: B

 

  1. Which of the following decreases when salivary flow increases?
  1. Bicarbonate concentration
  2. Chloride concentration
  3. Osmolarity
  4. Potassium concentration
  5. Sodium concentration

 

ANS: D

 

  1. Which of the following leads to a decrease in salivary flow?
  1. Chewing
  2. Fear
  3. Nausea
  4. Smooth objects in the mouth

 

ANS: B

 

  1. The pH of the gastric contents is lowest under which condition?
  1. After a fatty meal
  2. After a high protein meal
  3. After a starchy meal
  4. Between meals

 

ANS: D

 

  1. Which of the following substances secreted by the stomach is absolutely critical for life?
  1. Gastrin
  2. HCl
  3. Intrinsic factor
  4. Pepsin
  5. Rennin

 

ANS: C

 

  1. A 44-year-old man underwent a cholecystectomy nine years ago. At that time, the liver was normal, but an enlarged pancreatic head was identified. Three years ago, he was admitted for upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Endoscopy revealed multiple ulcers in the duodenum. The serum gastrin level was 1,100 pg/mL (normal, 0 to 100 pg/mL). Abdominal computed tomography revealed two masses in the pancreas and multiple liver metastases. The liver biopsy confirmed the presence of non-beta islet cell tumor tissue. This patient is most likely to be suffering from which of the following diseases?
  1. Achalasia
  2. Alcoholic cirrhosis
  3. Cystic fibrosis
  4. Diverticulosis
  5. Type II diabetes
  6. Zollinger-Ellison syndrome

 

ANS: F

 

  1. A 72-year-old man underwent a cholecystectomy seven years ago. At that time, the liver was normal, but an enlarged pancreatic head was identified. Three years ago, he was admitted for upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Endoscopy revealed multiple ulcers in the duodenum. The serum gastrin level was 1,000 pg/mL (normal, 0 to 100 pg/mL). Abdominal computed tomography revealed two masses in the pancreas and multiple liver metastases. The liver biopsy confirmed the presence of non-beta islet cell tumor tissue. Administration of which substance is useful in confirming the diagnosis in this man?
  1. Cholecystokinin (CCK)
  2. Gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP)
  3. Pentagastrin
  4. Secretin
  5. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)

 

ANS: D

 

  1. Which one of the following sets of changes occurs in patients with pernicious anemia compared with the normal population?

Gastric Acid Output   Serum Gastrin Levels

  1.                                 
  2.                                 
  3.                                 
  4.                                 
  5.                                 

 

ANS: B

 

  1. Vagal stimulation tends to cause which of the following changes in the release of gastric-releasing peptide (GRP) and somatostatin?

GRP   Somatostatin

  1.          
  2.          
  3.          
  4.          
  5.        

 

ANS: C

 

  1. Intravenous administration of atropine causes which of the following changes in the ability of gastrin, acetylcholine, and histamine to stimulate acid secretion?

 Gastrin       Acetylcholine             Histamine

  1.                                                        
  2.                                                       
  3.                                                       
  4.                                                     
  5.                                                     

 

ANS: C

 

  1. A 27-year-old woman eats a healthy dinner. The answer choices indicate the rate of acid secretion before and various times after the meal. At which time is the pH of the stomach contents the lowest?

Time                                       Rate of Acid Secretion

  1. Before meal                              2 mEq H+/hr
  2. 30 mins after meal                   35 mEq H+/hr
  3. 60 mins after meal                   29 mEq H+/hr
  4. 90 mins after meal                   20 mEq H+/hr
  5. 120 mins after meal                 10 mEq H+/hr

 

ANS: A

 

  1. Which of the following can totally eliminate the cephalic phase of gastric secretion?
  1. Antiacids (e.g., Rolaids)
  2. Anti-gastrin antibody
  3. Atropine
  4. Histamine H2 blocker
  5. Vagotomy

 

ANS: E

 

  1. A 65-year-old man with hematemesis and melena has a crescentic ulcer in the duodenum. Lavage dislodged the clot, revealing an underlying raised blood vessel, which was successfully eradicated by cautery with a bipolar gold probe. Which of the following factors are diagnostic for duodenal ulcer?

Endoscopy      Plasma Gastrin Levels             Rate of Acid Secretion

  1. No                   No                                          No
  2. Yes                  No                                          No
  3. Yes                  No                                          Yes
  4. Yes                  Yes                                         No
  5. Yes                  Yes                                         Yes

 

ANS: B

 

  1. Which of the following factors stimulate the release of hormones or stimulate nervous reflexes, which can inhibit gastric acid secretion?

Acid    Fatty Acids     Hyperosmotic Solutions          Isotonic Solutions

  1. No       No                   Yes                                         No
  2. No       No                   Yes                                         Yes
  3. Yes      Yes                  No                                          Yes
  4. Yes      Yes                  Yes                                         Yes
  5. Yes      Yes                  Yes                                          No

 

ANS: E

 

  1. Most of the acid response to a meal occurs during which phase?
  1. Cephalic phase
  2. Esophageal phase
  3. Gastric phase
  4. Intestinal phase

 

ANS: C

 

  1. Which of the following weakens the gastric mucosal barrier?
  1. Bile salts
  2. Epidermal growth factor
  3. Gastrin
  4. Mucus

 

ANS: A

 

  1. The most common cause of chronic pancreatitis in adults is which of the following?
  1. Alcoholism
  2. Celiac sprue
  3. Cystic fibrosis
  4. Gallstones
  5. Malignancy

 

ANS: A

 

  1. Which of the following is critical for stimulating bicarbonate excretion from the pancreas?
  1. Acetylcholine
  2. CCK
  3. GIP
  4. Gastrin
  5. Secretin

 

ANS: E

 

  1. Which of the following sets of changes occur as the rate of salivation increases?

 Osmolarity     Sodium Conc.  Potassium Conc.      Bicarbonate Conc.

  1.                                                                             
  2.                                                                         
  3.                                                                             
  4.                                                                             
  5.                                                                           
  6.                                                                             

 

ANS: D

 

  1. Which of the following can damage the gastric mucosal barrier and stimulate gastric acid secretion?
  1. Bile salts
  2. Epidermal growth factor
  3. Gastrin
  4. Helicobacter pylori
  5. Mucus

 

ANS: D

 

  1. A 70-year-old woman undergoes a gastrectomy for Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. Her physician informs her that she will need to take intramuscular vitamin B12 shots for the rest of her life. Absence of which of the following cell types are responsible for this vitamin replacement requirement?
  1. Chief cells
  2. G cells
  3. Goblet cells
  4. Mucous neck cells
  5. Parietal cells

 

ANS: E

 

  1. The stimulatory effects of gastrin on acid secretion are mediated in part by gastrin-induced secretion of which substance?
  1. Acetylcholine
  2. Amino acids
  3. Gastrin-releasing peptide
  4. Histamine
  5. Somatostatin

 

ANS: D

 

  1. A 55-year-old woman with upper abdominal pain and blood in the stool had been taking NSAIDs for the pain. Endoscopy revealed global gastritis in the gastric fundus and body. A serious, potentially life-threatening, long-term problem is decreased secretion of which substance?
  1. Gastrin
  2. HCl
  3. Intrinsic factor
  4. Pepsinogen
  5. Rennin

 

ANS: C

 

  1. Which of the following is higher in saliva compared with blood plasma?
  1. Chloride concentration
  2. Osmolarity
  3. Potassium concentration
  4. Protein concentration
  5. Sodium concentration

 

ANS: C

 

  1. Acidification of the antrum diminishes amino acidinduced stimulation of gastrin secretion by increasing local levels of which substance?
  1. Acetylcholine
  2. GRP
  3. Histamine
  4. Secretin
  5. Somatostatin

 

ANS: E

 

  1. When does the pH of the gastric contents reach its lowest level?
  1. 1.0 hour after a meal is taken
  2. 1.5 hours after a meal is taken
  3. 2.0 hours after a meal is taken
  4. 2.5 hours after a meal is taken
  5. 3.0 hours after a meal is taken
  6. 4.0 hours after a meal is taken

 

ANS: F

 

  1. Which of the following factors inhibit gastric acid secretion?

Somatostatin   Secretin           GIP     Enterogastrones         Nervous

Reflexes

  1. No                   Yes                  Yes      Yes                             No
  2. No                   Yes                  Yes      Yes                            Yes
  3. Yes                  Yes                  No       Yes                            Yes
  4. Yes                  Yes                  Yes      No                              No
  5. Yes                  Yes                  Yes      Yes                            Yes

 

ANS: E

 

  1. A 48-year-old man with a recurrent history of ulcer disease associated with diarrhea and a strong family history of duodenal ulcer disease is suspected of having Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (i.e., gastrinoma). Secretin (1 unit/kg) was given as a rapid intravenous injection to test for gastrinoma. Which of the following results supports the existence of a gastrinoma after secretin administration?
  1. Decreased serum gastrin
  2. Increased serum gastrin
  3. Inhibition of gastric acid secretion
  4. Inhibition of gastric emptying
  5. Stimulation of pancreatic HCO3 secretion

 

ANS: B

 

  1. A 44-year-old woman with hematemesis has heartburn and stomach pain. Endoscopy shows inflammation involving the gastric body and antrum, as well as a small gastric ulcer. Biopsies were positive for pylori, which damages the gastric mucosa primarily by increasing mucosal levels of which substance?
  1. Ammonium
  2. Bile salts
  3. Gastrin
  4. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)
  5. Pepsin

 

ANS: A

 

  1. A 61-year-old man is admitted as an emergency for upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Endoscopy reveals multiple ulcers in the duodenum. Serum gastrin levels are eightfold higher compared with normal. Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (i.e., gastrinoma) is suspected. Administration of which substance is useful in confirming the diagnosis in this man?
  1. CCK
  2. GIP
  3. Motilin
  4. Pentagastrin
  5. Secretin
  6. VIP

 

ANS: E

 

  1. Which of the following factors strengthen or weaken the gastric mucosal barrier?

Bile Salts         Mucus             NSAIDs          Gastrin                        Ethanol            Aspirin

  1. Strengthen       Strengthen       Weaken           Weaken           Strengthen       Strengthen
  2. Strengthen       Strengthen       Weaken           Weaken           Weaken           Strengthen
  3. Weaken           Strengthen       Strengthen       Weaken           Strengthen       Weaken
  4. Weaken           Strengthen       Weaken           Weaken           Strengthen       Weaken
  5. Weaken           Weaken           Weaken           Strengthen       Strengthen       Weaken

 

ANS: D

 

  1. A 54-year-old man with dyspepsia and a history of chronic gastric ulcer has abdominal pain. Endoscopy shows a large ulcer in the proximal gastric body. Biopsies were positive for pylori. Which of the following are used clinically for treatment of gastric ulcers of various causes?

Antibiotics      NSAIDs          H2                    Proton Pump   Pentagastrin

Blockers          Inhibitors

  1. No                   No                   Yes                  Yes                 Yes
  2. Yes                  No                   No                   Yes                 No
  3. Yes                  No                   Yes                  Yes                 No
  4. Yes                  Yes                  Yes                  Yes                 No
  5. No                   Yes                  Yes                  Yes                 Yes

 

ANS: C

 

  1. A 55-year-old man presents with abdominal pain and hematemesis. Findings of an abdominal examination were relatively benign, but abdominal radiographs suggested a perforated viscus. Endoscopy revealed a chronically perforated gastric ulcer, through which the liver was visible. Which of the following is a forerunner to gastric ulcer formation?
  1. Back-leak of hydrogen ions
  2. Mucus secretion
  3. Proton pump inhibition
  4. Tight junctions between cells
  5. Vagotomy

 

ANS: A

 

  1. Administration of a histamine H2 receptor blocker causes which of the following changes in the ab

Write a review

Your Name:


Your Review: Note: HTML is not translated!

Rating: Bad           Good

Enter the code in the box below:



 

Once the order is placed, the order will be delivered to your email less than 24 hours, mostly within 4 hours. 

If you have questions, you can contact us here